Other Orthodox Jurisdictions
At the turn of the eighteenth century, Peter the Great's Russia supplanted Poland as the predominant power in Eastern Europe and began exerting its influence over Walachia and Moldavia. The Orthodox tsar announced a policy of support for his co-religionists within the Ottoman Empire, and Romanian princes in Walachia and Moldavia began looking to Russia to break the Turkish yoke. Peter's ill-fated attempt to seize Moldavia in 1711 had the support of both Romanian princes. After the Turks expelled the Russian forces, the sultan moved to strengthen his hold on the principalities by appointing Greeks from Constantinople's Phanar, or "Lighthouse," district as princes. These "Phanariot" princes, who purchased their positions and usually held them briefly until a higher bidder usurped them, were entirely dependent upon their Ottoman overlords. Within the principalities, however, their rule was absolute and the Porte expected them to leech out as much wealth from their territories as possible in the least time.
Church of Sinai / Archbishopric of Mount Sinai
The Church of Sinai consists of no more than the monastery on Mt. Sinai, built in A.D. 527 by Justinian. The monastery received autocephaly by a decision of the Council of Constantinople in 1575, which ended a controversy between Alexandria and Jerusalem as to which had authority over the monastery, by declaring it independent.
The titular of this see had jurisdiction over the convent of St. Catherine and about fifty Bedouins. By around 1900 the tendency was to consider it rather as a diocese in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The archbishop receives consecration from the Patriarch of Jerusalem, but claims independence over this Convent in the Desert, constituting what is probably the smallest church in the world. This claim was recognized by Russia, but not by Constantinople; but theologians who acknowledge it give Sinai the eighth rank.
The monastery is governed by the Hegumenos Archbishop, who bears the title of 'Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raitha' (a village on the Red Sea) and ' all honourable,' and is consecrated by the Patriarch of Jerusalem. The number of brothers was not more than a few dozen. At Cairo the monastery possessed a branch establishment (inetochia) in which the Archbishop mostly resides ; in his absence the monastery is governed by the 'Dikaios.' The monastery is famous for its library, in which among other things was found the renowned 'Codex Sinaiticus.'
Karlowitz Servian Church
The Patriarchate of Karlowitz, in Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary, was founded in 1743 and re-established in 1848. The Karlowitz Servian Church was formed of the 200,000 Serbs who in 1690 migrated from the Patriarchate of Ipek under the leadership of the Patriarch Arsenius III. Crnajevic, in the time of the Austrian Emperor Leopold I. The immigrants were granted rights of ecclesiastical and civil autonomy, confirmed in 1791 by the Reichstag. Their dependence upon the Patriarchate of Ipek came to an end with the abolition of the latter in 1766. In 1848 the Metropolitan of the Karlowitz Church received the title of Patriarch from Francis Joseph. In 1864 the Church of Hermannstadt was cut off from it, and in 1873 the Bukovino-Dalmatian Church.
By 1914 the Karlowitz archbishopric contained over a million members, 7 dioceses, and about 800 parishes. At the head of the archbishopric stands the Metropolitan-Patriarch with the title of 'Holiness', and at the head of the bishops of the 6 sees: Karlstadt, Pakrdcz, Buda, Temesvar, Versecz, and Biles. Questions of dogma are decided by a Synod consisting of all the diocesans under the presidency of the Patriarch.
The Patriarch was elected by a congress of Church and people held every three years, and exercising the right to decide all matters concerning the Church's autonomy. By the Regulation of Synod, 27th July 1911, and an edict of Francis Joseph published in June 1912, the rights of the congress were restricted, while the power of the Hierarchy was increased. The clergy were educated in the seminary at Karlowitz, established as long ago as 1792. The Archbishopric publishes a monthly journal, Bogoalovaki Glasnik ('The Herald of Theology'). By the Law of 1869 the clergy were assigned a stipend, glebe, and a tariff of fees for occasional offices.
