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Guatemala - Doctrine

The Constitutional text establishes in Article 1 that: "The State of Guatemala is organized to protect the person and the family, its supreme goal is the realization of the common good." Likewise Article 2 establishes that "It is the State's duty to guarantee to the inhabitants of the Republic life, liberty, justice, security, peace and the integral development of the person."

Article 138 states that " it is the duty of the State and the authorities to maintain the inhabitants of the Nation in the full enjoyment of the rights that the Constitution guarantees. However, in case of invasion of the territory, serious disturbance of the peace of activities against the security of the State or public calamity, the full validity of rights may cease. "

With regard to international relations of the State, Article 149 states that "Guatemala will regulate its relations with other States in accordance with the principles, rules and practices international, with the purpose of contributing to the maintenance of the peace and freedom, to respect and defense of the rights human, the strengthening of the democratic processes and international institutions to ensure fair and mutual benefits between states. "

The 1996 Peace Accords called for the formulation and adoption of a new military doctrine consistent with a democratic, peaceful society. This new doctrine would require the armed forces to abandon the national security doctrine under which they performed mainly counter-insurgency and public order functions. The army's mission would be redefined, limited to defense of the country's sovereignty, and the integrity of its territory.

In December 1999, the Guatemalan army published a new proposed doctrine to the Arzu administration, which outlined a new peacetime role for the military. The new doctrinal manual emphasized the armed forces' constitutional subordination to democratically elected civilian authorities. The manual also clearly terminated the military' s support of the National Security Doctrine of the counterinsurgency era. The rapid expansion of coffee growing in the late 19th Century came at the cost of the expropriation of lands belonging to the church and indigenous Mayan communities. It has been argued that the strengthening of the military and the expansion of the Guatemalan state into rural areas it had once ignored was a direct result of the need to safeguard new coffee estates and suppress unrest which had resulted from the takeovers. Thus, the first direct interactions that many Guatemalans of Mayan descent, the majority of the population, had with the “modern” Guatemalan government were violent repressive ones.

The Policia Nacional Civil (PNC), which is overseen by the Ministry of Government and headed by a director general appointed by the ministry, is responsible for law enforcement and maintenance of order in the country. The Ministry of National Defense oversees the military, which focuses primarily on operations in defense of the country, but the government also used the army in internal security and policing as permitted by the constitution. Civilian authorities in some instances failed to maintain effective control over the PNC, and the government lacked effective mechanisms to investigate and punish abuse and corruption. Despite a 5 percent increase in its operating budget, the PNC remained understaffed, inadequately trained, and insufficiently funded, all of which substantially impeded its effectiveness.

The Army, which most Guatemalans hold in relatively good regard, has revamped its doctrine to emphasize respect for human rights, external threats and international peacekeeping. Guatemala has been a reliable partner in UN peacekeeping missions, maintaining troops in Haiti and Congo, and operating a school for Central American peacekeeping forces.

Reforms to Guatemala’s security and judicial system included in the 1996 Peace Accords that followed the country’s civil conflict failed. The country’s traditional military power was ultimately weakened, and the National Civil Police and other investigative bodies were taken over by private networks, both legal and illegal, which sabotaged their ability to impose the rule of law.

The "Defense Policy of the Nation" of November 2013 "... establishes the frame of reference for the construction of the conditions that Guatemala needs and demand for the defense of its sovereignty; The integrity of its borders; The protection of its territory, and firm and lasting peace within a context of regional cooperation. Also it contributes to the generation of one environment suitable for the development comprehensive of the Guatemalans and the configuration of the security national as a common good based on the rule of law in a democracy strengthened."

Response model which aims to address the problem of Defense is adjusted to the extent, in the form complete and accurate, seeking the perfection and excellence; by what has been selected as the acronym CABAL word that contains the five major requirements. From this account the CABAL is:

  • Complementary. Because it aligns the National Security System, addressing the programmatic actions demanded in conjunction with the other members of that body, adding to its time processes that seek to improve the actions and the use of resources.
  • Adequate and Agile. Because answers to the problem of Defense by a force with better design capabilities, adding flexibility in making processes of decisions to adapt to the conditions and to the uncertainty of the threat, thus shortening response.
  • Balanced. Because it keeps the balance between the expectations of the population and the political will and the needs of the country and the means available to the defense, optimizing them in one run for performance and one budget for results.
  • Anthropocentric. That is the person human the beneficiary to receive one well that will allow its full development in one framework of respect for the rights human. In turn, that same human person is the main resource wealth that the Defense has for its realization.
  • Legitimate. In accordance with the Political Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala and other laws and regulations that become positive law through the execution of functions, procedures and protocols in a timely and faithful manner in a way that respects and strengthens the rule of law, which allows to his time continue generating the perception of one act true, genuine and true for part of the population.

The Cabal Defense is based on two large areas. The first is the creation of a National Defense System and the second is the establishment of an integrated planning and management system for Defense.

The Political Concept of Defense is summarized in the phrase "EVOLUTION", because change is not enough. In the medium and long term the construction of a model of development and support of new capacities is visualized, where the national economy takes a preponderant place as part of the National Defense, to reach higher standards of modernization and transformation. Therefore, the Political Concept of Defense is summarized in the phrase "EVOLUTION", because change is not enough. In the medium and long term the construction of a model of development and support of new capacities is visualized, where the national economy takes a preponderant place as part of the National Defense, to reach higher standards of modernization and transformation. Therefore, the Political Concept of Defense is summarized in the phrase "EVOLUTION", because change is not enough.





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