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Indonesia - Political Parties

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)

Party 99 04 09 14 19
PDI-P Democratic Struggle15410995109
Golkar120127107 91
Gerindra Great Indonesia --26 73
PD Democratic Party-5615061
PKB National Awakening51522747
PAN National Mandate-5343 49
PK Prosperous Justice6455740
ND National Democrat---35
PPPUnited Development58583739
Hanura People's Conscience --1816
PBBCrescent Star 1411--
PBRReform Star-14--
PDSProsperous Peace -13--
PKPJustice and Unity61--
PPDKDemocratic Nationhood-4--
OTHERS187--

Political party elites from every party are the backbone of Indonesia's political establishment. Indonesia's political parties and other mass organizations traditionally hold "congresses" every five years to set up new central boards, revise their constitutions and evaluate their performance. Before the national Congress, each district branch holds a local congress to decide who to send to the national congress, where the branches can vote for new leadership. Two thirds of the branches must attend the congress. Parties also use congresses to formulate policies and strategize for the next elections.

Only nine parties were considered significant players by 2009. Golkar (VP Yusuf Kalla's party) and the Indonesian Party of Democratic Struggle (PDI-P--Megawati Sukarnoputri's opposition party) were the historical heavyweights. In 2009 polls, however, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's Partai Demokrat (PD) surged to the lead. The party that won a plurality of seats would be in a strong position in the next Parliament in terms of controlling key committee assignments and other key positions. There were four major Muslim-oriented parties: the National Mandate Party (PAN); the United Development Party (PPP); the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS); and, the National Awakening Party (PKB). Of these parties, PKS was expected to be the strongest. Finally, two other parties of note were led by retired generals, Gerindra (led by Prabowo Subianto) and Hanura (led by Wiranto--one name only). Both Prabowo and Wiranto were stigmatized by past human rights violations. Gerindra seemed the more formidable and well-financed of the two parties.

  1. Golkar (PARTAI GOLONGAN KARYA): 1959 professional groups loosely formed in the joint secretariat, in October 1964 by the 61 mass organizations jointly established professional group, in December 1970 expanded to 291 people, including professional organizations Organization 1967 to June 1999 as the de facto ruling party, but it has been claimed to be social and political organizations. March 7, 1999 announced a political party. Of "Pancasila" as the national ideology based on democracy and civil rights advocates on the basis of political reform, protection of human rights, improve people's livelihood. President Yusuf Kalla won the 2004 election, 127 seats in parliament's biggest party.
  2. Indonesia's Democratic Party of Struggle (PARTAI DEMOKRASI INDONESIA-PERJUANGAN): Indonesia's Democratic Party split from the former composed of persons, officially established in October 1998. Department of nationalist political parties, representatives of Indonesia's secular political forces. Adhere to the "Pancasila" as the basis of national ideology, national spirit, against religious and racial discrimination. General President Megawati (MEGAWATI Soekarnoputri). Won the 2004 election 109 seats, the second largest party in parliament.
  3. United Development Party (PARTAI PERSATUAN PEMBANGUNAN): In 1973 the Islamic Federation, the Muslim Party of Indonesia, Indonesia Islamic Union Party and the white persons Corti Islamic Party merged. Islam, who, after the eighties the United exits. The original purpose of "Pancasila", now return to Islam, and lapel pin back to Mecca Kaaba re-design. Advocated an independent judiciary, the implementation of a wide range of local autonomy and religious equality, improve the population quality. General Chairman Hamzah Haz. Won the 2004 elections 58 seats, was the third largest party in parliament.
  4. Democratic Party (PARTAI DEMOKRAT): Founded in September 9, 2003, as "Pancasila" as the basis of national ideology. With the launch of the 2004 election presidential candidate Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono charisma, won 56 seats, the fourth largest party for the Congress HADI Utomo.
  5. National Mission Party (PARTAI AMANAT NASIONAL): Founded in August 23, 1998, many party members is the second largest Muslim group Muhammadiyah (MUHAMMADIYAH) members, with the Islamic modernist features. Advocates the separation of powers checks and balances, popular sovereignty, economic equality, racial religious harmony and so on. Won the 2004 elections 53 seats, was the fifth largest party in parliament. Led by SOETRISNO Bachir.
  6. National Awakening Party (PARTAI KEBANGKITAN BANGSA): Formed in 1998 based on Islam which considered Federation (NU) as the background of the political parties. Stressed that religious harmony and oppose the politicization of religion and religious discrimination, oppose the establishment of Islamic countries. Won the 2004 elections 52 seats, is the sixth largest party in parliament. The general chairman was MUHAIMIN Iskandar.

Indonesia's Constitutional Court unanimously ruled on 23 December 2008 that several provisions of the country's election law were unconstitutional. The Court ruled that candidates who receive the most votes must be seated in the legislature. In making the ruling, the Court held that political parties cannot simply pick and choose who they want to be seated, which was the way some seats would be chosen per the 2008 law. Even under laws previous to that of 2008, parties faced myriad internal disputes when party bosses refused to surrender legislative seats to "upstart" candidates who had garnered more votes. The party's edict ruled, however, and candidates who thought they had won had to bow out if they were not high on the party's list.

Political parties could no longer simply place preferred candidates in legislative seats and must let voters decide party representation. Per observers, the ruling also may provide an effective method to reduce the impact of money on the electoral process. According to the ruling, candidates must appeal directly to the voters and may use their wealth only to advertise their qualifications and their views on the issues. "Money politics" and "gifts" to party bosses cannot be used to buy seats--those seats must be won fairly by appealing to the voters.

A constitutional court ruling on August 29, 2012 required all political parties, including those with seats in the House of Representatives, to submit to the full registration process. Parties must also now have a presence in all provinces, in addition to 75% of each provinces regencies and half of each regencys districts, to run. Parties in the autonomous province of Aceh are still allowed to be provincial in nature. While 46 parties attempted to register, only 12 passed the verification process (down from 48 in 1999).

The media mogul and business partner of U.S. President Donald Trump, Hary Tanoe, started his own party called Perindo in 2016. A former television presenter named Grace Natalie created the Indonesian Solidarity Party, which focuses on women's rights and pluralism, in 2015. One of its talents is a 21-year-old Twitter star and university student named Tsamara Amany.

The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) has 692 members, including 560 members of the DPR and the 132 representatives of the Council of Regional Representatives (DPD). Up to and through 2004, citizens elected legislators for the DPR and DPD, but their vote was based on a party list system. This ensured that the party elite, placed at the top of the party candidate lists, were voted into office. In 2009, a multi-member district majority vote wins system allowed voters for the first time to directly put a candidate who won a plurality of votes into office.




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