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AGI Electronic Reconnaissance Ship

The electronic reconnaissance ship is a naval service ship used for electronic technology reconnaissance. The electromagnetic signals and data collected by the electronic reconnaissance ship are very important for deciphering enemy encryption signals, exploring the law of enemy communication frequency bands, and studying targeted interference methods. The role. The full-load displacement is generally more than 500 tons, the large-scale is about 4,000 tons, and the speed is less than 20 knots. It can carry out electronic reconnaissance on harbor targets or marine vessels on the ocean for a long time. Due to the high requirements for electronic equipment development and shipbuilding, the countries that have the ability to build electronic reconnaissance vessels are very rare. Only China, the United States, Russia, Japan and some European countries can rely on their own strength to build electronic reconnaissance vessels.

As one of the two superpowers, the Soviet Union once owned the largest reconnaissance fleet in the world. With reference to the statistics of the United States and NATO, there are more than ten kinds of vessels that are openly performing reconnaissance missions in the Soviet Union. There are tens of thousands of people involved in intelligence gathering and analysis. The "Ural"-class large reconnaissance ship of the Soviet reconnaissance ship, built on the hull of its Kirov-class nuclear-powered cruiser, has almost unlimited endurance. Its huge hull can accommodate larger antenna arrays and signal collection systems, which were once considered an important part of the Soviet global strategy. It was only with the disintegration of the Soviet Union that Russia was underfunded and the ship disappeared from the major oceans.

The US Navy also has a large number of reconnaissance vessels for controlling the global ocean. These vessels are nominally affiliated with the US Navy Sea Command, and are generally operated in the name of marine survey vessels, such as the well-known ocean. The survey ship is this category. They are equipped with a relatively complete intelligence reconnaissance system, with strong intelligence information and the ability to collect hydrological and geographical information. The largest reconnaissance ship in the United States is the "Observation Island", which has a full-load displacement of nearly 20,000 tons and is equipped with a large phased array radar, which can detect missile test data more accurately.

All countries have the right to conduct military surveillance operations in international waters outside the territorial sea of 12 nautical miles. under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, all countries have the right to conduct military surveillance operations in international waters outside a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles. China is particularly interested in how the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Forces can cooperate with the US and Australian forces. China has monitored Indian naval bases in the Indian Ocean region in Andaman and Nicobar Islands through its advanced surveillance vessels.

The electronic reconnaissance ship is a naval service ship used for electronic technology reconnaissance. The electromagnetic signals and data collected by the electronic reconnaissance ship are very important for deciphering enemy encryption signals, exploring the law of enemy communication frequency bands, and studying targeted interference methods. The role. The full-load displacement is generally more than 500 tons, the large-scale is about 4,000 tons, and the speed is less than 20 knots. It can carry out electronic reconnaissance on harbor targets or marine vessels on the ocean for a long time. Due to the high requirements for electronic equipment development and shipbuilding, the countries that have the ability to build electronic reconnaissance vessels are very rare. Only China, the United States, Russia, Japan and some European countries can rely on their own strength to build electronic reconnaissance vessels.

The electronic reconnaissance ship is a naval service ship used for electronic technology reconnaissance. It is equipped with radio receivers, radar receivers, terminal demodulation and recording equipment, signal analysis instruments and receiving antennas in various frequency bands , and some are equipped with electronic interference equipment [ie, jammers].

The electromagnetic wave signals emitted by the equipment are prepared, the technical parameters and tactical performance of these electronic devices are ascertained, and military information such as radio communication and radar matching of the other party is obtained. The full-load displacement is generally more than 500 tons, the large-scale is about 4,000 tons, and the speed is less than 20 knots. It can carry out electronic reconnaissance on harbor targets or marine vessels on the ocean for a long time. However, its reconnaissance activities are greatly affected by marine hydrometeorological conditions, and its self-defense ability is weak. It is vulnerable to sea and air attacks during wartime (so some important parts and equipment of electronic reconnaissance ships are equipped with self-destruction devices). In order to conceal attempts, electronic reconnaissance ships are pretending to be trawlers, marine survey vessels, scientific research vessels or merchant ships. The electronic reconnaissance vessels of the Soviet Navy were mostly converted from trawlers. They were also specially built. There are often several electronic reconnaissance vessels operating in various oceans. The US Navy's electronic reconnaissance ships were mostly converted from old ships.

