Chinese Navy - PG Missile Boat
The missile boat is an anti-ship missile as the main weapon used for small combat ships in offshore operations. In addition to performing missions, it can also take on other tasks such as patrol, alert, anti-submarine, and mine-laying. It has replaced the role of torpedo boats in surface operations. The very first combat use showed that the new weapon radically changed the tactics and views on its use at sea. The foundation was laid for a new direction of tactical thought, which was then transferred to other kinds of forces - the concept of naval combat lost the traditional meaning inherent in it from the outbreak of war at sea.
The missile boat has a small tonnage, high speed and flexibility, and the displacement is usually tens of tons to hundreds of tons. The speed of navigation is 30 to 40 knots, some can reach 50 knots, and the cruising capacity is 500-3000 nautical miles. The boat is equipped with 2 to 8 anti-ship missiles. Some boats are also equipped with 20 to 76 mm caliber guns. Tonnage boats with larger tonnage may also contain torpedoes, mines, deep-water bombs and ship-to-air missiles. The matching sensing system includes search, detection, weapon control, communication and navigation, and electronic warfare.
According to various sources, the USSR was the first country involved in the design and construction of missile boats . Officially, the first missile boat was adopted in 1960. These were maneuverable, high-speed boats 183P Komar, armed with 2 rockets. The next was the project 205 "Mosquito" ("Osa" according to NATO classification ), already equipped with 4 P-15 missiles. The second country, which acquired its own missile boats, was Israel , based on the project of a German torpedo boat of the Jaguar type, boats were built in France, and missile weapons were of Israeli design. These were boats of the Saar-3 type ; they went into operation in 1967-1968.
The first use of the missile boat was on October 20-21, 1963. Two Soviet-provided 100-ton Koma-class missile boats from the Egyptian Navy used the Styx anti-ship missile to sink Israel's 2000-ton Eilat destroyer. The west was greatly shocked by this incident.
The first missile battle between missile boats was the Battle of Latakia that occurred between Israel, Egypt and Syria on October 6, 1973 during the Fourth Middle East War . In this battle, Israeli missile boats engaged with Syrian torpedo boats and minesweeper boats , then engaged with Syrian missile boats that rushed to support and sank five Syrian missile boats. After completing the battle, the Israeli missile boat called at the port, but sailed again after obtaining information that the Egyptian missile boat was attacking the Israeli ship. In this battle, three missile ships in Egypt were sunk by missiles. In this battle, about 50 Gabriel SSMs and almost the same number of P-15 SSMs were fired. The missiles used in the two battles were active radar homing on the Arab P-15 and semi-active radar homing on the Israeli Gabriel. The P-15 had a longer range than Gabriel and did not require guidance after launch, but was vulnerable to ECM and chaff, so it was not possible to hit even one shot.
Since then, missile boats have been widely used in local wars, and the results have been outstanding, and they have been valued by more and more countries. Israel later learned the painful lessons of this battle, developed the poisonous bee-class missile boat and its carrying angel missiles, and successfully countered the Egyptian navy in the Yom Kippur War.
Initially, missile boats were converted torpedo boats. The method of "removing torpedoes - putting rockets" was common in the construction of all types. However, during operation, new requirements took shape. The main weapon - the rocket - has become more sensitive to the conditions of detention and use. Therefore, it was necessary to create launchers specifically for ship conditions. For example, a Project 183P boat carried rockets in hangars. Project 205 / 205U, during the modification, changed the hangars to containers, providing missiles with an acceptable climate. Climate control systems were also needed. Accordingly, the launchers became heavier and bigger.
When a rocket is launched, reactive gases are formed. It took their withdrawal and protection of the crew and the main systems. The design of the superstructure and deck areas has changed. The range of missiles means that launches are carried out mainly outside of visual detection. Mandatory was the installation of radar detection and control of weapons. New missile boat projects began to use a systematic approach , considering the boat and weapons as interconnected parts of one whole. The displacement and specific gravity of the auxiliary mechanisms providing electronics has increased.
In recent years, low-detectability technology has begun to be widely applied to ships. Most of the newly developed missile boats have begun to adopt bevel design and absorption radar wave materials. Because the missile boats pay attention to speed, many of them have adopted the design of high-speed ship hulls such as catamaran, hovercraft, hydrofoil, etc.
The international mainstream missile boats include the Lijiang River of the Republic of China Navy, the Guanghua No. 6 missile boat of the Republic of China, the Norwegian Navy's Skjold-class missile boat, the US Navy's Pegasus-class hydrofoil, and the Soviet Navy's Koma. Class missile boats, Osa-class missile boats, Tarantula-class frigates, etc. By 2008, they, or missile corvettes, had 69 countries, including all the Middle East. Moreover, 19 of these countries have 10 or less warships, including boats. The exact number of boats is difficult to calculate, both because of their frequent conversion and because of the characteristics of the national classification, it ranges from 450-520 units.
Great striking power at a modest cost made rocket boats extremely attractive, especially for small fleets. Since the offensive potential of the missile launcher is much higher than the defensive, survival under retaliation is extremely doubtful. Naval combat - the impact on the enemy and the defense against its impact - became irrational, and they began to avoid it.
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