AGS Hydrographic Survey Ship
Hydrographic surveyors study bodies of water to see what the "floor" looks like. The hydrographic survey is intended to investigate water depths, coastline configuration, rock locations and heights, and submarine geology. The survey results are recorded in nautical charts and every waterway related publication, for the purpose of the use in the safety of navigation, port construction, and marine development.
The expense of sending a surveying ship to sea is such that the hydrographic surveyor who is lucky enough to be provided with suitable craft would be failing his country if he did not arrange to take additional observations under way of an oceanographic nature; these will throw much extra light on the nature of the floor of the ocean beyond the simple fact of its depth beneath the surface.
Hydrography is the science that measures and describes the physical features of the navigable portion of the Earth's surface and adjoining coastal areas. Bathymetry is the measurement and characterization of the seafloor's depth and features. Bathymetric products will primarily depict the depth and topography of the seafloor. Hydrography is more specialized in that it describes depth and bottom features (i.e., wrecks, tidal affects, coastal features, and navigational aides) in navigable waterways for the purposes of aiding the safe navigation of vessels.
Hydrographic or nautical charts show the depths of water, natures of bottom, contours of bottom coastline, or tides and currents in a given sea or sea and land area. These charts are also referred to as marine maps. Standard hydrographic products support safe navigation of the world's waters, by focusing on near-land and near-sea floor information.
The hydrographic survey is intended to investigate water depths, coastline configuration, rock locations and heights, and submarine geology. The survey results are recorded in nautical charts and every waterway related publication, for the purpose of the use in the safety of navigation, port construction, and marine development. A Harbor survey is intended for the safe navigation of vessels near ports and their surroundings. Passage survey is intended for safe navigation in main sea lanes. Coastal survey is intended for safe navigation and gaining knowledge about the bottom topography, sea-bottom sediments, and more in offshore waters. The survey for correction (general hydrographic survey) is designed to measure water depths, coastlines, and geological features after dredging, artificial fish-reef installation, and such, and change waterway related publications such as nautical charts accordingly.
Hydrography is the science that measures and describes the physical features of bodies of water and the land areas adjacent to those bodies of water. Surveying with multibeam echo sounders is the primary method of obtaining hydrographic data. By mapping out water depth, the shape of the seafloor and coastline, the location of possible obstructions and physical features of water bodies, hydrography helps to keep the maritime transportation system moving safely and efficiently. Multibeam echo sounder beams sweep the seafloor as the ship passes over the survey area. Multibeam echo sounder beams bounce off the seafloor and return to the ship where the depth is recorded.
Many national hydrographic offices have a direct responsibility for supplying the charting requirements of their respective navies which increasingly use submarines. The national hydrographic office as being responsible for providing not only charts to satisfy the needs of surface navigation, but also base charts of the oceans and seas.
Oceanography covers a wide range of topics, including marine life and ecosystems, ocean circulation, plate tectonics and the geology of the seafloor, and the chemical and physical properties of the ocean. Just as there are many specialties within the medical field, there are many disciplines within oceanography.
Some speak of ‘oceanology’ when referring to oceanographic research and ‘descriptive oceanography’ when referring to oceanographic surveying. Physical oceanographers study the physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean such as waves, currents, eddies, gyres and tides; the transport of sand on and off beaches; coastal erosion; and the interactions of the atmosphere and the ocean. They examine deep currents, the ocean-atmosphere relationship that influences weather and climate, the transmission of light and sound through water, and the ocean's interactions with its boundaries at the seafloor and the coast.
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