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Army Training Command (ARTRAC)

The Indian Army has diverse, intensive and variegated Operational responsibilities. Due to constant change in the complexion of the future battlefield., combined with rapid technological advances, a need to restructure and streamline our overall training structure was identified. The aim was to maximize effectiveness of our training and establish a dedicated organization for formulating concepts and doctrines which are specifically applicable to our operational environment. The requirement was to be met by the establishment of a centralized, independent and high powered organization, with the requisite infrastructure and resources to meet all aspects of concepts and doctrine development, training policies and institutional training. The Army Training Command (ARTRAC) came into being on 01 October 1991, at Mhow in Madhya Pradesh. It was headed by an Army Commander. It subsequently shifted to Shimla on 31 March 1993.


  • Formulation and  dissemination of concepts and doctrines of warfare in the fields of strategy, operational art, tactics,  logistics, training and human resource development.

  • Acting as the nodal agency for all institutional training in the Army

  • Evolve joint doctrines in conjunction with other Services.

Charter of Duties

  • Development and dissemination of standardized doctrines for war at the standardized doctrines for war at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

  • Development of supplementary concepts for the operational functioning of all Arms and Services, with particular reference to the fields of intelligence, psychological operations, electronic warfare, motivation and training.

  • Carrying out training inspections / audit of relevant training establishments.

  • Planning , co-ordination, supervision and implementation of training policy and conduct of training courses, at specified training establishments of the Indian Army .

  • Supervision and monitoring of training in all other training establishments.

  • Preparation of special training repots and training directives.

  • Development and introduction of advanced training aids, including computer war games and simulators.

  • Combat development.

  • Nodal agency for doctrinal and training aspects pertaining to UN Peace Keeping Operations.

  • Interaction with training commands of other services at the conceptual level.

  • Preparation of training manuals.

  • Army level exercises and war games

  • all aspects of HRD.

  • Control of Indian Army Liaison Officers.

  • Specified aspects of NBC warfare.


In any army, it is the man that counts. He may be a leader or form part of a team that is in combat, supporting combat or providing specialised/ skilled expertise. Therefore, every individual, team and larger groups (like units/ formations) assume importance for the Army to carry out its roles. And it is only intelligent, imaginative and innovative training that produces good ment and cohesive units and formations.

The Indian Army prepares soldiers, leaders, units and formations to mobilise, deploy, fight and win across the entire spectrum of conflict. This enables it to accomplish all its visualised and assigned roles and tasks, both in war and in peace. The Indian Army has the task of preparing for all types of future conflicts, concurrently with the prevailing operational and counter insurgency commitments. All preparations and training for war ave to bear relevance to a future conflict, not a past one. Training must therefore take into account the environment, technology, battlefield scenario, threat perception and internal security situation likely to manifest itself in the years ahead.

Operational Training prepares the Army to meet such requirements. It consists of all training in field formations which is planned, coordinated and conducted under formation/unit arrangements. Individual training, sub-unit and unit training, collective training, field firing etc. all form part of operational training.The Indian Army's training cycle is normally on a yearly basis. The training year is from July to June.

The armour units train during Annual Field firing practices carried out at select few ranges in the country. Amongst the Arms, Artillery has the maximum number of training facets already quantified. The Corps has a system of annual practice camps in vogue, which are assessed. Consequent to Individual training all infantry units not committed operationally go through a strict regimen of Annual Training Cycle wherein the Formation Commander lays down specific standards to be achieved. Over the years, the Corps of Engineers has evolved realistic planning data for execution of engineering tasks by units and subunits. For most engineer tasks, detailed target timings, under specified conditions, have been laid down. By and large, all combat engineer tasks lend themselves to be quantified, in terms of laid down timings. Each Signal Regiment exercises itself once every year to cover all aspects of communications. The thrust in the new millennium being on information Technology and Automation.

