Project 693 (draft)
Submarines with a depth of immersion of 1000-1500 meters can make full use of such hydrological features of the combat area, such as the deep sound channel, the shadow zone, the layers of jumps in the propagation of sound waves. In order to optimize their use in protecting the submarine, to ensure the best operating conditions for its own sonar stations, in the detection of targets, extensive studies of the hydrological conditions of the seas and oceans were developed. It was established, in particular, that the detection range of a submarine located in the turbulent layer can be reduced by a factor of 2-4 compared to the range when it is in a homogeneous layer. Studies conducted by SKB-143 showed that for a submarine with a depth of immersion of 1000 m, anti-submarine torpedoes and depth charges with conventional charges are not effective.
After analyzing the available domestic and foreign materials on deepwater and preliminary studies of the SKB-143 in 1961, the initiative prepared the technical task for the design development of a deep-sea submarine that would allow the development of a requirement for such projects, specify the main issues that meet when developing a project and building a ship.
The work was supposed to be conducted in two directions: the creation of a combat submarine with torpedo armament and a depth of immersion of 1000-1200 m and the creation of an experimental submarine with a greater depth of immersion. These directions were considered and approved at the meeting of the technical council SKB-143 on May 30, 1961 and recommended for inclusion in the plan of design-exploration works SKB-143 for the period 1962-1963.
The 1st Office of the SCS, having reviewed the terms of reference, considered it impractical to approve at this stage the task in the proposed SKB-143 volume and instructed the SKB-143 to carry out pre-design work on the combat deepwater submarine with torpedo armament no later than February 1962.
Work on a deepwater submarine drew on the experience of designing nuclear submarines of projects 705 and 671. The main issue of creating such a submarine was the choice of material for the manufacture of a rugged hull. At the same time, the following factors were taken into account: the possibility of creating and mastering the material by the industry in the near future, the specific mass of a strong hull per cubic meter of volume, the cost. Among the possible materials for this purpose were considered: steel, titanium, aluminum, reinforced fiberglass, beryllium. Of these, relatively well-known materials from the previous design experience were chosen: titanium alloy and steel. The possibility of using other materials was considered in SKB-143, but at that time SKB-143 did not have sufficient data to work out the structural elements of a rugged case of these materials.
Examination of the hull design showed that the body made of titanium alloy will be lighter than the steel case by about 15-20%. However, in view of the unreality of creating a titanium alloy with the required strength and thickness of sheet metal, high-strength steel was adopted for the NS submarine in the coming years.
In the study of the project, an in-depth search for new solutions for a torpedo weapon complex was carried out. Various variants of placement of TA and antennas of hydroacoustic stations were considered. The most optimal location of the TA for the boat in question was recognized as placing them outside the rugged hull. The efforts of designers focused in this issue on the search for rational designs of offshore launchers and the deployment of the required amount of ammunition.
The possibility of using a reactor providing a power on a propeller shaft of 10 thousand hp, was also developed in the APPP. The creation of the equipment in connection with the increase in the depth of immersion did not cause fundamental difficulties. The main problem was the development of a cooling system for the condenser, ejectors and oil coolers. Based on the results of the research, a two-circuit cooling system for the mechanisms was proposed, in which the necessary heat was provided by fresh water cooled in a self-flowing refrigerator, taken out for a strong case. However, such a scheme required the carrying out of large research works, which it was not possible to carry out in the scope of the pre-draft project.
The composition of the equipment was determined in the pre-design study of the deep-sea nuclear submarine, the issues of automation, the habitation of the ship were considered, design and construction work was carried out on ship systems and devices, the cruise and controllability of the ship were assessed and all the main issues usually discussed during the development of the project were considered.
Based on the pre-design study, SKB-143 experts concluded that the creation of a deepwater submarine was an urgent and timely task. SKB-143 also expressed its opinion about the possibility of creating a boat in the next 3-5 years with a depth of immersion of 1000-1200 m, displacement of about 2000-3000 m3 and a speed of 20-24 kt. However, in order to successfully solve this problem, it is necessary to carry out a complex of R & presented in the study of issues. The project was completed in February 1962. A great personal creative contribution to it was made by VI Barantsev, VN Pyalov, IM Borodenkov and BF Dronov.
