A.D. 380 555 - Ruan Ruan (Juan Juan Empire)
The Juan-juan (Jui-jui, or Jou-jan whence the Gougen of the Jesuits), made their appearance in Mongolia about 275 AD, but were almost annihilated in 552. Some historians identify them as the Avars whilst others claim to have discovered these conquerors of the Slavs in the Epthalides, or rather in the Yueh-pan whose habitation was N. W. of Tarbagatai and Hi. The Avars played a great part in the VIth and VIIth centuries, penetrating as far as entral Europe ; it took a Charlemagne to humble their pride in 796.
The nomadic people which dominated over the length and breadth of the steppes of Central and Northern Asia after the disappearance of the Hiong-Nu from history were the Juan Juan of the Chinese writers. They dominated over Central Asia in the 5th and first half of the 6th century. The Juan Juan had their seats in the country of North-Western Mongolia and are said hy Ma-tuan-lin to have been descended from the Hiong-Nu. In this case the probability is very great that they were in fact closely connected with the latter.
There was a strong antagonism between the Juan Juan and their former dependents the Tu-kiu. The Tu-kiu included in their empire all the various branches of the Turks of Sungaria, its borders including the Uighurs, while they drove out mercilessly the Juan Juan from their old quarters. So it seems exceedingly probable prima facie that the latter were in fact a Mongol people, there were no other possible peoples in these regions but the Mongols and Turks who were capable of filling such a role as was occupied by the Juan Juan.
Taking their chiefs names, compare the names Che-lu-hoei and Chulo with the Mongol words Chilagho and Cholo meaning a stone. The Juan Juan name Jalan or Dalan which by the way was a well known Mongol name in later days means merely seventy. Nokai or Nokhai a name of a Juan Juan prince was the name of a grandson of Chinghiz Khan who gave his name to the Nogais and means a dog in Mongol. Tohan or Toghan a name also used both by the Juan Juan and the Kalmuks means a kettle. Cheunu or Chino which again occurs in composition in Burte Chino the ancestor of the Mongol Khans means a wolf. Onahoei or Unagha means a foal. Again Mukhuli the founder of the power of the Juan Juan bore the same name as the famous Mongol general to whom Chinghiz Khan deputed the conquest of China.
The Mongolian Juan-juan were divided in 520 into two principalities ; one under the Kagan A-naikuei, comprising the Urga country, and the other, under Ms cousin P'o-lo-men, the neighbouring country of the A-na Shan. The latter prince was taken prisoner by the Chinese. A-na-kuei, having refused T'u-men, a T'u-chiieh chieftain and his vassal, the hand of a Juan-juan princess, was attacked by a coalition of T'u-chiieh and Chinese under the rule of the Northern Wei (a Tungus dynasty of the Western Toba of Hsian Fu). The Juan-juan were defeated in 552 and Mongolia passed into the dominion of the T'u-chiieh.
The Juan Juan were at a later date dispersed and broken by the Tukiu; thus accounting for the breaking asunder of the Kalmuks and the Buriats whose traditions most clearly pointto their having been sections of one race in early times. Some would therefore conclude that the Hiong-Nu and the Juan Juan correspond to the Mongols and Kalmuks of today.
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