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House of Bourbon

The founder of the House of Bourbon (boo-bn), which governed France, Spain, the two Sicilies, Lucca and Parma, was Robert the Strong, who, in 861, became Duke of Neustria and in 866 lost his life in a battle against the Normans. Some trace his descent from Pepin l'Heristal, others from a natural son of Charlemagne and others from the kings of Lombardy. It is certain that the two sons of this Robert were kings of France. The elder, named Eudes, ascended the throne in 888 and died in 898; the younger, Robert, in 922 and died in 923. The eldest son of this Robert was Hugh the Great, Duke of the Isle of France and Count of Paris and Orleans.

Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the Great (great grandson of Robert the Strong), founded the 3d French dynasty in 987. One of his descendants, named Robert, was the root of the elder line of the dukes of Burgundy, which became extinct in 1361. A descendant of this Robert, Henry of Burgundy, was first regent of Portugal in 1095, where his legitimate descendants became extinct in 1383. Pierre de Courtenay, a descendant of Hugh Capet, in the fifth generation, was father and ancestor of many emperors of Constantinople.

The house of Anjou descended from Hugh Capet, in the eighth generation, possessed the throne of Naples for two centuries and for some time that of Hungary. Another descendant of Hugh Capet, in the 10th degree, founded the house of Navarre, which continued from 1328 to 1425. A second family of Anjou, descended from Hugh Capet, in the 13th degree, gave some distinguished princes to Provence. In the same degree, the younger line of the powerful dukes of Burgundy derived its origin from him. This line became extinct with the death of Charles the Bold, in 1477, whose successor, Maria, married Maximilian; Archduke of Austria, and became grandmother of Charles V. Robert, Earl of Clermont, second son of Saint Louis, married Beatrice, Duchess of Bourbon.

In this way the city of Bourbon Archambault, or Bourbon les Bains, in the department of Allier (formerly Bourbonnais), became the birthplace of the house of Bourbon and Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, son of Robert and Beatricej its founder. Two branches took their origin from the two sons of this Louis, Duke of Bourbon, who died in 1341. The elder line was that of the dukes of Bourbon, which became extinct at the death of the Constable of Bourbon in 1527, in the assault of the city of Rome. The younger was that of the counts of La Marche, afterward counts and dukes of Vendme. Of these, Charles, Duke of Vendme, who died in 1537 and who had been the head of the house of Bourbon since the death of the Constable, had two sons, Anthony and Louis, founders respectively of the royal line of Bourbon and of the line of Conde.

Henry, the son of Anthony, obtained the throne of France as Henry IV, when the house of Valois became extinct in 1589 by the murder of Henry III. His father had obtained the kingdom of Navarre through his wife, who inherited it, and Henry now added it to the French dominions. Anthony's younger brother Louis, Prince of Conde, was the founder of the line of Conde. There were, therefore, two chief branches of the Bourbons - the royal and that of Conde. The royal branch was divided by the two sons of Louis XIII, the elder of whom, Louis XIV, continued the chief branch, which, through his son, Louis (the Dauphin), and grandson, Philip V, was separated into the elder or royal French branch and the younger or royal Spanish branch ; while Philip, younger son of Louis XIII, founded the house of Orleans, when he received the duchy of Orleans from Louis XIV.

An able minister, the Duke of Choiseul, for a time acquired the greatest influence in the affairs of France under Louis XV. Madame de Pompadour had recalled him from the embassy at Vienna to give him, in 1758, the portfolio of foreign affairs, which he exchanged in. 1761 for that of war. Two years later he received in addition that of the navy, and had that of foreign affairs bestowed upon his cousin, the Duke of Praslin. Choiseul preserved the Austrian alliance, but he also formed another. He wished to gather together, as in a sheaf, all the branches of the house of Bourbon established in France, in Spain, in the Two Sicilies, and in Parma and Piacenza, securing to France the useful support of the Spanish navy.

The Family Pact or the Family Compact, 'Pacte de Famille,' 15 August 1761 was a secret compact made at the instigation of the Duc de Choisoul by all the crowned heads of the Bourbon race to stand together in defence of each other, and put an end to the British maritime supremacy. The family consisted of Louis XV of France, Carlos III of Spain, Ferdinand IV of Naples, and Filippo of Parma. Spain bound herself to deprive Great Britain of her commercial privileges in America, and to transfer them to France. France bound herself to aid Spain in the recovery of Gibraltar. Louis XV was the fourth of the Bourbon dynasty (founded by Henri IV); Carloe III was the fifth of the Bourbons In Spain (founded by the grandson of Louis XIV): Ferdinand IV was Carlos son; and Filippo of Parma was son of Charles de Bourbon. England immediately declared war against Spain, and wrested from her Manilla, the Philippines, Havana, twelve ships of the line, and prizes valued at 100,000,000 francs. The 'Pact' was quite effete, and was broken up by the revolution in 1789.