SIGnal INTelligence (SIGINT) can be data gathered through signal interception or analysis. SIGINT can be broken into two broad categories: (1) COMmunications INTelligence (COMINT) and (2) ELectronic signal INTelligence (ELINT). COMINT deals with data gleaned from messages or voice information, while ELINT deals with data gleaned from non-communication sensors (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors).

Exploiting SIGINT to determine a location of an emitter is a common practice. Stationary emitters can be integrated over time to achieve improved accuracy and can present a less challenging version of a problem solved using a technique disclosed herein.

Moving emitters are more challenging because, at least in part, the uncertainty in motion of the emitter. The motion of the emitter can limit the ability to integrate over time. A situation that can be even more challenging can include associating a SIGINT signal to a moving emitter in an environment with a high density of moving emitters that are emitting SIGINT signals. The challenge is due to, at least in part, the combination of large confidence regions associated with estimated locations of the emitters. The large confidence region can be due to motion of the emitter and ambiguity that can be caused by multiple emitters, such as by confidence regions (e.g., residual regions or ellipses) associated with a location where a SIGINT signal originated including multiple emitters. The large confidence region can encompass many emitters simultaneously, thus making the association of a SIGINT event with a track (e.g., a tracklet extracted from video data) not deterministic.

Another complication to associating a SIGINT signal with an object, such as beyond multiple emitter objects existing within a residual, can include a tracklet being considered variable, such as within a duration of observations (e.g., video data). A sum-of-squared residuals based on the number of observations can be scaled to help overcome this problem. Only tracks with durations that support an "adequate" number of potential associated SIGINT events may be considered, such as can be implemented in getTracksfromMovers pseudocode, such as is presented herein.

Exploiting SIGINT to support multi-hypothesis tracking (e.g., associating a plurality of distinct sets of SIGINT signals with a respective object) has been previously unsuccessful for moving emitters in high density environments. Previous attempts to associate a SIGINT event with a mover (e.g., a moving object or emitter) in an urban environment has failed, at least in part, because of large regions of uncertainty and a density of emitters (e.g., transmitters that emit a SIGINT signal) within the confidence region.

An interpolation of tracks to times that support the observed times-of-arrival at a set of collectors can provide a constrained geo-location problem that, when solved, can help the association of a SIGINT signal to an object or tracklet. One or more approaches discussed herein differ from previous attempts that associate and exploit confidence ellipses resulting from multiple SIGINT events over time. Previous attempts calculate a region in which a SIGINT signal is expected to have originated from and if the confidence region includes only one emitter or object then the SIGINT signal is assumed to have originated from that emitter. This approach does not work in environments with emitters that are relatively close together so that multiple emitters are in the confidence region. Efforts to aggregate a series of SIGINT events to reduce ambiguity have been stymied, at least in part, due to the high density of emitters and the limited capacity to form tracks in high density environments.

Solutions to a SIGINT to mover association problem that include tracking in a cluttered environment can include the exploitation of as much a priori information as possible on a sensor as well as on the targets and, in particular, on the terrain to enhance track quality and track continuity.

In the 1950s and 1960s, China pursued a national defense policy. The Navy was mainly engaged in offshore activities. At that time, there was no urgent need for reconnaissance ships, especially ocean-going reconnaissance ships. However, in the 1970s, with the increase of the scope of the Chinese naval activities, in order to improve the intelligence reconnaissance and security system in order to better guarantee the Navy's implementation of the mid-sea combat mission, the Navy proposed a plan to build a new reconnaissance ship. China began to develop ocean-going electronic reconnaissance vessels. Up to now, the development of China's electronic reconnaissance vessels can be divided into three generations.

