pr. 1153 - Heavy nuclear-powered aviation cruiser
In 1968, with the development of the draft of the next plan for military shipbuilding (1971-1980), work began on the creation of a balanced fleet, ensured the implementation of a number of complex R&D efforts by the forces of the Naval Academy (VMA), Navy, Air Force and Industry, with the Central Design Bureau of the Ministry of Trade and Industry , And subsequently the OKB Minaviaproma. Part of the work carried out in this direction was the work of the Nevsky Design Bureau (as it began to be called since 1966, TsKB-17), simultaneously with the design of the VCR with VTOL (draft 1143), in support of the selection and selection of optimal ways for creating promising aircraft carriers with conventional aerodynamic aircraft Catapult take-off and landing on the aerofinisher), not inferior in terms of their combat capabilities to the deck aircraft of the probable enemy.
Conducted in the preparation of the new plan, comprehensive R & D once again convincingly proved the need to create ships of an aircraft carrier type for the domestic fleet. However, the decisions made in the 70's. Political and military leadership of the country in the areas of development of aircraft carriers, were inconsistent and contradictory.
Reasserted by D.F.Ustinov (as secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and later by the Minister of Defense), a reassessment of the role and effectiveness of the VTOL with the air defense system of the ship's joint and the area of ??combat patrolling of submarine missile carriers, as well as the ability of the domestic aircraft industry to create a shipborne vertical takeoff and landing fighter capable of successfully Solve the above tasks, significantly delayed the design and construction of much-needed for the Navy full-fledged aircraft carriers with catapult take-off of aircraft that are not inferior of their LTH best foreign images of carrier-based aircraft.
The initial base for design work on the creation of large aircraft carrying ships of the fleet was carried out by the Nevsky Design Bureau (NPKB) in 1968-1970, with the development of the draft plan for military shipbuilding in 1971-1980, the development of ships of an aircraft carrier type, and further development On the TTZ issued by the Navy in 1971-1972, the pre-design of the AB (draft 1160) , in 1973-1977. Technical proposal, draft and technical projects of the "large cruiser with aviation armament" (draft 1153).
Adopted in the spring of 1976 on the basis of the consideration of the technical proposal for the creation of such a ship by the resolution of the Government, the design of the NPKB provided for the design in 1976-1977. And the construction of two nuclear "large cruisers with aircraft armament" until 1985, under Project 1153. Unlike AB av. 1160, they provided for the basing of light catapult-type airplanes, and in the long term - Su-27K. The total number of LAC (when placed on a ship of light aircraft) was 50 units.
With an increase in the composition of the SCRC and a decrease in the displacement of the ship to 70,000 tons. In connection with the refusal of the Ministry of Heavy Engineering to approve the draft resolution from the development and manufacture of special aircraft-technical devices for these cruisers, Butok commissioned their creation by the Proletarskiy Minsudproma plant (chief designer - A. A. Bulgakov).
The design of ships 1153 (chief designer - VF Anikiev) was the second approximation of the works begun in 1971 on AV pr. 1160. However, in the future destiny of the draft sketch designed by the NNCB and approved by the Navy and the MSP, death (in April and June 1976), his main supporters - two ministers - AA Grechko and B. Ye. Butoma, as a result of which the Navy Commander S. G. Gorshkov lost much needed support in the creation of such ships.
At the insistence of the new Defense Minister DF Ustinov, in 1977-1978, decisions were made to halt the work begun on the technical avenue 1153 and continue the construction of the RCC (reclassified subsequently to the heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers - TAKR) of the type "Kiev". In 1978, instead a fourth ship of the cruiser pr. 1153 was ordered.
At the insistence of the new Defense Minister DF Ustinov, in 1977-1978, decisions were made to halt the work begun on the technical Project 1153 and continue the construction of the RCC (reclassified subsequently to the heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers-TAKR) of the type "Kiev". In 1978, instead of the head of the cruiser, prospect 1153, a fourth ship of the type "Kiev" was laid (at 1143 M, then 1143 A, 11434), intended for the basing of the VTOL Yak-41. The fifth TAKR was to be built under the new project 11435 with catapult planes (types MiG-29K, Su-25K, Su-27K) and VTOL Yak-41. The development of the MiG-23K aircraft also ceased, and the construction of the ground complex "Nitka", deployed in support of the creation of ships, continued in the interests of creating a new TAKR and aircraft for it.