Patriarch of Czernowitz
The Church was a powerful institution in the empire of Austria-Hungary, for its dignitaries not only enjoy large emoluments, but, as members of the Diets, they also exercise a considerable political influence. The sovereign must be a Roman Catholic. The State recognises the Roman Catholic Church, with its three "rites," the Greek Catholic Church, the Armenians, Lutherans, Calvinists, Unitarians, and Jews. The Orthodox Greek Catholics had formerly but one patriarch, who resided at Karlovci, in Syrmia; but in 1864 the Rumanians separated from the Servians, and elected a patriarch of their own, whose seat is Hermannstadt. In 1873 Government separated the dioceses of Zara and Cattaro from the patriarchate of Karlovci, and placed them under the Patriarch of Czernowitz, capital of Bukowina.
Church of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Church of Bosnia and Herzegovina had been de facto autocephalous since 28th March 1880, when an agreement was made between Austria and the Patriarchate of Constantinople, though nominally it is dependent on the Patriarchate. Down to A.D. 1766 it was under the Patriarch of Ipek, and since then under that of Constantinople. It was divided into four dioceses (Sarajevo, Mostar, Dolnja-Tuzla, Banjalnka), governed by Metropolitans. In 1910 it numbered 825,418 members. At Reliev there is a Theological College at which candidates for the priesthood are educated. Since the beginning of 1912 there has been published at Sarajevo an organ of a league of secular clergy, the Srpski SveStenik (' Servian Priest"); formerly the Archbishopric published Ittochnik ('The Source'). The ecclesiastical organization was regulated according to a Code for Churches and Schools, published on 1st Sept. 1905 by the Austrian Government, according to which a stipend is assigned to the clergy.
The Bukovina-Dalmatian Church consists of two parts, Zara and Bocca di Cattaro, the link between which is almost nominal - the Metropolitan see of the Bukovina and 2 dioceses in Dalmatia. The Metropolitan see is governed by the Archbishop of Czernowitz, who is Metropolitan of Bukovina and Dalmatia, with his throne at the town of Czernowitz ; and the dioceses of Dalmatia and Bocca di Cattaro are controlled by the bishops.
Founded in A.D. 1402, the diocese of Bukovina was at first part of the Moldavian Archbishopric ; from 1768 to 1783 it was independent; from 1783 to 1873 it was part of the Archbishopric of Karlowitz, and in 1873 it became autocephalous; and at the same time the sees of Dalmatia and Bocca di Cattaro were subordinated to it. The former was founded by Napoleon I. in 1808, the second in 1873. In the Archbishopric of Bukovina there were 535,042 members (1906) and about 330 priests; in the diocese of Dalmatia (in 1910), 89,951 members, 77 priests, 54 parishes, and 3 monasteries; and in that of Bocca di Cattaro, 31,275 souls, 64 priests, 44 parishes, and 8 monasteries. Besides these there are in Lower Austria 6859, in Bohemia and Moravia 7311, in Trieste and Styria 2949 members - altogether an Orthodox diaspora of 17,119.
In the Archbishopric of Bukovina the clergy were educated at the Theological faculty of the University of Czernowitz; in Dalmatia, in the Theological College at Zara. At Czernowitz a Rumano-Russian Candela is published. At Zara, down to 1912, there was published the Glcunik Pravoslame Dalmaiinske Crkoe ('The Herald of the Orthodox Dalmatian Church'). In Bukovina the clergy receive their stipend from the 'Fund for the Religions,' founded in 1782 ; in Dalmatia, from the treasury, according to the law of 4th Feb. 1907.
Montenegrin (Crna Corn) Church
The Montenegrin (Crna Corn) Church became autocephalons in 1766, when the Patriarchate of Ipek, of which it had been a part, was abolished. Down to 1862 it was governed by Metropolitan* who were at the same time the Princes of Montenegro. But in 1862 this theocracy came to an end, and Prince Danilo kept for himself the civil power only, and handed over the spiritual to a separate Metropolitan. At the present time the Montenegrin Church numbers some 220,000 members, and consists of two dioceses - Cetinje, governed by the Metropolitans, and Zachlumje-Rasa (since 1909), governed by a bishop. The bishops are usually consecrated in Russia. In 1909 a law was passed defining the stipend which the parochial clergy are to receive from the State. On 30th Dec. 1903 [12th Jan. 1904] there came into force a 'Constitution for the Holy Synod,' consisting of the Metropolitans, the Bishop, 2 Archimandrites, 3 Proto-presbyters, and a Secretary. On 1st [14th] Jan. 1904 was promulgated a 'Constitution for Spiritual Consistories.'
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