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Wilayat Sinai
Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis (ABM)
Ansar Jerusalem
Supporters of Jerusalem
Ansar Bayt al-Maqdes
Ansar Beit al-Maqdis
Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis
Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis fi Sinaa
Supporters of the Holy Place

Over 300 people were killed in a shocking terror attack on a mosque in Egypt's Sinai region 24 November 2017. Officials say gunmen opened fire and bombed the mosque during midday prayers on Friday in what has become the deadliest terror attack on Egyptian soil. Police said men in four off-road vehicles opened fire on worshippers in a Sufi mosque. Images showed scores of bodies wrapped in blood soaked cloth lined up on the carpeted floor. Egypt's president promised to respond with "brute force" to the attack.

Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, Egypt's most active militant group, changed its name to Wilayat Sinai [Sinai Province] in 2014 after swearing allegiance to the Islamic State. Created in 2011 following the Egyptian uprisings, Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis (ABM), also known as Ansar Jerusalem, also known as Supporters of Jerusalem, also known as Ansar Bayt al-Maqdes, also known as Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, also known as Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, also known as Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis fi Sinaa, also known as Supporters of the holy place, is responsible for attacks on Israel and security services and tourists in Egypt.

ABM shared some aspects of AQ ideology, but was not a formal AQ affiliate and generally maintained a local focus. Ansar Jerusalem evolved over time, its ties to al-Qaedas international network are getting stronger. Al-Qaedas leader, Ayman Zawahiri, has repeatedly praised the groups attacks. Ansar Jerusalem shares al-Qaedas ideology, employs al-Qaedas tactics, and routinely refers to and praises al-Qaedas leaders in its statements.

ABM was responsible for a July 2012 attack against a Sinai pipeline exporting gas to Israel. In August 2012, ABM claimed responsibility for a rocket attack on the southern Israeli city of Eilat, and in September 2012, ABM militants attacked an Israeli border patrol, killing one soldier and injuring another.

Militants in the Sinai have stepped up attacks on policemen and soldiers since then-army chief Abdel Fattah al-Sissi toppled President Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood in July 2013. The groups operations expanded drastically after Mori was overthrown. The attacks initially targeted security forces in Sinai -- a remote but strategic part of Egypt located between Israel, the Gaza Strip and the Suez Canal -- but they have since extended their reach, with bombings on the mainland. The violence has hurt tourism, a pillar of the economy.

Since the July 3, 2013, coup detat, there have been many, hundreds, of terrorist attacks in the Sinai and a series of attacks in major population centers in the Nile Valley, including Ismailiyya, Mansoura, the Sharqiya governate, and Cairo. Ansar Bayt Al Maqdis is the primary al-Qaeda-affiliated group that has taken responsibility for those attacks, but other groups, including previously unknown Ajnad Misr (Soldiers of Egypt) and Jund al Islam (Soldiers of Islam) - have also targeted the Egyptian state. Most ominously, in late July 2014 and again in early September 2013, an extremist organization called al-Furqan fired on ships in the Suez Canal.

In the Sinai Peninsula radicalized indigenous Bedouin Arabs, foreign fighters, and Palestinian militants from neighboring Gaza have formed terrorist cells and targeted both Egypt and Israel. Combating terrorism in the Peninsula is complicated by limitations Egypt faces in fully enforcing its rule over the area. The 1979 Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty caps the number of soldiers that Egypt can deploy in the Sinai, subject to the parties negotiated changes to Egyptian deployments as circumstances necessitate.

There is no known precise number of Islamist fighters operating in the Sinai, and according to the Congressional Research Service, estimates varied widely from 500 to perhaps as many as 5,000. Press reports describing Sinai-based militant groups name the following organizations: Al-Tawhid Wal Jihad, Mujahedeen Shura Council, Al Furqan Brigade, Ansar Bayt al Maqdis, Ansar al Jihad, Ajnad Misr (Soldiers of Egypt) and Jund al Islam (Soldiers of Islam). It is not known how many actual underlying separate organizations are operating using these names, which may each represent different undertakings, or may all be names for a single group. It is known that Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis is also known as Ansar Jerusalem, Supporters of Jerusalem, Ansar Bayt al-Maqdes, Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, Jamaat Ansar Beit al-Maqdis fi Sinaa, and Supporters of the Holy Place.