In addition to pre-design work on the deep-sea combat nuclear submarine, the SKB-143 also completed the development of a submarine with a depth of immersion of about 1500 meters, and in September 1962 submitted to Glaucus all the necessary materials. Works on deep-sea subjects were continued in SKB-143 and in the next 1963. Their results were reported at the meeting of the NTS Presidium of the State Committee for Shipbuilding.
In accordance with the decision of the SCS, the materials of the studies were sent to CDB-18, which was appointed by the coordinating organization for deep-sea issues. Further progress in the work on the project was determined by a government decree (Order of the Chairman of the SCS of August 25, 1964) on the plan for designing ships for 1964-1973. In particular, they provided for the project 693 nuclear submarine in 1965 to approve a TTZ for the design of a submarine with a special low-power EC, and in 1965 to develop its outline design.
As for deepwater, it was not indicated for the project 693 submarine. Probably, the work planned on CDB-18 on the topic "Fins" - a combat deep-sea submarine - was influenced here.
In the process of carrying out the work specified by the decree and the order of the SCS, the first Main Directorate of SMEs unexpectedly proposed SKB-143 to carry out pre-design work on the following basic requirements: normal displacement - about 2000 m3, full underwater speed - no less than 25 knots, armament and equipment - The project is similar to that used on submarines 705, 671, 670 and 667A. The cost of construction of serial submarines of Project 693 should be at the level of the cost of construction of serial submarines of Project 627A . To determine the elements of the submarine, several variants of development were carried out.
- Variant I - on the basis of the equipment of nuclear submarines of project 627A , 645 and 671. The AEU is the same as for the 627A nuclear submarine , as part of one reactor, one main line of the propeller shaft with GTPA, two ATGs, like the 645 nuclear submarine . Similarly to the nuclear submarine of Project 671 , hydroacoustic weapons, a torpedo armament complex, an auxiliary propulsion complex, and a number of compartments were adopted. The transverse bulkheads, bounding the compartments, are flat, designed for two-way hydraulic pressure of 10 kgf / cm2. The normal displacement is 2600 m3, the power of the technical school is 15 thousand hp, the depth of immersion was 300 m, the speed was about 27.5 kn.
- Option II - taking into account the development of a new AED from the VVRD and one steam turbine with a capacity of 15 thousand hp. All auxiliary mechanisms and electrical equipment, including 400 Hz TG alternating current, navigation aids, communications, hydroacoustics, radar, torpedo armament, and backup sources of electricity are the same as for Project 705 submarine . As the material for the hull was adopted steel grade AK-29. The normal displacement was 2400 m3, the power of the technical school was 15 thousand hp, the speed of the boat was about 28 knots.
- Option III - with the use of a fundamentally new for the underwater shipbuilding power complex - the nuclear centralized turbohydraulic system (ACTGS) with a shaft power of 15 thousand hp. The complex was developed in an initiative manner by specialists of power divisions SKB-143. As a result, a normal displacement of 2200 m3 was obtained, the power of rowing hydrogenerators was 2 x 7,5 thousand hp, the speed of the boat was about 29 knots.
For the II and III variants, new design developments of the APTU and the PTU, as well as automatic and remote control systems, were needed. The most complete in terms of the cost of the building met the requirements of Glaucus option I. However, the technical capabilities of the submarine of this option, due to the use of obsolete weapons and equipment adopted by the NS 627A nuclear submarine, as well as due to insufficient automation, were significantly worse than other ship variants. In this regard, SKB-143 considered it inappropriate to recommend further design of the submarine in this version. In terms of displacement, submarines of variants II and III approach the value indicated in the requirements of Glaucus. Taking into account that the completed work was pre-sketch, SKB-143 considered it possible to include in the TTZ a normal displacement of 2200-2400 tons, and a full design underwater speed of about 29 knots at an EW power of 15,000 hp.