When examined by the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy SG Gorshkov in November 1977 The main directions of phased upgrading of TAKR 1143.3, 1143.4 and 1143.5 on the fifth ship were the decision: to determine the composition of its weapons, instruct the NPKB to develop a technical proposal, and the institutes of the Navy and the Air Force to prepare and agree with the NPKB a TTZ project for it, November 1977.
In this task, provision should be made for the basing and combat employment of both VTOLs and catapult takeoff aircraft with the deployment of one catapult, aerofiners and an emergency barrier on the ship, Tide development for ships etc.. weapons systems 1153 perspective, increase to improve the combat survivability of the ship (relative to TAKR pr. 1143-11434) amount structural protection at the maximum possible reduction of the ship's displacement.
As part of the technical proposal (the development of which was carried out under the direct supervision of the deputy chief designer of Project 1153 O.P.Efimov and was completed in April 1978), the bureau considered five variants of the ship with different composition of armament and aircraft technical devices, with two types of GEM (Boiler turbine and nuclear) and displacement in the range of 59 000-65 000 tons.
Of these options, the NCPB recommended for the further design the minimum displacement for the fifth version with a GEM type 1144 and two catapults, one and which while reducing principal dimensions been possible to place only due to the removal of the SCRC "Granite". The main types of catapult takeoff aircraft for TAKR prospect 11435 bureau proposed to consider the MiG-29K fighter and Su-25K attack aircraft (Su-27K fighter dimensions. Required a reduction in their number by 35%).
The area of the flight deck of TAKR prospect 11435 according to the technical proposal exceeded it by 1.6 times for TAKR prospect 1143-11434, and 1.3 times for the hangar. The presence of one catapult on the aircraft carrying ship, in case of its damage in combat conditions, practically deprived TAKR of the opportunity to use the basic power of its air force. With a total LAC of up to 42 vehicles, the ship provided for the basing of 18-28 aircraft (depending on the type) and 14 Ka-252 helicopters. The technical proposal was based on the deployment of 18 Su-27K or 28 MiG-29K (Su-25K) or 16 VTOL Yak-41 and 12 MiG-29K (Su-25K).
Decree of the Government, adopted on October 13, 1978, the Ministry of Defense (Navy) was instructed to issue in the fourth quarter of the same year the TTZ for the design of the ship and TTT for the creation of ship aircraft with catapult take-off, the Ministry of Defense to provide development in 1979-1980. Outline and technical projects V. V. Dmitriev (1933-1993) -director of the Central Research Institute.
Timing for the construction of ships under the project 11435 was proposed to be determined in the developed 10-year plan for military shipbuilding for 1981-1990. However, despite the existence of this resolution, yhe process of designing this TAKR as a third approximation to the creation of the first domestic aircraft carrier with conventional aerodynamic aircraft proved to be far from simple due to a number of unpredictable changes in the Navy Commander's requirements and constant pressure from the Defense Minister as the enemy of large aircraft carriers.
The chief engineer (then the director) of the Central Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences played an active role in the development of this new direction for the creation of a balanced ocean fleet at all stages of its development (draft 1160, 1153, 11435, etc.) and for forming the position of the SME leadership for the domestic fleet. Academician A. N. Krylov - V. V. Dmitriev, who constantly provided strong support to the NPKB.
The main differences between the requirements of the task of the Navy for the development of the draft fifth TAKR in its original version from the TTZ on Pr. 1153 there was a reduction in the total number of LACs on the ship to 42 vehicles, the Granit rocket launchers - up to 12 units, replacement of the AEU with a boiler turbine power plant of the type 1143. The new requirement was to limit the main dimensions and displacement of the ship by the conditions for ensuring its construction on the slipway " About "CHS and docking in the Northern dock of Sevmorzavod without additional capital investments for reconstruction and development of production capacities of these enterprises.
