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Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

The Mongolians live mostly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with the rest residing in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hebei, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan and Beijing. Having their own spoken and written language, which belongs to the Mongolian group of the Altaic language family, the Mongolians use three dialects: Inner Mongolian, Barag-Buryat and Uirad. The Mongolian script was created in the early 13th century on the basis of the script of Huihu or ancient Uygur, which was revised and developed a century later into the form used to this day.

The largest Mongolian area, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region with its capital at Hohhot, was founded on May 1, 1947, as the earliest such establishment in China. This vast and rich expanse of land is inhabited by 21,780,000 people, of whom about 2 million are Mongolians and the rest Hans, Huis, Manchus, Daurs, Ewenkis, Oroqens and Koreans. Mongols were a distinct minority at the founding of the autonomous region, though their proportion of the total population has risen slightly over time.

The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is located in the northern part of China. Covering 1.2 million square kilometers, taking up 1/8 of that of the country, and rising 900 to 1,300 meters above sea level, it has vast tracts of excellent natural pastureland with numerous herds of cattle, sheep, horses and camels. The Yellow River Bend and Tumochuan plains, known as a "Granary North of the Great Wall," are crisscrossed with streams and canals.

Hohhot is the capital of Inner Mongolia and the political, economic, scientific and cultural center of the region and is recognized as one of China's better-known historical cities. The name Hohhot is Mongolian for "green city". It is known as a national forest city, a model tourist city, one of the global Top 20 for economic growth, China's Top 100 for economic strength, and China's Top 50 for investment and finance

The Region is bitterly cold in winter and warm in summer. The average annual temperature is in the range between -1C and 10C (30.2F and 50F). In January, the coldest month, the average temperature ranges from -23C (-9.4F) in the north-eastern part of the Region to -10C (14F) in the south-western part; in July, the warmest month, the average temperature ranges from 19C (66.2F) in the north-eastern part to 24C (75.2F) in the south-western part. The temperature in the northern part is lower on the average than in the other places. The frost-free period varies from 90 to 160 days, and the average annual precipitation is between 50mm and 450mm, mostly in late summer and early autumn.

Over southwestern Inner Mongolia flows the Yellow River, which is, among other things, famous for its carp and the well-developed irrigation and transport facilities it has provided for the area. Inner Mongolia also has several hundred richly endowed salt and alkali lakes and many large freshwater lakes, including Hulun Nur, Buir Nur, Ulansu Nur, Dai Hai and Huangqi Hai. More than 60 mineral resources such as coal, iron, chromium, manganese, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tin, mica, graphite, rock crystal and asbestos have been found.

The Greater Hinggan Mountain Range in the east part of the region boasts China's largest forests, which are also a fine habitat for a good many rare species of wildlife. This unique natural environment makes the region a famous producer of precious hides, pilose antler, bear gallbladder, musk, Chinese caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis), as well as 400 varieties of Chinese medicinal herbs, including licorice root, "dangshen" (Codonopsis pilosula), Chinese ephedra (Ephedra sinica), and the root of membranous milk vetch (Astragalus membranaceus). Specialities of the region known far and wide are mushrooms and day lily flowers, which enjoy brisk sales on both the domestic and world markets.

The Traditional cuisine in Inner Mongolia takes beef and mutton, and particularly the latter, as its main ingredient. Among the famous dishes is barbecue lamb, roast tenderloin of lamb, roast leg of lamb, kebab, boiled mutton or whole lamb. The instant-boiled mutton in hot-pot to go with Zhaojun rice wine and sesame pancakes is a well-known delicious course usually served in winter. Mutton eaten by hand is Hohhot's most famous dish. People use their hands to eat big chunks of mutton that are boiled in water and often hold the bones in one hand and use the other to pick the meat off and dip it in seasoning. This dish is often used as a treat for guests.

Roast whole lamb is traditionally offered for special guests and often appears only for grand occasions, such as important meetings or weddings. The lamb skin is a glittering golden color and the meat is crisp on the outside and tender inside and suffused with a fresh smell.

The beef courses are mostly braised or roasted. There are braised ox-tail, beef kebab, braised ox tendon, ox-tendon in egg-white, etc. Camel hoof with other delicacies is a dish that matches the taste of braised bear's paw and red-cooked or steamed mushrooms are real delicacies. The world-famous facia (a kind of edible algae), which means good omen and fortune to the native people, needs meticulous skill in preparing. It can be either cooked with meat made into vegetarian dishes, such as facia in egg-white and facia in casserole that unbelievable delicious. Braised elk's nose and crisp fried hazel grouse are all renowned delicacies. Following the founding of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, autonomous prefectures and counties were established in other provinces where Mongolians live in large communities. These include the two Mongolian autonomous prefectures of Boertala and Bayinguoleng in Xinjiang, the Mongolian and Kazak Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai, and the seven autonomous counties in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.

Mongolians grow up on horsebacks and horses thus play an important part in their life. Every Mongolian loves to prove his worth by showing good horsemanship and archery as well as wrestling. "Nadam," meaning games in Mongolian, is the name of a traditional Mongolian fair, which is held in July and August each year. At the fair, people wearing their holiday best, participate in horse racing, archery, singing, dancing, chess playing and wrestling.

The life of the Mongolians is unique. Those in the pastoral areas wear fur coats lined with satin or cloth or nothing at all in winter and loose, long-sleeved cotton robes in summer. Mongolian costume is generally red, yellow or dark blue in color. A red or green waistband, flint steel, snuffbox and knife in an ornate sheath for cutting meat are accessories common to all men and women. Knee-high felt boots are a type of common footwear. Mongolians, men and women, wear cone-shaped hats in winter; they also like to wear silk or cloth turbans. Girls wear their hair parted in the middle, embellished with two large beads and agate, coral and green jade ornaments.

Founded in 1979, Inner Mongolia Erdos Investment Holding Group Co., Ltd. is a top 100 private enterprise in China. After more than 30 years of continuous profitability and continuous development, Erdos has developed from a cashmere processing enterprise into a large-scale modern comprehensive industrial group covering diversified operations such as cashmere clothing, resource mineral development and comprehensive energy utilization. Ordos cashmere industry is the leading cashmere textile industry in the world with perfect industrial chain and advanced technology. The National Cashmere Products Engineering Technology Research Center of the Group's scientific research base is a nationally recognized enterprise technology center and the only Chinese enterprise member of the International Cashmere Cashmere Manufacturers Association.

Inner and Outer Mongolia Map - 1910 AD Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia

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Page last modified: 06-09-2018 17:39:00 ZULU