Motoren und Turbinen Union (MTU)
Modern aero engine concepts set very high technology standards for the component design. This is particularly true for turbines getting smaller in an increasingly hot environment. Precise control of the air system, the clearances and the deformations of the hardware become on important contributor to the overall performance and the life of the turbine. This situation suggests attempting an integrated approach to the aero/mechanical design. Analytical and experimental experience from an advanced technology gas generator programm is used to define the requirements on the engineering sciences involved. Some aerodynamic, performance and cooling problems to be solved in a common approach with the mechanical design for radial clearance control, hot gas path sealing and life are discussed.
MTU Aero Engines is the global Number One independent provider of commercial aero engine maintenance services. With its three locations in Germany and a global workforce of about 7,500 employees, MTU Aero Engines is Germany's leading engine manufacturer and a strong player in the development, manufacturing and repair of commercial and military engines, both nationally and internationally. MTU boasts systems integration capability for commercial and military engines and aeroderivative industrial gas turbines and keep strengthening our world-class position by forging worldwide partnerships.
MTU Aero Engines is the German industrial lead company for practically all aircraft engines operated by the country's military. The company provides the enabling technologies, develops and manufactures engines, engine components and the required tooling, and delivers the entire spectrum of integrated logistic support (ILS). MTU's service portfolio comprises the development of maintenance, facility and training concepts, continuous product monitoring and improvement, generation of the technical documentation, spare parts requirements prognostics and on-site support.
Over the decades, MTU has taken major roles in the progress of aircraft engines. And it still does: it is Germany's leading engine manufacturer and a firmly established player in the international engine league. It designs, develops, manufactures, markets and supports commercial and military aircraft engines as well as industrial gas turbines. Its product mix spans the entire engine, giving the company full engine competence. Its products are found in all thrust and power classes and include essential components and subsystem, such as compressors, combustors and turbines. In commercial propulsion, MTU is the most eligible partner to the world's major engine manufacturers, and the largest independent provider of commercial engine maintenance services worldwide. It excels in low-pressure turbines and high-pressure compressors as well as in manufacturing and repair techniques. MTU has a global presence, operating affiliates in the world's major regions, even if its heart still beats in the northwest of Munich.
In the military arena, it is Germany's industrial lead company for practically all engines flown by the country's military. It leads in essential engine technologies and in cooperation with the major players in the industry develops engines to power future aircraft. In the military arena, MTU Aero Engines has for decades been the German industrial lead partner for practically all engines flown by the German armed forces. It offers a wide array of services, providing enabling technologies, developing and manufacturing engines and engine components, carrying out repairs and providing customer training. The propulsion systems MTU provides are of the highest quality.
A joint MTU, Rolls-Royce, Avio and ITP effort, the EJ200 is an advanced engine powering the Eurofighter and its export version Typhoon. It is a brand new two-shaft turbofan engine in the 90kN thrust category. MTU's production share is 30% and comprises the low- and high-pressure compressors, electronic control unit, plus work on the high-pressure turbine as well as assembly and testing of the engines for the German air force.
Developed and manufactured jointly by MTU, Rolls-Royce and FiatAvio (now: Avio) since 1969, the RB199 engine powers the Tornado multirole combat aircraft. It is a three-shaft turbofan engine delivering a thrust of 72 kN. With a total of 2,504 copies having been shipped, the engine has since aggregated over 5.5 million flying hours. MTU's role in this highly successful engine includes the intermediate- and high-pressure compressors, external gearbox, intermediate-pressure turbine, intermediate casing, thrust reverser and bypass casing. For the German and Italian air forces the company developed the DECU 2020 engine control unit.
The Larzac 04 is a two-shaft turbofan engine. It was manufactured by MTU together with the French engine makers Snecma Moteurs and Turbomeca as well as Germany's Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD) since 1975. The Larzac 04 powered the Alpha Jet light fighter. By the time the Alpha Jets of the German air force were retired in 1997, engines had been delivered for over 500 of the fighters. MTU's stake in the production and support of the engine primarily includes the hot section from combustor inlet to turbine exit. Today, MTU with its partners Rolls-Royce Deutschland, Snecma Group and Turbomeca still manufactures spare parts for the French air force's requirements.