AGI - First Generation

The first generation of electronic reconnaissance ships was the Type 813 electronic reconnaissance ship. The first generation is the "Neptune" and the North 900. In October 1976, according to the State Council, the Central Military Commission approved the Electronic Confrontation and Radar Management Leading Group "Proposal on the Development Policy and Main Tasks of Electronic Countermeasure Radar", the selection of the Type 645 marine survey vessel was selected according to the requirements of electronic technology reconnaissance. Modify the design. Room 2 of 708 has been designed from August 1977 to September 1980. All the design drawings were completed in several stages, including initial design, initial design modification, construction design and construction design modification. Shanghai Hudong Shipyard began construction in September 1980. The trial was started in September-October 1982, delivered in November 1982, and professional equipment was tested in March-April 1983 and served in the South China Sea Fleet.

The ship was the first ocean-going electronic technology reconnaissance ship designed and built by China and equipped with all the equipment. It was completed in September 1982 and was named as: Xiangyanghong No. 21. It has now withdrawn from the active service of the Navy. It has used for name: Ocean No. 13, Ocean No. 13, 852, Haijian 169. It is currently a 3469 ship. Since all kinds of electronic reconnaissance vessels may be under the banner of various civil institutions, or disguised as various types of vessels such as fishing boats, Marine Police 3469 may still be engaged in its old business - electronic intelligence reconnaissance. The ship was involved in the famous "Impecable" incident in 2009 and is one of the five Chinese vessels that contain the "Impecable" intelligence reconnaissance ship.

The 813 electronic reconnaissance ship adopted a high-floating flat-deck ship type with good seakeeping resistance, and its hull has a large internal space and strong sustainability. From the related pictures, the modified reconnaissance ship is compared with the 645 type survey ship, and the rear mast The elevation was increased to improve the interception of radio waves, and the signal direction finding and listening system was also installed on both the main mast and the front mast. At the same time, the ship has also added a mast for installing the signal reconnaissance system, thereby realizing the reconnaissance coverage of the full-frequency communication system including low frequency to high frequency and even high frequency.

The service of the 813 reconnaissance ship has greatly improved the intelligence gathering ability of the Chinese navy. Because of its large range of activities and long duration, it can reach the other side of the sea for reconnaissance, so it has a high intelligence gathering capability through its related reconnaissance system. The strategic and tactical electromagnetic information of potential threats and sensitive areas can be obtained. Through long-term accumulation and analysis, the target electromagnetic database of relevant regions and objects can be established, and the electromagnetic situation and radar system layout of relevant regions can be clarified. The changes and intentions of its combat capability provide the basis for the commanding agency to make relevant decisions. At the same time, these data are also the material basis for the implementation of electronic interference, anti-radiation strikes and communication confrontation during wartime.

Although the 813 type electronic reconnaissance ship has better performance, its reconnaissance equipment is relatively simple. It is only equipped with a radio signal reconnaissance system. It is not equipped with acoustic and optical systems. Therefore, the scope of use is limited, and because the tonnage of the ship is large, The cost is higher. After that, China improved and designed the 812 reconnaissance ship on the basis of the 635 type channel survey ship. Due to the installation of more reconnaissance equipment, the full-load displacement increased to about 1,700 tons. The first ship was built by Tianjin Shipyard in 1983 and launched at the end of 1983. Unfortunately, the stern vibration problem occurred during the sea trial, which seriously affected the work of the ship's precision equipment. Although it was strengthened by many times, it still did not solve the problem and had to be scrapped. Later, after joint research by relevant departments, designers finally found out the reason is the exciting force of the propeller. Through this round of research, China's ship design department changed the past practice of improving the efficiency of the propeller, and turned to the design improvement of the propeller from the perspective of comprehensive efficiency, which made China's ship propeller technology take a new step.

