NSCN (KK) National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Khaplang-Kitovi)
The Naga insurgency is fraught with tribal factionalism. The NSCN-K is active in eastern Nagaland, parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Burma. It is the rival group of NSCN-IM, and is led by Chairman S.S. Khaplang. The NSCN-K was formed on April 30, 1988, following an assassination attempt on the General Secretary of what emerged as the rival outfit NSCN-IM, Thuingaleng Muivah. Clannish divisions among the Nagas (Konyaks and Tangkhuls) were the primary reason behind the split of the NSCN in 1988. The Konyaks formed the NSCN-K (Khaplang) under the leadership of Khole Konyak and Khaplang.
This group aims at establishing a Greater Nagaland comprising Naga inhabited areas in eastern India and contiguous areas in Burma. The organization runs a government in exile, with its cadre strength exceeding 2,000 as of 2005. A large section of the group's workers reside in Burma, where it maintains training camps and its headquarters. Although it is under ceasefire with the GOI, there have been no negotiations as yet. There are frequent reports of clashes between cadres of NSCN-IM and NSCN-K in and around Nagaland, something that has contributed to growing disunity within the Naga community. The Government of Burma has reportedly cracked down occasionally on the camps of the NSCN-K.
The conflict involving the Nagas dates back to the country's independence in 1947. On August 1, 1997, a cease-fire between the Government and the Isak-Muivah faction of the NSCN (NCSN-IM) entered into effect and largely was observed by the Government and all insurgent groups in the state. During the latter part of 1999, the cease-fire was extended through July 31, 2000. In May 1999 underground Naga leaders Isak Chisi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah, chairman and general secretary respectively of the NSCM-IM, visited Nagaland for the first time in 33 years. The Government asked the NSCM-IM to define the geographical boundary of "Nagalim" to enable it to extend the cease-fire zone to these areas.
On 18 August 1999, the NSCM-IM killed Dally Mungro, general secretary of the Khaplang faction of the NSCN, along with two of his associates.
There are only two authorized border crossings on India's northeastern border with Burma, but the border is fairly porous. This region is connected to the rest of India by only a 32-kilometer strip of land, while bordered by Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Burma. This region is home to a number of insurgent groups and reporting suggests that, while these groups are not involved in drug production or drug trafficking, they may profit from some aspects of the drug trade. For example, several groups in Nagaland, including the Isaac-Muivah and Khaplang factions of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, reportedly tax and extort money from traffickers in return for protection or the right to conduct traffic in drugs. These groups in Nagaland are of Tibeto-Burmese ethnic origin, with Nagas 2 living in remote parts of northwest Sagaing District in Burma, and in the State of Nagaland in India.
The split of the NSCN in March 1988 created two distinct groups NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K). NSCN (K) had approximately strength of 1100 at the time of split. In 1989/90 it carried out major revamping of rank and file by weeding out old cadres and inducting young boys and girls from Mon and Tuensang districts. Under the chairmanship of Khaplang a Burmese Naga and Khole Konyak the Chief-in-Command (C-in-C) operation from Myanmar group enjoys considerable freedom in Mon and Tirap districts. The group has a strong affiliation with ULFA and other North East under ground (UG) groups providing them training in Myanmar Territory for financial gains.
During 2003 NSCN (IM) systematically dislodged the group from Dimapur and Kohima by June 2003 had no base/influence in these major ecology hub centers. The group imposed heavy extortion demands in Mokokchung. The public resentment was so high that in August 2003, the public over an issue of a NSCN (K) cadre opening fire on the public and killing one college youth, went on to burn /destroy approximately 22 houses and 25 vehicles of NSCN (K) functionaries in Mokokchung. The group was forced to leave the town and fled towards its Myanmar Camps. Thereafter the fire assaults by NSCN (IM) on their designated camps at Longmisa and Suruhoto made them fend for shelter. Simultaneously the military operations by Myanmar Army on their camps on Myanmar soil further destabilized the group. The poor leadership and low morale of being totally marginalized led to the defections of its cadres into NSCN (IM). Approximately 300 officials some of them senior Kilonsers and cadres defected till April 2004. The defection of Mr Arep Jamir, Self Style Finance Kilonser, Mr Tongmath Konyak, Self Style Home group crumbled stood totally marginalized with very limited influence in Mon and Tuensang.
However the group staged a come back from 2004 onwards after consolidating itself in the Myanmar camps and procurement of large consignments of arms and ammunition. Understanding with Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN) has also favored the group in Peren and Kohima districts. As of today the group has a strong presence in Northern Nagaland districts of Mon, Mokokchung, Tuensang, Longleng, Wokha, and partial presence in Dimapur, Kohima, North districts of Manipur and South Assam where it operates with United National Liberation Front. The group enjoys popular support of Ao, Konyak, Khemungans, Phom and partial support of Angami, Semas., Yimchunger, Sangtham and Chang tribes.
The ideology of the group remains to create an independent sovereign Christian Socialist Republic through the principle of people's supremacy, comprising all Naga inhabited areas. NSCN (K) lays more emphasis on democracy, and peaceful means as against NSCN (IM)'s policy of collective leadership.
The group is organization into military and civil wings. The civil wing is headed by Mr Khaplang, Chairman and has a body of Kilonsers and a General Secretary to assist him. The civil wings is further organization into various regions based on tribal areas which are headed by a chairman each. Each region is further divided into ranges which have a No of villages under them. Regions are placed under charge of a Rajapeyu, who is responsible for execution of all tasks within the range and has a No of Ranapeyus to help him in exec. Each Ranapeyu is responsible for one vill. The Regional centres and civil organizations under it, invariably have important tribal members who manage a stronghold in the tribe. The grass-root organization plays a very important role as it helps in mass contact and ensures speedy passage of orders of the organization. The Military wing is headed by Self Style General Khole Konyak who is the Chief-in-Command (C-in-C). The military wing is divided into battalions and a mobile group. Each battalion operates in designated areas, carries out armed activities against the Security Forces and helps in functioning of the civil wing by coercion of the local population. The Regional Chairman of the region, though not part of the military wing, commands great auth and is capable of influencing imp activities/ decisions of the military wing.