Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military


Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR)

The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, which is called Ningxia or Ning for short, is located in northwest China, on the upper reaches of the Yellow River. One of China's five autonomous regions inhabited by the minority groups, it borders Shaanxi Province in the east, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the north, and Gansu Province in the south. Blessed with mild summers and winters, Ningxia has a yearly average temperature of 8C. The capital city, Yinchuan, tops Northwestern Chinese cities in air quality and Ningxia Blue has been praised by all sectors of the society.

There are 3.68 million Han people, accounting for 65.47 percent of Ningxias total population. Ningxia is home to 33 ethnic minority groups which have a total population of 1.94 million. Of this figure, the Hui people amount to 1.90 million, accounting for 33.88 percent of the regions total population. Most of the Huis live in Tongxin, Guyuan, Xiji, Haiyuan, and Jingyuan counties as well as Wuzhong City and Lingwu County in the area irrigated with water diverted from the Huanghe River.

Trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall are clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. The Hui-ho or Hui-hu formed during the T'ang dynasty, from the seventh to the ninth century, a powerful nation in northern Mongolia. The capital was on the border of the Solong River (Selenga). These Hui-ho, and the Uigurs of Western authors, are the same people. Subsequently the Hui-ho had their capital near the place where afterwards Karacorum was built. In the middle of the ninth century the power of the Hui-ho in Mongolia was broken, and they were dispersed.

Hui Muslims are concentrated primarily in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Qinghai, Gansu, and Yunnan provinces. The common term by which the Mohammedan was known in Imperial China was Hui Hui or Hui tzu, the latter form, with the diminutive tzu, conveying some slight tone of contempt. The Mohammedan religion is commonly designated Hui Hui Kiaol or Sect of the Hui Hui. The character Hui signifies, according to Professor Giles' Dictionary, "To come or go back to the starting point; to return". Hui alludes to the temporary stay of man upon earth.

The peculiarity of Chinese Islam is determined, firstly, with its religious heterogeneity. In China there all three main branches of Islam: Sunnism, Shiism, and Sufism. Secondly, the unique nature of Chinese Islam is defined by close relationship with the traditional religions of China (Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism) and Chinese population folk beliefs. Chinese Islam has incorporated many specific features of the traditional religious culture of China, which heavily influenced on the religious consciousness and religious activities of Chinese Muslims. The Hui Muslim group demonstrated the greatest degree of susceptibility of Chinese tradition. Chinese Muslims (Hui) celebrate mainly just three holidays among 18 common Muslim holidays: Mawlid al-Nabawi - the birthday of Muhammad, "Little Hyde", "Great Hyde". Northern Hui celebrate "Little Hyde" (Feast of Fast-Breaking) the final post of Ramadan with the greatest pomp.

Nikolay Ostroumov wrote about the Hui of Gansu province as follows: "...by faith they are extremely strict and devout Sunni Muslim. In the mosques they read the text prayers in Arabic, and the explanation was done in Chinese. They cut a mustache as Muslim, did not drink wine and vodka, did not smoke opium and tobacco" (Ostroumov, 1879).

But Chinese folk religion affected on religious beliefs and practices of Hui Chinese Muslims along with Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. First of all, this fact is reflected in the existence of ancestor worship among Hui people. In order to avoid harmful influence of dead ancestors, the Hui made a sacrifice. Overall, this group of Muslims viewed the souls and spirits of natural objects as intermediaries between man and Allah. Despite Islamic monotheism and the prohibition of worshipping other Gods and spirits, Hui worshiped many characters of Chinese folk religion. In particular, the Hui living in the countryside, sought rain from dragon Loon (Lun Wang).

There were spread numerous amulets, performing protective functions, brings good luck, etc among the Hui. One of the most used magic items was flatlined triangle on which the Qur'an text was inscribed. Elements of folk magic were in the medical practice of Hui ahuns.

Perhaps the most characteristic Hui communities in Ningxia are the small countryside villages, with their solid courtyard houses, some sandy pink, others painted white with blue facings, and often sporting a bright green studded gate. Every village has a small, often quite exquisite mosque built in the local style which favors multiple minarets and a central dome.