AGI - Second Generation

After the development and manufacture of two types of electronic reconnaissance ships, China gradually mastered relevant technologies. In order to meet the requirements of the Navy, China began to develop the second-generation electronic reconnaissance ship, the 814A-class electronic reconnaissance ship . The development unit modified the 814A- type near-sea reconnaissance ship on the basis of the 635C medium-sized hydrographic survey ship. After repeated revisions, the ship began construction in 1983 and was named Xiangyanghong No. 28 . In 1986, the ship was completed and built to serve in the North Sea Fleet. The ship used V841, north to 841, and north to 900. It is now a 900 North electronic reconnaissance ship. According to public information, the ship has all adopted domestic equipment in accordance with the requirements of the Navy, equipped with four types of reconnaissance systems such as optical, acoustic, radar and radio communications, and equipped with advanced meteorological satellite receiving systems and satellite navigation combined systems.

The 814A reconnaissance ship mainly performs tactical reconnaissance missions, such as acquiring electromagnetic information of the opposing ship and the coastal radar system, detecting and tracking underwater targets such as submarines, collecting relevant acoustic information, and detecting the underwater environment. Certain strategic reconnaissance such as signal reconnaissance capabilities. The construction of the 814A reconnaissance ship indicates that China has initially possessed the capability of building an integrated reconnaissance ship, especially through solving a series of technical problems such as electromagnetic compatibility and reconnaissance system synergy, to build a larger, more advanced and more comprehensive capacity for China. The reconnaissance ship has accumulated experience and laid the foundation.

AGI - Third Generation

The Gulf War in the early 1990s shocked the Chinese military. The US militarys methods of warfare subverted the traditional military thinking of the Chinese military. The Gulf War made the Chinese military feel deeply worried. The mode and method of war exceeded the imagination of the People's Liberation Army. Apart from the shock, the PLA deeply felt the importance of informatization for modern warfare. At that time, the Central Military Commission set up a special working group to conduct research and argumentation and discuss China's military development path. The investigation team of the Military Commission went to many units to investigate. A lot of projects have been born, especially military projects in electronics. But the investment at that time was still too little. Some of the research results were not completely translated into military achievements at the time.

The Chinese military fully recognized the importance of military technical intelligence as one of the important factors determining the victory or defeat of war. This promoted the birth of the modern 815 electronic reconnaissance ship. The design of the platform has not changed much, but the technical detection system has changed a lot. In turn, the technology developed later is also used. Today, the development of the Chinese navy's electronic technology is claimed by Chinese sources as one of the forefront of the world, and in some respects very advanced compared with the United States.

Model 815 is the third generation electronic reconnaissance ship, built a total of one 851 Polaris electronic reconnaissance ship (previously used string: east tone 232), built by Hudong Shipbuilding (Group) Co., Ltd., February 1999 Delivered on the 8th and served in the second half of the year.

The 815 electronic reconnaissance ship is a multi-functional comprehensive system reconnaissance ship used to carry out reconnaissance and information security work on electromagnetic information and photoelectric information. It is to search for the radiation source intercepting the other party's optoelectronic equipment to obtain photoelectric countermeasure information. The length of the ship is 130 meters; the width is 16.4 meters; the draft is 6.5 meters; the full displacement is 5998 tons; the main engine is powered by diesel engine, double-shaft propulsion; the speed is 20 knots. At the time of the construction of six ships, only one ship was built due to financial problems. The secret level of the electronic reconnaissance ship is quite high. The navy is only responsible for the ship's control. The captain of the light ship-borne technical reconnaissance system has no right to know. The technical investigation right is directly responsible for the headquarters.

