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MINUSCA Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic

Concerned with the security, humanitarian, human rights and political crisis in the Central African Republic and its regional implications, the Security Council authorized on 10 April 2014 deployment of a multidimensional United Nations peacekeeping operation MINUSCA, with the protection of civilians as its utmost priority. Its other initial tasks included support for the transition process; facilitating humanitarian assistance; promotion and protection of human rights; support for justice and the rule of law; and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes.

MINUSCA subsumed the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA) on the date of the establishment. On 15 September 2014, the African-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic (MISCA) transferred its authority.

Plagued by decades of instability and fighting, the impoverished Central African Republic (CAR) witnessed a resumption of violence in December 2012 when the mainly Muslim Slka (meaning alliance in the local Sango language) rebel coalition launched a series of attacks. A peace agreement (Libreville Agreement) was reached in January 2013, but the rebels seized the capital, Bangui, in March, forcing President Franois Boziz to flee. A transitional government was established and entrusted with restoring peace. The conflict however took on increasingly sectarian overtones by December as the mainly Christian anti-Balaka (anti-machete) movement took up arms and inter-communal clashes erupted again in and around Bangui.

Months of violence led to wrecked State institutions, leaving millions on the brink of starvation and threatened to suck in the wider region. Thousands of people are believed to have been killed, and 2.5 million, more than half of the entire population, needed humanitarian aid. As of September 2014, more than 174,000 people have been internally displaced. Over 414,000 people have also fled to neighbouring Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo.

Since the beginning of the crisis, the United Nations, its Secretary-General as well as other international and regional actors, including the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU) and France, have worked tirelessly trying to find a peaceful resolution of the conflict, stop the killings, protect civilians and provide humanitarian relief.

The Council requested the Secretary-General, in consultation with the AU, to deploy a transition team to set up MINUSCA and prepare the seamless transition of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA by 15 September 2014, as well as to appoint a Special Representative for the Central African Republic and Head of Mission of MINUSCA, who shall, from the date of appointment, assume overall authority on the ground for the coordination of all activities of the United Nations system in the Central African Republic.

In accordance with the decision of the Council, the official transfer of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA took place on 15 September 2014. In the period preceding this transfer of authority, MINUSCA implemented the mandated tasks through its civilian component, while MISCA continued to implement its tasks as mandated by Security Council resolution 2127 (2013). MINUSCA commenced the implementation of the mandated tasks through its military and police components on 15 September [see Mandate for details on the civilian, military and police tasks].

By other provisions of the resolution, the Security Council authorized French forces, within the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, from the commencement of the activities of MINUSCA until the end of MINUSCAs mandate, to use all necessary means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA from the date of adoption of this resolution, at the request of the Secretary-General.

The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) took note of the report published by Human Rights Watch on 7 June 2016 on the killings allegedly committed by soldiers of the Republic of Congo in Boali, Mambr and Berberati between December 2013 and June 2015.

The Mission welcomed the report and shared the need to ensure that justice is served to the victims. MINUSCA urges the authorities of the Republic of Congo to take all measures to ensure that perpetrators of such crimes are held accountable.

Concerning the case of Boali, the unit of the Republic of Congo army implicated in these killings was repatriated in 2014, before the transfer of authority from the African Union Mission (MISCA) to the United Nations (MINUSCA) in September 2014. Since then, MINUSCA has conducted three investigations and has advocated - in collaboration with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights with the African Union and the authorities of the Republic of Congo for criminal investigations to be launched.

The findings of investigations conducted by MINUSCAs Human Rights Division were shared by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights with the Congolese government and the Central African authorities in June 2015. They were made public in a press statement release by the Office of the High Commissioner on 5 June 2015. On 3 May 2016, the authorities of the Republic of Congo informed the United Nations of an investigation into the Boali incidents, initiated on 30 June 2015.

Concerning the case of Mambr, when the Mission received allegations of excessive use of force involving peacekeepers of the Republic of Congo, it immediately launched an investigation. Following this investigation, 20 members of the Congolese contingent, of which three were senior officers, were repatriated. The findings of a second United Nations investigation into these allegations will be made public in due course. The authorities of the Republic of Congo informed MINUSCA of an ongoing judicial inquiry and that interim disciplinary measures were taken against individuals and commanders involved in these incidents.

The United Nations reported it had received 50 allegations during the year 2016 (as of December 20) of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) by UN peacekeepers deployed to MINUSCA, with 16 alleged incidents occurring in 2016, 31 in 2015, one in 2014, and two for which the dates of the alleged incidents were unknown. These allegations involved peacekeepers from Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Mauritania, Morocco, Pakistan, the Republic of the Congo, and Zambia. Of the 50 allegations, 34 involved minors, 43 remained pending investigation by the United Nations or the troop or police contributing country at years end, and four allegations were found to be unsubstantiated. Three investigations substantiated the allegations and resulted in a one-year sentence for a peacekeeper from Bangladesh for sexually abusing a minor, a court-martial and five-year sentence for an Egyptian peacekeeper for sexually assaulting an adult, and 45 days imprisonment for a Gabonese peacekeeper for sexual activity with a minor.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on all countries that contribute peacekeepers to increase predeployment education and human rights training, enhance vetting procedures, conduct rapid and effective investigations, ensure consistent penalties for offenders, increase assistance to victims, and strengthen reporting of cases of sexual exploitation and abuse.

On December 5, the United Nations announced that its Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) had completed an internal investigation into more than 100 allegations of sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers deployed in Dekoa, Kemo Prefecture, in 2014-15. During the investigation, which began in April, OIOS interviewed 139 persons and found that 45 were able to identify, via photographs and other corroborating evidence, 41 alleged perpetrators--16 of whom were from Gabon and 25 from Burundi. Of the 45 alleged victims, 25 were minors. Eight alleged victims, including six minors, made paternity claims. The United Nations announced it had shared the OIOS report with Gabon and Burundi, including the names of the identified alleged perpetrators, and requested appropriate judicial actions to ensure criminal accountability. The United Nations reported the alleged perpetrators had all been rotated out of the Central African Republic before the allegations surfaced. The United Nations requested a copy of the final national investigation reports to be transmitted urgently.

During the year 2016, MINUSCA continued to strengthen its prevention measures and reinforce its outreach among communities and peacekeepers across the country, especially in high-risk areas, to improve awareness and reporting on sexual exploitation and abuse and other forms of misconduct. MINUSCA also regularly monitored conditions and behavior of peacekeeping personnel and partnered with UN agencies and implementing partners in the country that provide psychosocial, medical, and legal assistance to victims of sexual exploitation and abuse.

The total expenditure for the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) for the period from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018 was linked to the objective of the Mission through a number of results-based-budgeting frameworks, grouped by component, namely: security, protection of civilians and human rights; support to the political process, reconciliation and elections; restoration and extension of State authority; and support.

In its resolution 2387 (2017), the Council decided to authorize 11,650 military personnel, which included an additional 900 military contingents. The Mission was tasked with supporting the extension of State authority and preserving territorial integrity, including through the deployment of security forces; supporting security sector reform; supporting the Central African authorities in developing and implementing an inclusive and progressive programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and, in the case of foreign elements, the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation, of members of armed groups; restoring the rule of law and combating impunity; promoting and protecting human rights; strengthening the rule of law and the fight against impunity; and continuing to support the Central African authorities to prevent the illicit exploitation and trafficking of natural resources and the proliferation and illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons.



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