The development of the advanced TP400-D6 military engine is shared by ITP, MTU Aero Engines, Rolls-Royce and Snecma Moteurs. The partners have launched a joint company, Europrop International (EPI), to develop, manufacture and support the TP400-D6. The TP400-D6 powers the A400M military transport, which has sucessfully completed it's first flight on December 11 2009 in Seville, Spain. MTU is responsible for the TP400-D6's intermediate-pressure compressor, intermediate-pressure turbine and intermediate-pressure shaft and has a stake in the engine control unit. The company also does the final assembly and testing of all TP400-D6s built in Europe, at its MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg facility.
The Tyne Mk 21/22 turboprop engine, delivering 4100 kW, powers the Transall military transport and the Breguet Atlantic reconnaissance/antisubmarine warfare aircraft. The commercial version of the Tyne is used in the freight planes CL44 Vanguard and Short Belfast freighter aircraft. So far, the Tyne is the most powerful propeller engine of the Western world. 470 engines of this type were built under license from Rolls-Royce at MTU and its predecessor M.A.N. Turbo from 1966 to 1972. MTU still provides maintenance and repair services for the Tyne. Together with its partners Rolls-Royce and Snecma Group the company is manufacturing spare parts for the German and French air forces.
Developed in cooperation with Turbomeca and Rolls-Royce, the MTR390 is a turboshaft engine featuring a free power turbine. It is used on the French-German escort and anti-tank Tiger helicopter. The MTR390 development phase having successfully been completed, a 332-engine procurement contract was awarded in 2000. First export customers are Australia and Spain. For Spain, an uprated version of the engine, the MTR390 Enhanced, is being developed. MTU's stake in the engine includes the core engine with its combustor and gas generator turbine, and a number of accessories.
MTU Aero Engines is a long-standing German company with roots reaching back to the dawn of aviation. Predecessor companies Rapp Motorenwerke, Daimler and Benz-pioneers of powered flight-equipped the first powered airplanes. In 1934, BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH was founded, based in Munich-Allach. It is the legal predecessor of MTU Aero Engines, with the location remaining the same to this day. Forming its nucleus was Rapp Motorenwerke, set up in 1913 by aviation pioneer Karl Rapp in Munich-Milbertshofen. That company in 1917 became BMW AG, which in 1934 spun off its aircraft engine activities to protect its automobile and motorcycle production from the clutches of the National Socialists. That move gave rise to BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH.
The Reich's Aviation Ministry provided the fledgling aircraft engine company with ample commercial and notably military orders. In late 1934/early 1935, the ministry instructed BMW to build an alternative factory for the production of aircraft engines somewhere in the vicinity of Munich. Picked for the purpose was a 100-hectare plot to the northeast of the city, near the communities of Ludwigsfeld and Allach, where construction was started in 1936. Production began with the maintenance of BMW 132 aircraft engines. In 1940/1941, the site was expanded to accommodate full-scale production of the BMW 801, Germany's first double-row radial engine.
Toward the end of World War II, some 18,000 people worked at BMW's Allach factory, among them prisoners of war, forced and foreign labor, as well as inmates from the Dachau concentration camp. In its immediate vicinity, the company built four residential facilities for its workers. In end-April 1945, U.S. troops occupied the company premises. The end of World War II also spelled the end of German aircraft engine production for the time being. At the Karlsfeld Ordnance Depot (KOD), work was restricted to the repair of U.S. Army vehicles, which continued into the mid 1950s.
Things changed in 1954, when the general political situation allowed German aircraft engine production to resume and BMW launched Munich-based BMW Triebwerkbau GmbH. Work has proceeded since 1955 on an area about half its former size, 561,000 square meters in the northern part of the Allach factory grounds having been sold to M.A.N. AG, which had shifted its commercial vehicle production from Nuremberg to Munich.