The ship has a long first-floor ship type, and the first floor extends to the helicopter deck, which increases the height of the freeboard and increases the space inside the ship. The first part has a slight sheer and the front section also has a fender wall. These measures are designed to reduce the waves on the deck and make the ship suitable for ocean navigation. The superstructure is long and concentrated in the middle of the hull. It is based on a deckhouse with bridges, chimneys and hangars arranged from front to back. The bridge is taller, with three floors on the deckhouse, and a tall four-legged plaque on it. The ship's distinctive features - a striking main mast and 3 satellite communications antennas. A parabolic antenna and pedestal are located on the top of the bridge, at the top of the chimney and at the top of the superstructure at the back of the chimney. There is also a dome-shaped device similar to the observatory in front of the bridge, which is estimated to be equipped with photoelectric tracking and observation equipment.

The upper deck of the stern is a helicopter flight deck. Judging from the arrangement and equipment of the ship, the ship can be used for missile tracking in addition to traditional intelligence gathering, that is, it has certain functions of an aerospace survey ship. The large masts on the ship can be installed with many radar antennas and reconnaissance equipment. The three parabolic antennas for tracking are small in diameter, and only the tactical missile tracking is the main task. Some self-defense weapons were installed, a double-mounted 37mm gun was placed on the upper deck in front of the superstructure, and two double-mounted 25mm guns were located on the left and right sides of the hangar. From the model exhibited at the Maritime Exhibition, it is also visible that the front end of the helicopter flight deck is also provided with a 324 mm torpedo tube.

After the Chinese navys military spending was guaranteed, the series of electronic reconnaissance vessels began to be restored in 2008. The re-started 815 series electronic reconnaissance ship has been improved over the 851 Polaris ship. The model has been changed to the 815G electronic reconnaissance ship. From the appearance, the mast of the new model ship is changed to the tower, the bulwark wall has a fold line, and the self-defense weapon is reduced to two. The H/PJ14 single-tube 30mm gun and two 14.5mm machine guns.

851 Polaris belongs to the 815 type electronic reconnaissance ship. It is a multi-functional comprehensive system reconnaissance ship used for reconnaissance and information support for electromagnetic information and photoelectric information. The class has a length of 130 meters, a width of 16.4 meters and a full displacement of 5,998 tons. The main engine is powered by a diesel engine, with two-axle propulsion and a speed of 20 knots. Two double 37mm guns were installed in the bow and two double 25mm guns were installed at the rear of the ship.

The 852 electronic reconnaissance ship, the original Navy "Neptune" electronic reconnaissance ship, has now been retired. The total length is 112.22 meters, the width is 15.2 meters, and the full displacement is 4590 tons. Self-sustaining power for 50 days, endurance of 12,000 nautical miles / 17 knots, maximum speed of 20 knots. The ship is the first ocean-going electronic technology reconnaissance ship designed and built by China and equipped with all the equipment.

The 853 Uranus electronic reconnaissance ship belongs to the 815A series of electronic reconnaissance ships, which is an improvement over the 851 North Star ship. The mast of the new model ship was changed to a tower, and the bulwark wall has a fold line. In the aspects of electromagnetic compatibility and automation, as well as the monitoring data collection, analysis and processing capabilities of electromagnetic wave signals, the multi-dimensional stereoscopic electronic reconnaissance tasks can be better accomplished. According to military expert Yin Zhuo, the type of ship has satellite detection capabilities.

The Sirius ship is very similar to the 853 Uranus electronic reconnaissance ship, using the same ship design and improved electronic equipment. The ship has a displacement of about 6,000 tons. The "Sirius" ship will be mainly used to detect the performance and parameters of the target electronic equipment, location and command relationship, obtain the radio information of the other party, and monitor and track the formation of the ship.

855 electronic reconnaissance ship, built by Hudong Shipyard, launched on July 28, 2014, and served on August 1, 2015. It can receive and record electromagnetic wave signals emitted by electronic devices such as radio communications, radar and weapon control systems, and implement all-weather, uninterrupted reconnaissance on various targets within a certain range, and master its deployment trends.

