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United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)

In the course of four years, 118 peacekeepers have been killed making the U.N. mission in Mali, known as MINUSMA, the world bodys deadliest ongoing peace operation. The Mali mission is the only one of the 16 active U.N. peacekeeping operations that authorized troops to deter and counter asymmetric threats that is, terrorist groups that could harm its work or civilians.

A 395-strong Chinese peacekeeping force began peacekeeping missions in Mali on behalf of the United Nations before the end of May 2017. The troops were sent to the West African country in two batches, where they would stay for one year. The troops include military engineers, security personnel and medical staff. This was the fifth Chinese peacekeeping force to be sent to Mali.

The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was established by Security Council resolution 2100 of 25 April 2013. Under the terms of the resolution, the mission would support the political process and carry out a number of security-related stabilization tasks, with a focus on major population centres and lines of communication, protecting civilians, human rights monitoring, the creation of conditions for the provision of humanitarian assistance and the return of displaced persons, the extension of State authority and the preparation of free, inclusive and peaceful elections.

The Mission would operate under robust rules of engagement with a mandate to use all necessary means to address threats to the implementation of its mandate, which would include protection of civilians under imminent threat of physical violence and protection of United Nations personnel from residual threats, within its capabilities and its areas of deployment. This could include the conduct of operations on its own or in cooperation with the Malian defence and security forces. French forces deployed in Mali were also authorized to intervene in support of MINUSMA when under imminent and serious threat upon request of the Secretary-General.

The United Nations Office in Mali (UNOM), established earlier in accordance with Security Council resolution 2085 of 20 December 2012, would be subsumed into MINUSMA immediately following the adoption of resolution 2100. On 1 July 2013, MINUSMA would take over the authority from the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), subject to further review by the Council of the security situation in Missions area of operations. MINUSMA would comprise up to 11,200 military personnel, including reserve battalions capable of deploying rapidly within the country as and when required, and 1,440 police (comprising formed police units and individual police officers).

It was envisaged that the majority of the military, police and civilian substantive and support components would operate primarily in the north with a possible logistics base in Gao or Sevare, while a light presence, including civilians, military and police elements would be based in Bamako.

In recent years, Mali has been confronted by a profound crisis with serious political, security, socio-economic, humanitarian and human rights consequences. The crisis stems from long-standing structural conditions such as weak State institutions; ineffective governance; fragile social cohesion; deep-seated feelings among communities in the north of being neglected, marginalized and unfairly treated by the central Government; a weak and externally dependent, albeit vibrant, civil society; and the effects of environmental degradation, climate change and economic shocks. These conditions were exacerbated by more recent factors of instability, including corruption, nepotism, abuse of power, internal strife and deteriorating capacity of the national army.

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Page last modified: 22-11-2017 14:03:21 ZULU