Ningxia's sandy loess soil, when irrigated with water from the Yellow River, is remarkably fertile. On the great river's flood plain the paddy fields are a bright, emerald green and roads and field boundaries are lined with silver-barked, bluish leafed poplars. There is a booming fruit industry, watermelons, bright red wolfberries and, not least, grapes which produce a more than usually palatable Chinese red. With 3.5 hectares of wine grapes, 184 chateaux, an annual wine production of 95,000 tons, and an output value of RMB 16 billion, the east piedmont of Helan Mountain is among the worlds best-known wine producing areas. The Bettane & Desseauve Wine Guide 2015-2016 included 31 Chinese wines, among which 20 were from Ningxia.

Located in the golden triangle of energy and chemical industry bases covering Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia provinces, Ningxia boasts over 50 types of proven minerals and ranks the third nationwide in terms of per capita coal production and the first in terms of per capita electricity generation. The Ningdong Energy and Chemical Industry Base is one of Chinas thirteen 100-million-ton coal bases. Meanwhile, Ningxia is a major hub of the national West-East Gas Pipeline Project, with 100 billion cubic meters of natural gas passing through Ningxia every year.

The current production capacity of coal chemical industry is 20 million tons and the processing capacity of crude oil is 12.5 million tons. Another 7.4 million tons of coal chemical production capacity is under construction, with methanol, olefin, acetic acid, and metaformaldehyde (POM) as the main products as well as hundreds of downstream products including benzene and omatic hydrocarbon, which has broad prospects for development. What is worth mentioning is the demonstration project of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group Co., Ltd., which has an indirect coal liquefaction capacity of 4 million tons and is the largest single-set coal-to-oil project in the world. We sincerely invite you to come to Ningxia to explore investment opportunities in engineering plastics, general resin, special-purpose chemicals and other fine chemical industries.

There is a saying in China, Ningxia prospers on the Yellow River, which means it is one of the four gravity irrigation areas in China, enjoying great convenience in irrigation by the Yellow River. Ningxia also has rich land resources, ranking the sixth nationwide in terms of per capita arable land. It is a national demonstration area for modern agriculture, dry land water saving agriculture, and ecological agriculture. Known as the home of Goji berry, licorice, potato, Chinese long jujube and Tan sheep, Ningxia is also an important production base of halal beef and mutton, milk, and traditional Chinese medicine.

Ningxia boasts 0.71 million hectares of wasteland suitable for farming, one of China's eight provinces and autonomous regions each with more than 0.63 million hectares of wasteland suitable for agriculture. There are 3 million hectares of exploitable meadows, making Ningxia one of the ten major pastures in China. The Weining Plain that features 0.37 million hectares of land irrigated with water diverted from the Huanghe River is one of the four principal areas with gravity irrigation in northwest China. For years, the annual runoff of the Huanghe River through Ningxia has remained at 32.5 billion cubic meters, and the water resources allocated to Ningxia by the state for irrigation are 4 billion cubic meters.

The rich land resources, convenient conditions to divert water from the Huanghe River for irrigation, and abundant sunshine have laid a solid foundation for Ningxia to bring into play its advantages in the development of agriculture. Crops, melons, and other fruit are doing well in the irrigated area. Watermelon, apple, and grape from the irrigated area have a 15-20 percent higher sugar content than those produced in central China. The per-hectare yield of single-cropping paddy reaches 10,500 kilograms, placing Ningxia in front among the provinces and autonomous regions in western China and turning it into one of the nation's 12 grain production bases. Effort is being taken to build Ningxia into a national agricultural demonstration area with high yield, high efficiency, and fine quality.

Livestock breading makes up of 29 percent of the local agriculture. Of the 82,000-hectare water surfaces, 10,000 hectares can be used for aquaculture. Ningxia produces various species of carp, river shrimp, and river crabs. There is a great potential for the development of aquaculture. In recent years, Ningxia has seen a rapid development of the aquatic production. It leads other provinces and autonomous regions in the northwest in the per-capita output of aquatic products.

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list


Unconventional Threat podcast - Threats Foreign and Domestic: 'In Episode One of Unconventional Threat, we identify and examine a range of threats, both foreign and domestic, that are endangering the integrity of our democracy'


 
Page last modified: 06-09-2018 17:39:00 ZULU