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Political Parties and Labor Organizations

Political parties and candidates could freely declare their candidacy and run for election. However, the chief prosecutor of the Court of Appeals could seek to close political parties for unconstitutional activities by bringing a case before the Constitutional Court. The law requires a party receive at least 10 percent of the valid votes cast nationwide to enter parliament. Some political parties and human rights groups criticized the 10 percent threshold as unduly high. Three of the 15 parties eligible to run crossed the threshold in the 2011 elections. Candidates who run as independents are able to bypass the threshold.

Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party). Founded in May 1983 under the leadership of Turgut Özal. The ruling party following the 1983 election, the center-right ANAP included mostly former members of the pre-1980 AP (Adalet Partisi) .
Adalet Partisi (Justice Party). Established in 1961, one of the two major parties prior to the September 1980 coup, led by Süleyman Demirel. Following its dissolution by the National Security Council, many of its members subsequently joined the ANAP or the DYP
Peace and Democracy Party - the Pro-Kurdish BDP won 36 seats in the elections in June 2011, eleven of them are women. Nine of them work as MPs today, two are in jail. BDP is a member of Party of European Socialists.
Birlik ve Baris (Unity and Peace).
Splinter from RP in 1992.
Büyük Türkiye Partisi (Grand Turkey Party). Founded in May 1983 and banned the same month for having connections with the dissolved AP. Its supporters then formed the center-right DYP.
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party). Founded in the 1920s and led by Atatürk until his death in 1938. Headed by Bülent Ecevit in the 1970s, it was one of the major parties prior to the 1980 coup. A majority of its deputies ultimately regrouped in the left-of-center SHP; others joined the DSP. Party reactivated by Deniz Baykal in 1992. In 1995 the SHP dissolved itself, and many members joined the CHP.
Committee of National Unity. Composed of thirty-eight officers who executed the May 1960 coup; the CNU governed the country until a constituent assembly was formed in January 1961.
Democratic People's Party DEHAP was founded in 1997, and in 2005 DEHAP announced that they would merge with DTH, and the two formed DTP together in 2005. DEHAP was shut out of parliament for failing, as a party, to surpass the 10 percent threshold. DEHAP had been preceded in recent years by similar leftist, pro-Kurdish parties, such as HEP, DEP and HADEP. Like DEHAP, each of these was limited in scope and ambition by its single region and single issue appeal.
Demokratik Partisi (Democratic Party)
Formed in 1971 by former AP members who disapproved of Süleyman Demirel's leadership; merged with the AP shortly before the 1980 coup. Not a successor to the DP.
Demokrasi Partisi (Democracy Party). Pro-Kurd party formed in 1993 on demise of the HEP, proscribed by Constitutional Court in June 1994.
Dev Sol
Devrimçi Sol (Revolutionary Left Party). A radical movement espousing Marxist ideology and advocating violent tactics against state institutions.
Türkiye Devrimçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Revolutionary Workers' Trade Unions of Turkey). Federation of trade unions second in importance only to Türk-Is before 1980. Banned after 1980, DISK was less influential in the mid-1990s than some of the other labor organizations.
Demokrat Partisi (Democrat Party). Founded in 1946, the party secured power in the 1950 election. It was overthrown and declared illegal by the armed forces in 1960. Should not be confused with the Demokratik Partisi. Party reactivated in 1992.
Demokratik Sol Partisi (Democratic Left Party). Founded in November 1985 by Rahsan Ecevit, wife of former CHP leader Bülent Ecevit, who had been banned from political activity. The party advocated a more radical variety of democratic socialism than the SHP.
[Demokratik Toplum Partisi] Pro-Kurdish party was created in 2005 as the successor of the Democratic People's Party (DEHAP). In the 22 July 2007 general elections, it managed to elect 21 members to parliament. The Constitutional Court ruled on 11 December 2009 to close the Democratic Society Party (DTP) because of their organic connection with the terrorist Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK).