When carrying out the task, Glubok SKB-143 worked on a variant with a capacity of 10,000 hp. In this case, it was possible to obtain a displacement of about 100 tons reduced for variants II and III, but the total underwater speed decreased significantly (by 3.5 knots), which was unacceptable. SKB-143 considered it necessary to take an AEC with a capacity of 15,000 hp, which allowed obtaining a guaranteed speed of at least 25 kt, and recommended further development of a submarine-powered nuclear submarine with low-power units based on options II and III. For a more thorough evaluation of the elements of the submarine, performed on the basis of ACTGS, it was necessary to develop two versions of the preliminary design. Based on the results of consideration of the draft design, it was intended to finally choose the type of the main power plant.
The study was carried out under the organizational and technical guidance of the chief designer A.K. Nazarov and his group (GNRozhnov, I.M. Borodenkov).
The results of the development of the pre-draft project, completed in December 1965, were considered in the ministry and presented to the commission of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on military-industrial issues. The MIC took note of the conclusion of the MoD, the SMEs and the MSM that the completed studies on the prototype 693 submarine -powered submarine with low-power AEU showed the impossibility of creating a relatively economical and simple nuclear submarine.
Attaching great importance to the establishment of light-duty deep-sea submarines, with high combat effectiveness in the fight against nuclear submarine potential enemy, the MIC in its decision of 8 February 1967 (order of the SMEs from the 22 February 1967) approved agencies offer the further development of the experimental nuclear submarine project 693.
The displacement of about 1000 tons with the maximum depth of immersion. The MIC instructed SMEs, in order to identify the option of a small submarine that was optimal in terms of combat and economic parameters, to develop its message on a competitive basis, and proposed in the IV quarter of 1967 for the Defense Ministry's Defense Department to carry out a predesign project of this submarine (the code of the subject was "Needle"). . At the same time, a number of ministries were commissioned to appoint, as agreed with the SMEs, organizations - developers of the main equipment for this project. SKB-143 took an active part in them.
The development of the submarine project was carried out in accordance with the order of the SMEs of September 29, 1969. The chief designer of the project was VI Barantsev. The complexity of the design of the deepwater nuclear submarine was reinforced by the characteristics that it should have in comparison with the submarines of other projects, and among them such as the increased depth of immersion several times, the sharply increased amount of TA, the maximum block-modular arrangement of equipment and main weapons.
Particular attention was paid to ensuring reliable operation of equipment, safety of submarine operation with increased depth of immersion. All this required carrying out extensive R & D activities, stipulated in the above-mentioned order of SMEs, directive instructions of the deputy commander-in-chief of the Navy, PGKotov, and Deputy Minister I.S. Belousov on January 18, 1971, and also in the order of the SMEs of November 11, 1971.
In the list of research and experimental topics, their own R & D SKB-143 was also envisaged: development, fabrication and testing of the upper and lower covers of the access doors of titanium alloy at a pressure of 150 kgf / cm2, experienced ventilation valves and CNGs, experienced cross-sectional intersectional bulkheads of a new type, experienced outboard torpedp calibers 300, 533 and 650 mm, an experimetal pulsed power plant for torpedoes. The order provided for the integrated design of prospective block power plants with a capacity of 40 and 25,000 hp. A significant amount of research was attracted by the Central Research Institute. acad. AN Krylov. SKB-143 concluded about 40 contracts for design work. Basically, these were contracts for the development of draft designs with the manufacture and testing of prototypes of equipment.
When creating the advance project, the work done by SKB-143 earlier on the Project 693 submarine was used, as well as on the topic "Needle". The solution of technical problems arising from the features of the project was carried out in the following main directions.
In connection with the difficulties that arose in the creation of a new alloy based on titanium, the Central Research Institute. acad. ANKrylov, in agreement with VK 27177, issued SKB-143 new recommendations for calculating the strength of a rugged hull. They provided for a set of measures to increase the permissible stresses in the hull elements and to reduce the stability of the compartments in general and the end bulkheads in particular. With these recommendations in mind, it was possible to use the newly developed titanium alloy, if the relative mass of the hull was preserved, for the strength standards. To install the maximum possible number of torpedoes on the ship, they proceeded from their outboard location.
