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Jamaica - Military Spending

The Government set aside $510 million in the 2016/17 Estimates of Expenditure in April 2016 to boost the operations of the Jamaica Defence Force. Of the total amount, $350 million would be given to the Coast Guard, to facilitate the refitting of offshore patrol vessels. Another $100 million will be allocated to the Air Wing, to meet final payments on aircrafts and would be funded from the Appropriations-in-Aid. The remaining $60 million would be used to meet final payment on security vehicles acquired for the army. The projects are implemented by the Ministry of National Security.

More than $1.3 billion was planned in February 2015 for fiscal year 2015/16 to improve and upgrade the operations of the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF). The money was set aside in the 2015/16 Estimates of Expenditure, shared among the Military Services, Air Wing, Coast Guard and Engineering Services. Of the figure, the $872.4 million allocated to Military Services would be used to purchase vehicles and improve the mobility of the JDF; and the $139 million budgeted to the Air Wing would go towards the purchase and overhaul of aircraft. The $75 million allocated to the Engineering Services was to facilitate the commencement of construction of a Jetty at the HMJS Cagway, in Port Royal. The remaining $308 million would be used for construction and improvement works.

A sum of $315 million was set aside in the 2012/13 Estimates of Expenditures to undertake a number of developmental initiatives for the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF). The bulk of the funds, $105 million, would make possible the acquisition of two fixed wing aircraft for the Jamaica Military Aviation School. An additional $37.4 million would be used for the purchase of weapons and ammunitions for the JDF, while another $79.6 million would go towards facilitating the repairs and improvements to service and residential buildings for the military services, the Air Wing and the engineering services. The remaining $93 million would go towards the procurement of tools and equipment for the overhaul of ships for the Coast Guard. This sum also included $9.3 million for the payment of outstanding bills.

The Ministry of National Security's 1986 budget allocation was approximately US$69 million for Current expenses and US$6.5 million for capital expenses, accounting for 5.9 percent of the central government's budget. In 1984 US$38 million of the ministry's budget was allocated to the JCF. The JDF budget declined in the 1980s for budgetary reasons; it was approximately US$20 million in 1986, as compared with US$25.4 million in 1985 and US$38.9 million in 1984.

According to the World Bank, military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country).

Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)

NATO defines defense expenditure as payments made by a national government specifically to meet the needs of its armed forces or those of Allies. A major component of defense expenditure is payments on Armed Forces financed within the Ministry of Defense (MoD) budget. Armed Forces include Land, Maritime and Air forces as well as Joint formations such as Administration and Command, Special Operations Forces, Medical Service, Logistic Command etc. In view of the differences between the NATO and national definitions, the figures shown may diverge considerably from those which are quoted by national authorities or given in national budgets.

They might also include "Other Forces" like Ministry of Interior troops, border guards, national police forces, customs, gendarmerie, carabinierie, coast guards etc. In such cases, expenditure should be included only in proportion to the forces that are trained in military tactics, are equipped as a military force, can operate under direct military authority in deployed operations, and can, realistically, be deployed outside national territory in support of a military force. Also, expenditure on Other Forces financed through the budgets of ministries other than MoD should be included in defense expenditure.

Pension payments made directly by the government to retired military and civilian employees of military departments should be included regardless of whether these payments are made from the budget of the MoD or other ministries. Expenditures for peacekeeping and humanitarian operations (paid by MoD or other ministries), the destruction of weapons, equipment and ammunition, and the costs associated with inspection and control of equipment destruction are included in defense expenditures.

Research and development (R&D) costs are to be included in defense expenditures. R&D costs should also include those for projects that do not successfully lead to production of equipment. Expenditure for the military component of mixed civilian-military activities is included, but only when this military component can be specifically accounted for or estimated. Financial assistance by one Allied country to another, specifically to support the defense effort of the recipient, should be included in the defense expenditure of the donor country and not in the defense expenditure of the receiving country. War damage payments and spending on civil defense are both excluded from the NATO definition of defense expenditure.





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