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Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping was born August 1904, in Paifang Village in Xiexing Township, Guang'an County, Sichuan Province. 1909-1918, Deng Xiaoping attended an old-fashioned private pre-school, at age seven, a modern primary school and in due course, a middle school in his native county. In 1919, Deng Xiaoping was enrolled in Chongqing Preparatory School and joined his schoolmate in a boycott of Japanese goods after the May 4th Movement of 1919. In October 1920, Deng Xiaoping went to France and attended middle schools briefly in Bayeux and Chatillon.

In 1922, Deng Xiaoping joined the Communist Party of Chinese Youth in Europe (later the name was changed to the Chinese Socialist Youth League in Europe). In 1924, Deng Xiaoping joined the Chinese Communist Party and became one of the leading members of the General Branch of the Youth League in Europe. In January, 1926, Deng Xiaoping left France for Moscow and entered the Sun Yat-sen University.

In March, 1927, Deng Xiaoping returned China and accepted the Party's assignment to go to Xi'an and work at the Sun-Yat-sen Military and Political Academy. In 1931, Deng Xiaoping went to the Central Revolutionary Base Area in southern Jiangxi and western Fujian. In 1932, Deng Xiaoping was appointed Secretary of the Party Committee of Huichang. In 1934, Deng Xiaoping participated in the Long March, taking the post of Secretary-General of the Central Committee for the second time and attending the Zunyi Meeting In 1937-1945, Deng Xiaoping fought in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression. In 1948, Deng Xiaoping jointly led the Huaihai Campaign in the War of Liberation.

In October, 1949, Deng Xiaoping attended the grand inauguration ceremony in Beijing when the People's Republic of China was proclaimed. In July, 1952, Deng Xiaoping served first as both executive Vice-Premier of the Government Administration Council (which was to become the State Council in 1954) and Vice-Chairman of the Financial and Economic Commission, and was soon appointed Director of the Office of Communications and Minister of Finance as well.

In 1954, Deng Xiaoping became Secretary-General of the Party Central Committee, Director of the Organization Department and Vice-Chairman of the National Defense Commission. In 1955, at the Fifth Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping was elected to the Committee's Political Bureau. In 1956, Deng Xiaoping delivered the report on the revision of the Party Constitution at the Party's Eighth National Congress, and at the First Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee, he was elected member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and General Secretary of the Central Committee.

In 1962, Deng Xiaoping pointed out the relations of production to be introduced should be of the type that would be most readily accepted by the masses and most conductive to the quick restitution and development of production.

During the early 1960s, Deng Xiaoping advanced the argument that any measure which facilitated the development of the productive forces should be adopted and pursued. He summed up his case by saying it didn't matter whether a cat was black or white, it was the one that caught the mouse which was best, which has subsequently been dubbed "cat theory."

During the "cultural revolution," Deng was severely criticized for ignoring the colour of the cat, even though the circumstances in which he had first used this simile were highly specific. In a discussion on how to boost agricultural production, he had said it was immaterial whether a system of contracted responsibility, household management or the people's commune under unified management was adopted, as long as the measure selected could restore and develop rural productive forces.

At this time, Deng was talking only of the specific form of administration which would best promote the management of socialist agriculture. The issue at no time or point involved the question of choosing between socialism and capitalism.

In 1962, Deng Xiaoping addressed the conference attended by 7,000 persons, stressing the need to adhere to democratic centralism and to carry on the Party's fine traditions. In 1963, Deng Xiaoping headed delegations to Moscow to have talks with Nikita Khrushchev and other Soviet leaders and always took a principled, independent stand.

In August 1966, Deng Xiaoping was criticized and repudiated at the Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee. In October 1969, Deng Xiaoping was sent under escort to Xinjian County, Jiangxi Province.

In 1973, Deng Xiaoping was restored to his post as Vice-Premier of the State Council. In 1974, he delivered a speech at the Sixth Special Session of the United nations General Assembly on behalf of the Chinese government, in which he systematically set forth Mao Zedong's thesis of the three worlds. In January 1975, Deng Xiaoping was reappointed Vice-Premier and appointed Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee, Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission and Chief of the General Staff of the PLA.

In 1976, Deng Xiaoping was once again removed from all his posts inside and outside the Party.

In July 1977, at the Third Plenary Session of the Tenth Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping was reinstated as Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee, Vice-Premier of the State Council, Vice-Chairman of the Military Commission and Chief of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army.

In March 1978, Deng Xiaoping was elected Chairman of the Fifth national Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. In March 1979, Deng made it clear that to maintain the correct orientation in the modernization drive it was essential to adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles: keeping to the socialist road and upholding the dictatorship of the proletariat (the people's democratic dictatorship), leadership by the Communist Party and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.

In September 1982, at the Twelfth National Congress of the Party, Deng Xiaoping summed up China's recent historical experience and drew a basic conclusion: the universal truth of Marxism must be integrated with the concrete realities of China, and China must blaze a trail of its own, building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In August 1980, at an enlarged meeting of the political Bureau, Deng Xiaoping made an important speech on the reform of the system of Party and state leadership.

In June, 1984, Deng Xiaoping formulated the concept of "one country, two systems", in order to resolve the questions of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and to reunify China, In October 1987, at the Thirteenth National Congress, Deng Xiaoping declared that it was high time to put reform of the political structure on the agenda for the whole Party. In November, 1987, Deng Xiaoping withdrew his candidacy for membership in the Central Committee and its Political Bureau, accepting only reappointment as Chairman of the Central Military Commission at the Party's Thirteenth National Congress and the First Plenary Session of the Thirteenth Central Committee.

In November, 1989, Deng Xiaoping resigned his position as Chairman of the Central Military Commission. In 1993, the updated edition of Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1938-1965) and Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1975-1982) published. In February, 1997, Deng Xiaoping died at age 93.

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