The Elder French Royal Line of Bourbons - The kings of the elder or French line of the house of Bourbon are as follows : Henry IV, Louis XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII and Charles X. The last sovereigns of this line were three brothers, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X (Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI, never obtained the crown), all of whom were grandsons of Louis XV. Louis XVIII had no children, but Charles X had two sons, namely : Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Angoulme, who was Dauphin till the revolution of 1830 and died without issue in 1844, and Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, who died 14 Feb. 1820, of a wound given him by a political fanatic. The Duke of Berry had two children, (1) Louise Marie Thrse, called Mademoiselle d'Artois, and afterward by marriage Duchess of Parma, died at Venice, 1 Feb. 1864; and (2) Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonn, born in 1820, and at first called Duke of Bordeaux, but afterward Count de Chambord. His mother was the Princess Caroline, daughter of Francis I, King of ihc two Sicilies. Charles X, having abdicated in favor of his grandson Henri, in 1830, and the Dauphin having renounced his claims on the French throne also in favor of the latter, the Count de Chambord was until his death in 1883 looked upon by his party as the legitimate heir to the crown of France, and was styled by them Henri V.

The Branch of the Bourbons Known as the House of Orleans - This branch raised to the throne of France by the revolution of 1830, and deprived of it by that of 1848, derives its origin from Duke Philip 1 of Orleans (d. 1701), second son of Louis XIII, and only brother of Louis XIV. By his second wife, Charlotte of the Palatinate, he left as his successor in the dukedom his son Philip, known as Duke of Chartres during his father's lifetime, and was regent of France during the minority of Louis XV. Philip, second duke, was succeeded by his son, Louis Philip (b. 1703), who married a princess of Baden and died in retirement in 1752, leaving a son of the same name, Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, who was born in 1725 and died in 1785. The son of the last-mentioned duke was Louis Joseph Philip, the Duke of Orleans, whose name figures in the first French revolution, who perished on the scaffold in 1793, after he had laid aside his princely name the year before and assumed that of "Citizen Egalit." He left four children: (1) Louis Philip, before the revolution Duke of Chartres, after his father's death Duke of Orleans, from 1830 to 1848 rung of France, died 26 Aug. 1850, leaving a numerous family; (2) the Duke of Montpensicr, who died in England in 1807; (3) the Count de Beaujolais, who died at Malta in 1808; and (4) a daughter, Adelaide, Mademoiselle d'Orlans, born in 1777, died 31 Dec. 1847. The eldest son of King Louis Philip was Ferdinand, Duke of Orleans (b. 1810, d. 1842), who married a daughter of Frederick Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and left two sons: (1) Louis Philip, Count de Paris, b. Paris, 24 Aug. 1838; and (2) Robert, Duke of Chartres, b. Paris 1840. Louis Philip having abdicated in favor of the former in 1848, the Comte de Paris till his death in 1894 was looked upon by the Orleanists as the true heir to the throne. He was married to his cousin, Isabella, a daughter of the Duke of Montpensier, and left issue. His son, the Duke of Orleans, was regarded by the Monarchists as the legitimate heir to the throne.

The Spanish-Bourbon Dynasty - In 1700 Louis XIV placed his grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, on the Spanish throne, who as Philip V founded the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. Philip V was succeeded in 1746 by his son, Ferdinand VI, who, dying in 1759 without heirs, was succeeded by his brother, Charles III. To him succeeded (1788) his son Charles IV, who, in 1808, resigned the throne in favor of a successor nominated by Napoleon, and died at Naples in 1819. His son Fernando, Prince of the Asturias, obtained the crown on the fall of Napoleon and reigned as Ferdinand VII, dying 29 Sept. 1833, and leaving behind him two daughters by his third marriage, the elder of whom succeeded him as Isabella II. She was married, in 1846, to her cousin Francisco de Assis. In 1868 she had to leave Spain in consequence of the revolution, and in 1870 she renounced her claims to the throne in favor of her son Alphonse, who became Alphonso XII, and died in 1885, his son, Alphonso XIII, succeeding him.

The Royal Line of the Two Sicilies - The Two Sicilies being then a possession of the Spanish monarchy, in 1735 Don Carlos, the younger son of Philip V of Spain, obtained the crown and reigned over Sicily and Naples as Charles III. In 1759, however, he succeeded his brother Ferdinand VI on the Spanish throne when he transferred the Two Sicilies to his third son Fernando (Ferdinand IV), on the express condition that this crown should not be again united with Spain. Ferdinand IV had to leave Naples in 1806; but after the fall of Napoleon he again became king of both Sicilies under the title of Ferdinand I. He was succeeded by his son Francis I in 1825 ; Francis was succeeded by his son Ferdinand II in 1830; and the latter was succeeded by his son Francis II in 1859, who was deprived of the kingdom in 1860.

