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Haiti - Foreign Relations

Haiti is one of the original members of the United Nations and several of its specialized and related agencies, as well as a member of the Organization of American States (OAS). It maintains diplomatic relations with several dozen countries.

Major bilateral donors include the United States, Canada, the EU, Spain, France, Brazil, Norway, Japan, and Venezuela. Cuba provides highly visible, low-cost medical and technical experts. Multilateral aid is provided by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the UN and its agencies. Most bilateral assistance is currently channeled through foreign aid agencies and non-governmental organizations.

At the March 31, 2010 post-earthquake donor conference in New York, over 50 countries and organizations pledged more than $9.9 billion in support to Haiti. The short-term assistance totaled $5.3 billion for the next 18 months, with the remainder for Haitiís long-term reconstruction needs over the next decade. The United States committed $1.15 billion over 2010-2011, not including $1 billion already spent as of May 2010.

Haiti received approximately $1.2 billion in multilateral debt relief from the IDB and World Bank and 100% debt cancellation from bilateral donors in the Paris Club following completion of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) process in June 2009. Following the 2010 earthquake, multilateral organizations agreed to provide additional debt relief.

On July 31, 1994, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 940, which authorized member states to use all necessary means to facilitate the departure of Haiti's military leadership and to restore Haiti's constitutionally elected government to power. The United States took the lead in forming a multinational force (MNF) to carry out the UN's mandate by means of a military intervention. On September 19, 1994, the first contingents of what became a 21,000-member international force touched down in Haiti to oversee the end of military rule and the restoration of the constitutional government.

On March 31, 1995 the MNF transitioned into a peacekeeping force, and the presence of international military forces that helped restore constitutional government to power was gradually ended. Initially, the U.S.-led UN peacekeeping force numbered 6,000 troops, but that number was scaled back progressively over the next 4 years as a series of UN technical missions succeeded the peacekeeping force. By January 2000, all U.S. troops stationed in Haiti had departed.

In March 2000, the UN peacekeeping mission transitioned into a peace-building mission, the International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH). MICAH consisted of some 80 non-uniformed UN technical advisers providing advice and material assistance in policing, justice, and human rights to the Haitian Government. MICAH's mandate ended on February 7, 2001, coinciding with the end of the Preval administration. An OAS Special Mission of some 25 international police advisors arrived in summer 2003 to observe and report on Haitian police performance, in addition to providing limited technical assistance.

Following Aristide's February 2004 departure and at the request of the interim government and the UN, the U.S.-led Multilateral Interim Force--made up of troops from the U.S., Canada, France, and Chile--arrived in Port-au-Prince to ensure stability until the arrival of a UN peacekeeping force.

In April 2004, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1542, which created the UN Stability Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Since that time, the Security Council consistently and unanimously approved the renewal of MINUSTAH's mandate. On October 13, 2009, the UNSC voted unanimously to extend MINUSTAH's mandate through October 15, 2010 with an authorized force of 6,940 troops and 2,241 civilian police. In response to the earthquake on January 12, 2010, the Security Council adopted on January 19 Resolution 1908 increasing the force levels of MINUSTAH by 2,000 troops and 1,500 civilian police to support the immediate recovery, reconstruction, and stability efforts in the country.

On October 10, 2010, the UNSC voted to extend MINUSTAHís mandate through October 15, 2011. The UNSC decided to maintain mission force levels at 8,940 troops and a police component of up to 4,391 police officers, and called on the Secretary General to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the security environment following the elections and transfer of power to the new government in 2011. On October 14, 2011, MINUSTAHís mandate was extended until October 15, 2012.

The overall force levels of MINUSTAH were further adjusted by resolution 2070 of 12 October 2012 when the Security Council decided that the Mission shall consist of up to 6,270 troops of all ranks through a balanced withdrawal of infantry and engineering personnel and of a police component of up to 2,601 personnel, consistent with paragraph 50 of the Secretary-Generalís report [S/2012/678].

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Page last modified: 17-01-2015 19:51:56 ZULU