Collective Training is conducted to weld individuals and teams into effective subunits and units, and to practice all echelons of command in their operational tasks. Collective Training also tests the mechanics of battle drills, battle procedures and signal communications on the ground. The performance of a unit and formation in collective training provides an insight into its training standards and the state of its combat preparedness. Training exercises in the Indian Army are organization of umpires, pooled from other units and formations.

Computerized war gaming is another modern method of effective training. This provides a methodology of training commanders and staff in a simulated battlefield environment. It facilitates practicing various tactical contingencies and arriving at realistic results. War game models are also useful in validating operational plans as well as performance evaluation and analysis. The ARTRAC is in the forefront to spread a computerized war gaming culture in the Indian Army, for training as well as indigenous development of war-game models.


An extensive body of schools and centers supports army operations. The officer corps is largely drawn from the National Defence Academy at Khadakvasla, Maharashtra, a joint services training institution that provides educational equivalents to the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degrees to cadets for all three service arms. Cadets spend their first three years at the National Defence Academy and then are sent to their respective service academies for further training before being commissioned in the armed forces. A preparatory school, the Rashtriya Indian Military College, at Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, provides education to candidates for the National Defence Academy. After completing their studies at the National Defence Academy, army cadets are sent to the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun. Other Indian Military Academy cadets are graduates of the Army Cadet College or are direct-entry students who have qualified by passing the Union Public Service Commission Examination. They spend between twelve and twenty-four months at the Indian Military Academy before being commissioned in the army as second lieutenants. Still other officer training occurs at the Officers' Training Academy in Madras, Tamil Nadu, where a forty-four-week session is offered to university graduates seeking a short-service commission.

In addition to the Indian Military Academy, the army runs a number of military education establishments. The more prominent ones include the College of Combat at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh; the High Altitude Warfare School at Gulmarg, Jammu and Kashmir; and the Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School at Vairengte, Mizoram. The army also operates the Defence Services Staff College at Wellington in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, which provides master of science-level joint-service training for mid-level staff appointments and promotes interservice cooperation.

In 1994 it was reported that there were 200 women in the armed forces. In the army, which employs women as physicians and nurses, the participation of women is small but growing. The Indian Military Nursing Service was formed in 1926 and has eight nursing schools (five army, two navy, and one air force) and one nursing college in Pune. Bachelor of science graduates are commissioned as lieutenants in the Medical Nursing Service and attached to the various components of the armed forces. Ranks as high as colonel can be attained by career officers. In the mid-1990s, a small but increasing number of women officers were being assigned to nonmedical services. In 1994, there were fifty women nonmedical army officers and another twenty-five in training. They are university graduates who have been put through rigorous training and are reported to be eager for combat unit assignments.


Courage, commitment and confidence are qualties all officers need to have, but these are not sufficient for a young cadet, who is on the threshold of his military career. An army officer has to assume various roles in the course of his career and cadet training lays the foundation and shapes the individual to take his rightful place in the profession of arms


Valour and Wisdom, the motto of the Indian Military Academy (IMA), as signified by the cross swords and flaming torch of the Academy crest, is manifest in the actions and deeds of officers of the Indian Army. Faced with hostile neighbors, a long border and a none too stable internal situation in some parts of the country, the Indian Army has had to confront challenges to the integrity of the Nation. That it has given a good account of itself, both in peace and war, is a credit to the Indian Army's Gallant soldiers and officers who have led them. A large share of the credit for the leadership of the Army can be apportioned to the alumni of IMA.


Originally raised as Officers Training School in 1963 at Madras, (now Chennai), the institution was redesignated as Officers Training Academy (OTA) in 1988. Initially, the main task of the OTA was to train Gentlemen Cadets for Emergency Commissions. Subsequently, the OTA started training cadets for Short Service Commission and later the Lady Cadets since 1992. OTA trains 600 cadets every year, of which 150 are LCs. "SERVE WITH HONOR" the motto of the OTA, as signified by the cross swords, depicting the profession of arms and the Ashoka Chakra, depicting honour, is manifest in the glories and selfless service by the officers commissioned from the Academy.

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Page last modified: 11-07-2011 15:37:13 ZULU