Dogru Yol Partisi (True Path Party). Founded in June 1983 after the dissolution of the BTP. The center-right party was considered to be the successor to the banned AP. Former AP leader Süleyman Demirel was its leader before becoming president. Head in 1995 was Prime Minister Tansu Çiller.
Halkin Demokrasi Partisi (People's Democracy Party). Formed in June 1994 as pro-Kurd party. The Government closed the HADEP Party in 2004 on charges of separatism and supporting terrorism
Türkiye Hak Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Just Workers' Unions). Pro-Islamist union.
Hür Demokrat Partisi (Free Democratic Party). A short-lived right-wing party founded in 1983 by former members of the MDP under the leadership of Mehmet Yazar. The HDP was disbanded the same year.
Halkin Emek Partisi (People's Labor Party). Formed in late 1991 to promote full equality of Kurds and Turks within Turkey. Outlawed in 1993.
Halkçi Partisi (Populist Party). Founded in May 1983, it was one of the three parties allowed to compete in the 1983 general election. It merged with Sodep in November 1985 to form the SHP.
Milliyetçi Çalisma Partisi (Nationalist Labor Party). Founded in July 1983 and originally named the Conservative Party, it changed its name in November 1985 to MÇP. The conservative nationalist party is considered to be the successor to the MHP. In 1993 the party reassumed the name of the Nationalist Action Party (MHP).
Milliyetçi Demokrasi Partisi (Nationalist Democracy Party). Founded in May 1983 under the leadership of General Turgut Sunalp, the party never gained popular support and was dissolved in April 1986.
Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (Nationalist Action Party). A militant, nationalist party led by Alparslan Türkes. It was associated with the pre-1980 violence and was banned following the coup. The MÇP was considered to be its successor prior to changing its name to MHP in 1993.
Türkiye Milliyetçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Nationalist Workers' Unions). Government-sponsored federation of labor unions.
Milli Selamet Partisi (National Salvation Party). Founded in 1972 and dissolved in 1980, this conservative, religiously oriented party served in various government coalitions prior to the 1980 coup. Many of its members subsequently supported the RP.
Freedom and Labor Party. Splinter from SHP formed in 1992.
Partiya Karkere Kurdistan (Kurdistan Workers' Party). Founded in late 1960s. Initiated armed insurrection on behalf of an independent Kurdistan in 1984; fighting continued through 1995.
Refah Partisi (Welfare Party; also seen as Prosperity Party). A religious party based on Islamic principles; successor to the MSP.
Sosyal Demokrat Halkçi Parti (Social Democratic Populist Party). Formed in November 1985 by the merger of two left-of-center parties, Sodep and the HP. Dissolved itself in mid-1995, and many members joined the CHP.
Sosyal Demokrat Parti (Social Democratic Party). Founded in July 1983, it had the support of the moderate left that had backed the pre-coup CHP. Merged with the HP in 1985 to form the SHP.
Türkiye Isveren Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Turkish Confederation of Employers' Associations). A confederation of employers' associations, concerned primarily with labor-management relations.
Türkiye Odalar Birligi (Turkish Trade Association). Organization that has represented the interests of merchants and industrialists since the early 1950s. In later years, it has been identified primarily with small and medium-sized firms.
Türkiye Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions). The largest and most influential of the union federations.
Turkish Communist Party
Joined TWP in 1987 to form Turkish United Communist Party.
Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi (Turkish United Communist Party).
Created in 1987 by merger of TWP and Turkish Communist Party. Party was banned shortly thereafter, decriminalized in 1991, and then again proscribed.
Türk Sanayiçileri ve Is Adamlari Dernegi (Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association). Organization that represents the interests of big business.
Turkish Workers' Party. Joined with Turkish Communist Party in 1987 to form the Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi.
Vatandas Partisi (Citizens' Party). Founded in March 1986 under the leadership of former ANAP member Vural Arikan. A small center-right party, its two parliamentary deputies joined the DYP in December 1986.

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