Poland - Infrastructure
Polskie Koleje Panstwowe S.A., or PKP, the Polish state railway company, operates suburban railways in all major cities and, at the end of 2002, operated approximately 20,222 kilometers of track, of which approximately 12,004 kilometers were electrified. In 2007, PKP operated approximately 19,419 kilometers of rail track, of which 11,830 kilometers were electrified. The Government has begun to restructure PKP in an effort to improve operational efficiency and prepare the company for partial privatization. Under this restructuring plan, separate passenger, freight and infrastructure companies have been created under a new PKP holding company.
Poland had over 258,910 kilometers of hard-surfaced public roads in 2007. The first motorway development to be financed primarily through private funding is the 257 kilometer stretch of the A2 between the German border (at Swiecko) via Poznan to Konin, of which the first 149 kilometer segment had been completed and opened in October 2004. The first privately-operated toll motorway, the 61 kilometer A4 between Krakow and Katowice, was opened in 2000. The Government intends to co-finance further road infrastructure programs through the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways using, inter alia, financial resources of the National Road Fund deposited at Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego.
In 2008, Poland's merchant shipping fleet consisted of 123 vessels with a total capacity of 2.6 million tons. Poland has several ports equipped to service ocean-going vessels. Poland has 12 airports which handle international air traffic. In 2008, scheduled flights were maintained with 91 airports worldwide (including low-cost airlines). Poland's major airline, Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A., or LOT, is 67.97 percent owned by the State Treasury. LOT is a member of the international airline alliance, Star Alliance.
Poland's telecommunications network is primarily operated by Telekomunikacja Polska S.A., or TP S.A., a joint stock company created from the former telecommunication operations of the Polish Post, Telephone and Telegraph State monopoly. By the end of 2008, the number of telephone lines in Poland had grown to nearly 8.7 million, an increase of approximately 264.0 percent since 1990 and the number of telephone lines per 100 inhabitants had increased to 22.8. As a result of a public tender for long-distance fixed-line licenses conducted by the Government in 1999, there are currently six long-distance operators in Poland. International services remained a TP S.A. monopoly until January 2003; since then, other service providers have entered the market, although TP S.A. remains the dominant participant.
The main mobile telephone operators in Poland are PTK Centertel Sp. z.o.o., PTC Era Sp. z.o.o. and Polkomtel S.A. Each of these companies is a consortium of Polish and foreign companies. Rapid growth in this sector resulted in approximately 23.1 million users by the end of 2004, 29.2 million users by the end of 2005, 36.8 million users by the end of 2006, 41.5 million users by the end of 2007 and 44.1 million users by the end of 2008. The number of mobile telephone users per 100 inhabitants amounted to 115.6 in 2008.
In 2007, four new mobile telephone operators started to provide their services: P4 Sp. z.o.o. (Play) in cooperation with Polkomtel S.A; Wirtualna Polska S.A. (Wpmobi) - MVNO in cooperation with PTK Centertel Sp. z.o.o.; Avon Mobile Sp. z.o.o. (myAvon) - MVNO in cooperation with PTK Centertel Sp. z.o.o. and MM S.A. (Simfonia, Ezo) - MVNO in cooperation with PTK Centertel Sp. z.o.o. In 2008, seven new mobile telephone operators started to provide their services: Mobile Entertainment Company Sp. z o.o. (Mobilking); CP Telecom Sp. z o.o. (Carrefour Mova); Media Tel S.A. (telepin mobi); Cyfrowy Polsat S.A., Aster Sp. z o.o., Netia S.A. and Crowley Data Poland Sp. z o.o. (Crowley Tele Mobile).
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