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Europe - Anti-Aircraft Artillery AAA

The first known aerial shooting was carried out on June 13, 1794 in France, when Austrian field artillery fired at a French balloon. In 1870, the world's first actual anti-aircraft cannon was completed in Germany.

Air defense operations include all defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earths envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Air defense operations provide the basis for force protection against attacks by enemy aircraft and missiles. However, air defense operations cannot be viewed as purely defensive. Integrating air defenses helps maintain local air superiority, allowing friendly forces freedom of action unconfined by attacks by the enemys air and missile forces.

Defensive counterair (DCA) is all defensive measures designed to detect, identify, intercept, and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to attack or penetrate the friendly air environment. Examples of DCA missions are area defense, point defense, and high value airborne asset (HVAA) combat air patrol (CAP). Air defense is principally reactive. Employment of air defense fires depends on actions by enemy aircraft and missiles. MAGTF air defense operations use the three principles of antiair warfare destruction-in-depth, mutual support, and centralized command and decentralized control to provide a responsive, integrated air defense capability to protect vital assets.

Effective air defense combines and synchronizes the actions of all available air defense assets to form an integrated air defense system (IADS). Although the MAGTF does not have a medium-range, mediumaltitude radar SAM, it can field an organic IADS of air command and control facilities, aircraft, and short range air defense (SHORAD) surface-to-air weapons.

An Anti-aircraft System can be divided into two components: the control system and the weapons system. The control system is integrated nationwide, and information passes to and fro between the air force control centres and posts and the anti-aircraft control and weapon units. Fire control on a resource and safety basis is the responsibility of the air force within the air defence fire control system, and basic shooting techniques and tactics that of the regimental control centers in the strategic target areas and the battalion control centres in the army units.

The key functional components are the air surveillance system, the air situation display system and the communications or signals system. Tactical management follows the operational order of battle. The weaponry consists of gun and missile systems, which are categorized into close-range, medium-range, or target protection, and long-range, or area protection systems. The antiaircraft system comprises all of these components at present, and most of them are modern.

In the 1980s, modern air defense methods changed with each passing day as the air threat increased. Compared with various types of air defense missiles, traditional antiaircraft artillery also entered a new stage. Based on the new thinking of air defense in European and American countries, it was believed that the best caliber of field anti-aircraft artillery should be 30-35 mm, and a 30-mm antiaircraft artillery standard was formed under the Soviet system. Although the West does not have a unified standard, the performance of the Oerlikon 35mm anti-aircraft artillery is excellent. Countries naturally used this as the standard to build their own anti-aircraft artillery, such as the British "Marksman", German "Cheetah", Dutch "Caesar" and so on.

Among the small and medium caliber antiaircraft artillery after the war, Oerlikons 20mm and Boforss 40mm can be said to dominate the world. Oerlikon knows that it is difficult to compete with Bofors for the market with a small-caliber anti-aircraft gun like 20mm. In addition to 20mm, Oerlikon also had 25mm and 30mm anti-aircraft gun models. In the 1950s, Oerion Corporation confirmed that the 35mm' caliber is the most suitable for the next generation of anti-aircraft guns, so it developed the MK 352 35mm anti-aircraft gun based on the KAA 204GK 20mm anti-aircraft gun.

Air defense assets are employed based on the intelligence estimate of the threat, air defense priorities, AAW and air defense principles, and air defense employment principles and guidelines. Aircraft, surface-to-air weapons, and command and control agencies that make up the MAGTFs IADS, and their supporting intelligence, electronic warfare, and communications support are employed based on the enemy air threat to the MAGTFs vital areas. Vital areas can be areas where there are sources of strength centers of gravity that need to be protected from air and missile attack or they can be a vulnerability that needs additional defense to prevent them from becoming a critical vulnerability.

Weapons control and coordination involves selecting and assigning the appropriate weapon to a particular air track and directing, controlling, and coordinating weapons employment. Weapons assignment depends on the identified target position and the position of available air defense weapons. Through effective integration and coordination, engagement and weapons use can occur across sector boundaries. Air defense actions should focus on engaging targets that pose the greatest, immediate threat as soon as possible with the first weapons system either available or capable of destroying them. These engagements should occur as far from the vital area as practical without compromising mutual support within the IADS.



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Page last modified: 30-06-2021 12:04:10 ZULU