Kaiyang Xingqiu, No. 856, is a new generation of electronic reconnaissance ship developed by China itself. It can carry out all-weather, uninterrupted reconnaissance on various targets within a certain range and master its deployment trends.

Based on the analysis of the development of China's shipbuilding industry in recent years, the 815A and 815 electronic reconnaissance vessels have improved in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and automation, as well as the ability to collect, analyze and process electromagnetic wave signals. Goodly complete the multi-dimensional electronic reconnaissance mission. According to the published information, General Yin Zhuo, director of the Naval Informationization Expert Committee, revealed that the ship contained satellite detection capabilities. This is the first time the Chinese military has talked about the detection capabilities of the 815A electronic reconnaissance ship.

The ship is slightly longer and slightly wider than the 851 electronic reconnaissance ship in service at the end of the 20th century. The comparative analysis speculates that the total length of the 853 ship should be about 40 meters, about 7 meters wide, draught less than 7.5 meters, and tonnage 6000~7000 tons. The main tower is a two-story structure, located about 2/5 of the deck of the whole ship. This layout is conducive to stabilizing the center of gravity of the ship and improving stability.

Above the main tower is a navigation, observation, and radar control tower. The front end is a cylindrical spherical radar position, and the rear part is changed to the traditional square lattice main mast style of the 851 ship. The trapezoidal quadrangular column type closed type is used instead. Main mast. Both sides are equipped with a number of portholes, non-closed boat type. Two diesel engines, two-axis double rudder propulsion device, two sets of fin stabilizers are installed on both sides of the lower part of the hull to reduce the sway and improve the stability of the ship sailing under high sea conditions. The ship's maximum speed is about 21 knots, which is basically the same as the domestic large-scale landing ship, and its self-sustaining power is about 50 days. At the rear of the ship, there is a straight one 9 or a card one 28 carrier helicopter landing position.

In fact, the navies of the world's major powers attach great importance to maritime reconnaissance capabilities and have developed various types of electronic intelligence reconnaissance vessels and marine surveillance equipment. According to statistics, the number of specialized electronic reconnaissance ships directly used by the former Soviet Union for intelligence gathering and analysis during the Cold War reached more than 60 ships. Russian reconnaissance ships are active in the NATO Sea, air force exercise areas, missile launch test sites, and local war conflict areas. They collect a wide range of military information from missile launches to ship activities and electronic equipment such as radar, communications, and sonar. The Navy provides a reliable basis for the development of various operational tactical plans, programs, and regular training and exercises.

At present, the naval combat support ship units of the various PLAN fleets that undertake military maritime reconnaissance missions are mainly the 815-type electronic reconnaissance ship series and the 636A-type COSCO sea survey ship series. There is still a certain gap compared with the US military. In order to obtain comprehensive information on maritime battlefields in an all-round way, China can fully meet the diversified intelligence needs of aircraft carrier formations, effectively reduce the dependence of aircraft carrier formation on shore-based intelligence support, and enhance the long-range continuous mobile combat capability of aircraft carrier formations, so that the Chinese military can truly become a defense in the open sea. For the backbone, it is necessary to further develop the maritime reconnaissance power.

If the Navy lacks an electronic reconnaissance ship, it is equivalent to losing eyes, not seeing and seeing far away, which is not conducive to the safety of maritime operations. However, it is difficult to determine how many reconnaissance ships are needed in China. With the increase of China's maritime power, the number of reconnaissance ships has increased to a certain extent.

In the future, China's maritime operations will be more and more, and the time will be longer and longer, not only staying at the doorstep of home, but also moving to a longer distance in the sea area. The normalized electronic information acquisition scope of the navy will also be extended to the second island chain and the waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, the northern Indian Ocean, and even more distant waters related to China's interests.

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Page last modified: 25-12-2019 18:43:08 ZULU