1729 BC - 1155 BC - Kassites

name dates, BC years
Gandash 1729 1704 26
Agum I 1703 1682 22
Kashtiliashu I 1681 1660 22
Kashtiliashu II (?)
Harba -[x]
Agum II (?)
(one king)
Burna-Buriash I
Kashtiliashu III
Agum III
(one king)
Kara-indash c. 1413
Kadashman-Harbe I
Kurigalzu I
Kadashman-Enlil I 1374 1360 15
Burna-Buriash II 1359 1333 27
Kara-hardash 1332 1331 2?
Nazi-Bugash 1331
Kurigalzu II 1330 1306 25
Nazi-Maruttash 1305 1280 26
Kadashman-Turgu 1279 1262 18
Kadashman-Enlil II 1261 1253 9
Kudur-Enlil 1252 1244 9
Shagarakti-Shuriash 1243 1231 13
Kashtiliashu IV 1231 1223 8
Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria 1223
Enlil-nadin-shumi 1222 1
Kadashman-Harbe II 1221 1
Adad-shuma-iddina 1220 1215 6
Adad-shuma-usur 1214 1185 30
Meli-Shipak 1184 1170 15
Merodach-Baladan I 1169 1157 13
Zababa-shuma-iddina 1156 1
Enlil-nadin-ahi 1155 1153 3
The reign of Samsu-ditana, the eleventh and last monarch of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon (c. BC 1777-1746 ?), seems to have been brought to a bloody end by a conquering raid of the King of Khatti (his name is not preserved), in which Babylon was stormed and sacked by the fierce Anatolians (c. BC 1746?, more likely ca 1600 BC ). The Kassites did not conquer the whole of Babylonia at one time, and their conquest of Southern Babylonia was provoked by an invasion of Elam, undertaken by Ea-gamil, king of the " Country of the Sea." The Kassite conquest of Northern Babylonia and of Babylon itself had already taken place, probably soon after the sack of Babylon by the Hittites at the end of the First Dynasty of Babylon.

The Kassites retreated, probably, as soon as they came, leaving death and ruin behind them; and the Kassites seized their opportunity. Their leader, Gandash, appropriated the city and vacant throne of Babylon (or Kar-Duniyash, as it was now called in the tongue of the conquerors), and founded the Kassite dynasty, which endured for six hundred years.

The scheme of the dynasties of Babylon reckons as Kassite its third house of thirty-six kings, a period of five hundred and seventy-six years, extending from about 1530 to the eleventh century. The struggle between Assyria and Babylonia for the supremacy in their sphere of civilization began under the Kassite dynasty, and, owing to the abundant sources of information, it is possible to follow its vicissitudes more accurately than the events of the earlier age. This struggle and its result constitute the most important subject for the subsequent political history. The history of Babylon and that of Assyria touch each other and are interconnected, and are two streams of development flowing side by side. On the other hand Babylon almost always asserted her independence as a State, and after she had been for a long time subdued, quite at the end she remained once more the conqueror. At the beginning of this war Babylon was the predominant power, and never ceased, even when under the influence of Assyria, to have a separate history and development.

The Kassite period appears as a very uneventful one. The kings, of whom the list is very imperfect, are mere names, and nothing in particular seems to have happened during their reigns. This impression may be due simply to an unusual lack of information with regard to this period. But it may well be that this lack of information reflects a real lack of incident. The conquest, too, by the Kassite barbarians may very well have caused a temporary retrogression in culture, when the arts of the scribe and historiographer were not so much in demand, in royal circles at any rate, as before. And there are very few records of temple-building or restoration at this period. The Kassite kings worshipped their own deities, and probably did not hasten to put themselves under the protection of the gods of Babylon. Obviously they cared very little for the religion and probably less for the literature and arts of their highly civilized subjects.

An insight into the order of things at the beginning of this period is afforded us by the inscription of one of the first princes in this dynasty, perhaps the sixth, by name Agum Kakrime. He styles himself "king of the Kashshu and Akkadians (= Babylonians), king of the wide dominion of Babylon, who settled with numerous inhabitants the land of Umliash (border laud to Elam), king of Padan and Alvan (frontier territories to Media), king of Gutium (the northern lauds !), the king who rules the four countries of the world." The whole enumeration of titles, different from that of the Babylonian monarchs, and the precedence given to the Kassites, show that this is one of the first kings of the new conquerors; a later king, Karaindash, already bears the usual Babylonian titles, and only adds at the end "king of the Kashshu," which his successors actually omit. These barbarians also had thus soon adapted themselves to civilization, - they had become Babylonians.

Soon after the invasion of Thutmosis III, about 1450 BC, the Kassite king of Babylonia Karaindash, made a treaty with the king of Assyria, whose name is given as Asshur-bel-nisheshu. This latter is the first king of Assyria of whom much is known. He claims a certain territory in Mesopotamia, and makes good his claim to it. Assyria now is clearly acknowledged by the king of Babylonia as an independent kingdom.

It is obvious that the whole conquest could only be due to the feebleness of Babylonia. The kingdom of Hammu-rabi (d. 2213) must have gone the way of its predecessors, its power must have been broken, confusion and weakness must have crept in, before it was easy for the barbarians to occupy the warm nest. This feebleness of Babylonia and the exhaustion of the "Canaanite " population are still more clearly visible in two further occurrences of this time. The third Semitic migration, the Aramaean, makes its mark in the age of the Kassites (1700-1100), and the dominion of Babylonia over the West is disputed and finally destroyed by a new power, which now develops itself from a "town kingship" and seeks aggrandisement, namely, Assyria.

Mesopotamian civilization was unaffected by the Mitannians and Kassites, who seem to have been entirely uncultured. They learnt civilization from the conquered. The process seems to have taken about two centuries: by the time of Kurigalzu and Burnaburiash the Kassite kings have adopted the Babylonian religion, at any rate for official purposes, and differ from their subjects only in the retention of their Kassite names, which they affected to the last, six hundred years after the time of Gandash.

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