In 1958, Germany saw the beginning of a significant military aircraft procurement phase. BMW Triebwerkbau GmbH launched into engine production and in 1962 began manufacturing General Electric J79 engines powering the Lockheed F-104G Starfighter under license. To line up financing for the work, the company raised its capital stock from 10 million to 20 million deutschmarks. BMW, the sole owner at the time, being unable to come up with the necessary capital, M.A.N. AG Augsburg acquired 50 percent of the company. The company had been operating its own aircraft engine development firm at Allach, which in mid-1965 merged with BMW Triebwerkbau to become M.A.N. Turbo GmbH. BMW then completely exited the aircraft engine business to fully focus on its automobile and motorcycle production activities. The new company won contracts to manufacture Tyne engines under license from Rolls-Royce. That engine powers the Breguet Atlantic maritime patrol and antisubmarine aircraft and the C-160 Transall airlifter.
In 1968, Great Britain, Italy and Germany resolved to jointly build a combat aircraft, the Panavia Tornado. Upon request of the German Ministry of Defense, Entwicklungsgesellschaft für Turbomotoren GmbH was formed in Munich, in which M.A.N. Turbo and Daimler- Benz AG were holding a 50 percent stake each. Among its first priorities was the development of an engine to power the Tornado, the RB199-34R. To this very date, that engine remains MTU's most successful military program.
In 1969, the company was styled Motoren- und Turbinen-Union München GmbH M.A.N. Maybach Mercedes-Benz. Briefly: MTU München. It based on an agreement between Daimler-Benz and M.A.N. stipulating the amalgamation of the two companies' aircraft engine and high-speed diesel engine activities, for which purpose MTU München (aircraft engines) and MTU Friedrichshafen (diesel engines) were created.
In the 1970s, the development of commercial engines was rapidly gaining ground. MTU entered the commercial engine field in 1971, concluding a cooperation agreement with GE that covered the manufacture of parts for the CF6-50 engine powering the Airbus A300 aircraft. Commercial aviation was increasingly gaining momentum and the growing demand for the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) of commercial engines in 1979 prompted the launch of MTU Maintenance Hannover in Langenhagen. The company was officially inaugurated in 1981. The move catapulted MTU into full-scale commercial MRO and created a separate company segment alongside original equipment manufacturing (OEM) and military repair. In 1985, M.A.N. withdrew from the company, selling its 50 percent stake to Daimler-Benz AG. That made the automaker the sole owner of the MTU Group, which began cooperating with Pratt & Whitney Canada that same year.
In 1989, the German aerospace scene was reshuffled. Deutsche Aerospace AG (DASA) was created in Munich, with the major entities of the industry all folded into it, including MTU. In 1991, the engine builder stepped up relationships with the overseas industry, signing with Pratt & Whitney's parent, United Technologies Corporation (UTC) in Hartford, Connecticut, a strategic alliance agreement that still stands today: the two parties commit to involve the respective other party as a preferred partner in all forthcoming commercial engine programs.
In Germany, too, the company kept marching ahead. MTU München set up a new shop in the vicinity of Berlin through the takeover of state-owned VEB Luftfahrttechnik Ludwigsfelde (LTL). That made MTU Maintenance Ludwigsfelde GmbH-the name of the new affiliate, since renamed MTU Maintenance Berlin- Brandenburg-the second commercial engine MRO shop of the Munich-based engine manufacturer. MTU kept expanding, establishing MTU Maintenance Malaysia near Kuala Lumpur. The company has since been renamed Airfoil Services Sdn. Bhd. and become a joint venture with Lufthansa Technik.
In the years after, MTU München launched further MRO shops in Canada, Brazil (today an independent operation) and China. Established also was an affiliate providing engineering and technology services-ATENA-, which is now owned by France's AssystemBrime. In the U.S., two further MTU operations were founded, of which one was a development setup and the other a manufacturing operation. They have since been merged to become MTU Aero Engines North America (MTU AENA).
In 2000, EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company) was founded in Amsterdam, and DASA was incorporated into it, but not MTU München, which became a wholly-owned DaimlerChrysler unit and was renamed MTU Aero Engines GmbH.
In 2003, DaimlerChrysler sold the company to Kohlberg, Kravis & Roberts (KKR). The U.S.-based private equity company successfully took the company public and two years later withdrew from it altogether, selling its entire holding. Today, the company is widely held. In 2008, it established a third brand in addition to MTU Aero Engines and MTU Maintenance: MTU Aero Solutions, which is intended to market the company's top products and services also outside aerospace. That same year, expansion continued; a new facility is being constructed in Poland to serve development, manufacturing and maintenance functions.
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