Observers have speculated that the Sinai Peninsula will or already has become a haven for foreign fighters intent on carrying out jihad. The Sinai is not yet an area of foreign jihadi activity. Like the low-level insurgency of the 1990s, however, the evidence suggests that violence in the Sinai is largely an Egyptian affair. Several al-Qaeda-inspired and/or al-Qaeda-linked groups operate in the Sinai. These include Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis (Ansar Jerusalem), al-Qaeda in the Sinai Peninsula (AQSP) and Ansar al Jihad, the Muhammad Jamal Network (MJN), the Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (MSC), Al Salafiya Al Jihadiya in Sinai (Salafi Jihadist Movement in the Sinai), and al Tawhid wal Jihad, among others. In addition, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has established a presence in the Sinai.

In October 2013, ABM claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing targeting the South Sinai Security Directorate in el Tor, which killed three people and injured more than 45. In January 2014, ABM successfully downed a military helicopter in a missile attack, killing five soldiers on board, and claimed responsibility for four attacks involving car bombs and hand grenades in Cairo, which left six people dead and over 70 wounded, many of them civilian bystanders.

ABM has also targeted government officials, including the September 2013 attempted assassination of the Egyptian Interior Minister, and the January 2014 assassination of the head of the Interior Ministers technical office. In February 2014, ABM expanded its targets to include foreign tourists, and claimed responsibility for the bombing of a tour bus in the Sinai Peninsula, killing the Egyptian driver and three South Korean tourists.

The Department of State announced 09 April 2014 the designation of Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis as a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) under Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act and as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist entity under section 1(b) of Executive Order (E.O.) 13224. The consequences of the FTO and E.O. 13224 designations include a prohibition against knowingly providing, or attempting or conspiring to provide, material support or resources to, or engaging in transactions with this organization, and the freezing of all property and interests in property of the organization that is in the United States, or come within the United States or the control of U.S. persons. The Department of State took these actions in consultation with the Departments of Justice and Treasury.

The Sinai militants were not believed to be officially linked to Islamic State insurgents. However, Egyptian intelligence officials said the group has influenced Egyptian militants who are based just over the Libyan border. The officials say the Libya-based fighters have also established contacts with Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis.

Islamic State claimed responsibility for a massive terrorist attack on Egyptian army checkpoints on the Sinai Peninsula 01 July 2015, killing at least 64 soldiers. Egyptian military officials say security forces killed 100 militants during the day-long fighting. One top official said the attack was "unprecedented in the number of terrorists involved and the types of weapons they are using," including rocket-propelled grenades and car bombs. The fighting was concentrated near the town of Sheikh Zuweid. Egypt's Islamic State affiliate said 15 separate military checkpoints were targeted.

The Egyptians are taking the fight to the Islamic State right now, General Joe Dunford, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told reporters 19 May 2016. The US estimated the number of IS fighters there to be in the high hundreds up to about 1,000. There also is a sizable Bedouin insurgency in the Sinai that has cooperated with IS fighters, the general added. The U.S. military has started to see connections between fighters in the Sinai, once viewed as an isolated force, and Islamic State militants across the Middle East. We have seen a connection between the Islamic State in the Sinai and Raqqah, Dunford told reporters. We have seen communication between the Islamic State in the Sinai and the Islamic State in Libya and elsewhere, so we are watching that pretty closely.

Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, a terrorist group that pledged allegiance to Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS/ISIL), is responsible for the downing of the Russian A321 passenger jet over the Sinai Peninsula on October 31, the head of the CIA said on 16 June 2016. A group within the Sinai which used to be Ansar Beit al-Maqdis was basically consumed by IS and we do attribute the downing of that Russian airliner to this group, John Brennan said during a hearing before the Senate Intelligence Committee. The IS branch in the Sinai has become the most active and capable terrorist group in all of Egypt, attacking the countrys military and government targets in addition to foreigners and tourists, Brennan said.

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