Two options were considered in detail for the provision of surface unsinkability: the variant with observance of the current requirements of the Navy and the strength of the transverse bulkheads of the hull in accordance with the TTZ and the option in which they are excluded from the number of accidentally flooded compartments that do not have holes in the casing of the rugged case covered with fittings and pipelines under the seagoing pressure. In the last of these options, the onboard reinforcement was localized in one middle compartment-cofferdam.
A thorough search for design solutions aimed at increasing the survivability of the nuclear submarine was carried out. To this end, the holes in the robust housing under the torpedoes and under the rods of the rudders were eliminated. A part of the drawers was provided for the piling structure, inside the rugged hull, the pipelines that are under the sea pressure are excluded. A two-circuit cooling system for the main condenser of was provided, and a variant was developed with water intake inside the strong housing and draining it over the side through a strong equalizing tank. Thus, conditions were created to exclude direct water supply from outside the ship in a strong hull other than the area of ??a strong equalizing tank and cofferdam.
The block-modular method of design and construction of the ship was further developed in the works on the preliminary design. The completed preliminary design and deployed R & D confirmed the possibility of creating a deepwater submarine of Project 693 with specified TTX. According to the SKB-143, the Project 693 submarine was to have high combat effectiveness in solving the task of combating submarines, including the new American submarines of the "Trident" type. To develop the outline design, SKB-143 was presented with a TTZ project. Works on the advance design were completed in June 1974. It was developed in three versions, differing in the composition and power of the AEU and ways to ensure surface unsinkability.
In all the proposed variants there were single-shaft, double-shell with kingston cisterns of the main ballast, hull structures made of titanium alloy, autonomous DG block module, located in a sturdy container outside the strong housing. To ensure combat and daily activities, the REW was established, as well as the necessary means of communication.
- Variant I - which provides power on the propeller shaft of about 43 thousand hp.
- Variant II - According to version I, with flat bulkheads, designed for pressure 10 kgf / cm2, the body was divided into three compartments. In the first compartment there was a nasal complex block-module, consisting of three zonal blocks separated by light cross-section bulkheads: battery, residential and GKP. The second compartment was a cofferdam, in which all the pipe inputs are located in a sturdy casing, all onboard armature, hoisting and mast devices and cable glands except for the cables of the hydroacoustic complex and the torpedo-missile armament complex. The third compartment was energy. Navy requirements for surface unsinkability were provided only when the second compartment was flooded. The rocket-propelled weapons are similar to variant I.
- Option III - was carried out in accordance with the requirements of the development of the version with a displacement of about 3000 m3. According to the architectural type and the general location was similar to option II . The decrease in the displacement of ALL in this version of the advance design (in comparison with option II) was obtained through the adoption of the shaft power of about 21,000 hp, reducing the amount of ammunition, changing the composition of the REW and radiocommunication equipment, exclusion of freon refrigerating machine, anchor device, reduction of number of berths.
The main project designer VI Barantsev, his deputy V.N. Pyalov and many employees of various specialties took part in the development of the project, including A.V. Vorobyev, D.Dvornikov, B.F.Dronov, V.V. , IM Fedorov, VP Bogdanovich, B. Sanchenko, S.V. Boldakov, N. I.Ivakin, V.Y.Yurin, V.Vlapoponova, OVBeloshapko, V.I.Panasyuk, P .F. Breus, VVPopov, Yu.G.Rukolainen, IVLukin, SNBukin, SPMilkin, BA Saltykov, ND Sokolov, L.N. . Khodarovskaya. The main observer for the project from military unit 27177 was NV Shalonov.
Further work on deepwater ALL was continued under another theme. It should be noted that during the development of the project 693 ALP project in the LPMB "Rubin", work was underway to create an experimental deep-sea submarine on the subject "Fin."
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