Development of general design sketch project materials was carried out by the participants in the design and construction work on the aircraft carrier-type ships, which were renewed in the NPKB from 1968 (including the pre-project 1160, pr.1153 and the technical proposals for 11435), which determined the implementation of a number of previously adopted New technical solutions. The immediate head of the design of the new TAKR at the beginning of the draft design was O. P. Efimov. After the transfer of OP Efimov in the summer of 1979 to work in the apparatus of SMEs, at the end of 1979, Chief Designer of the NPKB VF Anikiev was appointed chief designer of this project.
The development of general layout drawings for the ship as a whole, determining its architectural appearance and layout of premises for various purposes, headed (as in 1160 and 1153) GG Pavlova, the designer of the highest qualification, Honored veteran of the bureau with thirty years of experience and extensive experience in many projects, beginning with the post-war artillery cruisers.
OKK Surkov, Head of Aviation Technical Equipment Department, and then Deputy Chief Designer, Project No. 11435, supervised the work of the NPKB to continue the creation of the runway block of the ground complex "Nitka". During the development of the project at a meeting at the Central Research Institute of Radio Engineering at the end of July 1979 SG Gorshkov set a number of new requirements for the NPKB: the increase in anti-aircraft guns, the increase in the safety of aircraft landing on the airfighter and the productivity of the supply of munitions, which was taken into account.
Submitted to the Navy in September of the same year. A month later, it was reviewed and recommended for approval at the meeting, Held in Leningrad under the leadership of the head of the GUK RD Filonovich with the participation of the central departments and institutes of the Navy and the Air Force, the main departments and institutes of the SMEs and MAP, the NPKB and its co-executors - LAC developers.
In November 1979, Pr. 11435, after consideration and discussion by SG Gorshkov, was approved for approval by the Navy and SMEs. At the same Glavkom suggested for further design work out options for the composition of the aircraft's armament with an increase in the total number of LAC to 52 vehicles without changing the main dimensions of TAKR.
From the versions presented by the NPKB, he approved for the development of the technical design the composition of the TAKR air group consisting of 14 Su-27K aircraft, 16 Yak-41 VTOLs and 22 Ka-252 helicopters (RRL, PL and SS). Such an increase in the number of LACs required the placement of additional flight and technical equipment, as well as aviation fuel reserves, on the ship (due to extra seats), which led to a change in the hulls of the underwater part of the hull and to the height of the side.
The implementation of all these measures caused an increase in the displacement of the ship to 65,000 tons. Such an increase in the displacement of the new TAKR in comparison with the ships built and under construction, pr. 1143, 11433, 11434 caused objections from the General Staff (where the Deputy Chief of the Navy at the time was Admiral N. N Amelko, before that Deputy Commander of the Navy, and in the General Staff - the main opponent of SG Gorshkov on the prospects for the development of the Navy, an ardent opponent of the creation of large aircraft carriers), which enjoyed the support of the Chief of the General Staff, N. V. Ogarkov And Defense Minister D.F. Ustinov.
In early 1980, the Defense Minister signed the directive prepared by the General Staff, which set the Navy, the Air Force, the SMEs and the MAP the task of reducing the displacement of TAKR Ave 11435 and reorienting its air group, mainly to vertical and short takeoff and landing aircraft (SV / OHR). Then followed the instructions to ensure the takeoff of the VTOL Yak-41 with a short takeoff.
The plan for military shipbuilding for 1981-1990, approved in March 1980, the timing of the design of the new TAKR was postponed for two years, and its construction - at the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan with the definition of the deadline for the surrender of the Navy following the approval of the ship's technical design. These changes were associated with the ambition of NN Amelko to impose the Navy and SMEs instead of TAKR pr. 11435 anti-submarine helicopter carriers it supports.
|Length||265 m. / 860 feet|
|Power plant||A type: AEC|
|Number of shafts||4|
|Speed, range of navigation|
|Range of navigation||N.a.|
|Armament||About 60 planes and helicopters (Mig-23K, Su-25K, Ka-25)|
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