Project 14400 Training vessel for naval aviation
In Gorodets, a marine special vessel of project 14400 (plant number 1440) was laid at Ship Repair and Shipbuilding Corporation (SSC) for the training of crews of naval helicopters of the Navy of the Russian Navy. The need to create a vessel of this type is due primarily to several reasons. The first of them is connected with the economic factor. It is convincingly testified that the use of a combat ship for training purposes in the development of individual elements of flight training by crews is very costly financially. Another - on the so-called training plan, the resource of the warship is being spent, which is diverted from performing tasks for its main purpose.
At the same time, the reason is dominated by the contradictory factor that the flight crew should be prepared for landing on the ship and take-offs from it at various levels of sea disturbance, but at the same time observe all the established safety measures in training. And to wait at the sea for the necessary weather, the occupation is not only quite tiring, but not always possible.
Training tasks can be performed on a ship in the coastal maritime zone at a distance from the coast to 50 miles That is why the need for the creation of the first training vessel of this type in ther country was in the Soviet Union's time and came to the fore with the modern increased requirements for training and combat training.
In this case, the Russian military did not fit the foreign experience, leaning on leasing civil ships or pontoons with a helicopter pad. It should be borne in mind that helicopters of coaxial design are not used in foreign naval aviation, and the Kamov machines are the basis of the Navy's MA. Therefore, it was necessary to start work from scratch and strive to achieve the desired result. On a training ship it is necessary to have as close to reality the features of flying with the use of helicopter landing sites of ships that move on the classic rotorcraft complex with their specific deviations with a certain sea disturbance and without the possibility of positioning with the use of additional propellers and thrusters.
With the assistance of leading research organizations, a number of directorates of the Ministry of Defense, the Navy and the leadership of naval aviation, an ideology, a general concept was developed and a technical task was formulated for a training ship for the training of crews of Navy helicopters.
The Central Design Bureau "Baltsuudoproekt", which is a part of FSUE "Krylov State Research Center", undertook the task. Designers completed their work quickly. As experts note, the design of the ship passed like a textbook. In 2014, the sketch design phase was completed. Then, after a decision was made on the need for further work and the signing of the contract, a technical project was completed in 2015. Based on its results and under the following contract, the designers implemented the stage of detailed design. The documentation corresponding to the approved technical project was developed. The design was carried out taking into account all the requirements of the Ministry of Defense provided in such cases, including the general technical requirements of the Air Force, which are guided by marine aviation in their work. In ship systems, the new product meets the requirements of the Russian Maritime Register of a limited navigation area.
The marine vessel is capable of developing a maximum speed of 12 knots per hour The technical project is based on the developed electronic parametric 3D model in the AVEVA automated design system. In the process of development, an extended set of model tests was performed, based on the results of which innovative technical solutions were adopted. In particular, constructive issues related to the formation of the optimum surface of the hull and propulsion system were worked out.
The use of modeling contributed to a faster and qualitative fulfillment of the requirement to simulate pitching during the so-called work on quiet water. The algorithm of work, providing the necessary imitation, is worked out. It is based on the conducted experimental work using a pitching stabilizer, which changes the movement of the rudder relative to the pumping flow of water due to the speed of the vessel. If by default the algorithm is used to suppress pitching, in this case an algorithm operates that tracks the ship's own pitching period and determines the necessary speeds and angles of change necessary to create the specified rolling parameters at speeds of up to 10 knots per hour.
As they say, in a separate line it should be noted that during the design, the requirement to equip and complete the vessel with equipment and systems of domestic manufacturers was dominant. The requirements connected with the restrictive list of materials, products, admitted to operation on vessels of the Navy are fully met. Of course, it is impossible to provide 100 percent of the Russian equipment. This need does not exist, nevertheless, in the case of the use of products of joint ventures with the participation of foreign partners, preference was given to products having the largest localization of production in the territory of the country.
The military department positively assessed the work done. A sea vessel with a length of 66.9 meters, a width of 12.7 meters, a draft of 2.1 meters with a standard displacement of about 850 tons with a total power of the main power plant with a capacity of about 900 kW (1220 hp) is capable of developing a maximum speed of 12 knots at one o'clock. It contains all the equipment necessary to provide training and training activities for the training program for flight crews Ka-27, Ka-29, Ka-31, Ka-52 in terms of training in landing and take-off operations using a helicopter pad with the ship's rolling speed up to 10 degrees. Training tasks can be performed on it in the coastal marine zone at a distance from the coast to 50 miles.
The composition of aviation technical equipment and other ship systems, its layout and placement meets the requirements of the Navy and naval aviation. On the training ship, the features of flying with the use of helicopter landing areas of ships that perform movement on the classical rotorcraft complex with their specific deviations and without the possibility of positioning with the use of additional propellers are as close as possible to reality.
On December 8, 2017, within the framework of the implementation of the 14400 project, the Defense Ministry signed a contract with OAO SSK for the construction of the ship. The company has never built such ships before. Participation in this project will allow shipbuilders to gain invaluable experience and will become a new stage of development for the construction of ships for the Navy.
The innovative project 14400 is designed and implemented, so to say, with an eye on the Sea of Azov, Taganrog Bay. At the same time, despite all the contradictory technical requirements, the collective of TsKB "Baltsuudoproekt" managed to find and implement solutions that make the ship popular and attractive for the Baltic, Northern, Pacific fleets and the Caspian Flotilla. According to experts, if necessary, it is possible to refine the project taking into account the specific features of the physical and geographical conditions of the basing sites.
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