The Ducal Line of Parma - This line, like that of the Two Sicilies, was founded by a son of Philip V of Spain, namely: Don Philip, his youngest son, who obtained the duchies of Parma and Piaccnza in 1748. Louis, grandson of Don Philip, obtained Tuscany likewise (1802), with the title of King of Etruria. The family did not long retain this honor, however, being soon forced by the power of France to give up not only Etrnria, but also Parma and Piacenza; was not till 1847 that there was again a Bourbon Duke of Parma. In 1859 the reigning Duke, Robert, had to leave his dominions, which were soon incorporated in the kingdom of Italy.

Bourbonnais, a province and government of old France, with the title, first of a county and afterward of a duchy, lying between the Nivernais, Berry and Burgundy. It now forms the departments of Allier, Cher and Nivre. It derived its name from the small town Bourbon 1'Archambault, from which the Bourbon family received their title. It formed the duchy of Bourbon for 200 years after 1327, and at the end of that period was annexed by the Crown. In 1661 the king gave it to the noble house of Bourbon-Conde, from whom it was taken at the Revolution.

Bourbon Whisky is a term applied to Kentucky whisky made from a mixture of corn, rye and malt, of which the corn constitutes the larger part. In its distillation some of the oils and acids are allowed to remain. These, with age, undergo chemical action and are converted into aromatic ethers. Genuine whiskeys are of three different types: American, Scotch, and Irish. They differ vastly in flavor, body and color. In the United States two distinctive types of whiskey are produced, namely, rye and Bourbon. The grain used for manufacturing rye whiskey is a mixture of rye malt or barley malt and unmalted rye. Bourbon whiskey was originally prepared in Bourbon County, Kentucky, and is made from barley malt or wheat malt and maize (Indian corn). Some whiskeys are designated as "sour mash" whiskeys. In their preparation, the raw material is "scalded," or mashed with spent beer, namely the liquid portion that remains from the distillation of a previous mash. In distinction, a "sweet mash" whiskey is one where fresh water is employed.

The characteristic Scotch whiskey is made from barley malt, and is usually termed pot-still whiskey, owing to the old- fashioned style of still used in its distillation. The geniune Scotch whiskeys are characterized by a peculiar smoky flavor and taste, which originate from the employment of various kinds of peat as fuel for curing, namely kiln-drying, the malt. This peculiarity distinguishes the genuine Scotch whiskeys from all other types. The other type is called patent-still, or grain whiskey. It is made from barley malt and unmalted cereals, mostly corn imported from the United States. Rye and oats also are sometimes used. The patent-still whiskeys lack this smoky flavor and taste. Most of the Irish whiskey is of the pot-still type. It is usually prepared from 30 to 50 per cent barley malt, the remainder being rye, barley, oats, wheat or a mixture thereof. The malt is not peat cured and the resulting whiskeys have a characteristic clean flavor and an ethereal bouquet. They are very "dry," namely alcoholic in taste.

Bourbon Democrats were the "straight out" democrats who held obstinately to the old ways - Hard-shell Hunkerism, Peace at any Price, and no "new departure" or fusion with any parties, were called Bourbons in 1872. Hunkers were the democrats of the School of Dickinson, Bronson, Marcy, and Horatio Seymour in New York. Derived from the German Junker. Bourbon Democrat's would not support Horace Greeley. For the old- time, dyed-in-the-wool, straight-out, Bourbon democrats, Mr. Greeley was too bitter a pill for them to swallow even though sugar-coated with a national democratic nomination. The name Bourbon Democrat was used according to their Republican opponents, in reference to Democrats, especially those of the South, who like the three Bourbon dynasties of Europe - who had "forgotten nothing, and learned nothing," since the War. In most of the Southern States, if not all, there were so few white Republicans that it was easy for the Bourbon Democrats to keep both the white Republican and negro in subjection.

Violent demonorations in the South in the decade after the Civil War were the direct result of an organized effort to renew and revive, in everything but name, the lost cause of the late confederacy. While the leaders of the late rebellion outwardly proffessed a friendly regard for the National Government and its supporters, tbey secretly hated and despised the same. The cruel and cowardly assaults upon the colored race by the White League conspirators were countenanced or encouraged by the leaders of the Democratic Party of the South, and were but further manifestations of the spirit and purpose so prevalent, virtually to restore the "lost cause," to which the Democratic Party in the South was still ardently and devotedly attached. The so-called "high-toned" Bourbon democrats or "conservatives." who openly denounced the acts of the "White League" Ku-Klux Klan were secretly the prime movers and instigators of all snch outrages. The false and slanderous cry of "fraud, corruption, and thievery" indiscriminately charged upon "carpet-baggers" by the Bourbon democracy of the South invited the grossest acts of violence on the part of unscrupulous rebels, Ku-Klux, and White-Leaguers.

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Page last modified: 11-07-2011 02:59:55 ZULU