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Brazil - Political Parties - Left

PC do B--Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Communista do Brasil). The PC do B generally advocates more "revolutionary" positions than the PCB but has supported noncommunist candidates. Its electoral support is based within the universities. Former PCB members founded the party in 1961. In the presidential elections, the PC do B was one of three parties in the Brazilian Popular Front (PF) coalition formed to support the PT candidacy of Lula. The Communist Party of Brazil was created as an underground splinter from the PCB in 1958, following Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's denunciations of Stalinist atrocities. The PC do B repudiated the new Moscow line and aligned itself with Maoism. When the People's Republic of China began making economic reforms in 1979, the PC do B aligned itself with Albania. When Albania held its first free elections in 1992, the PC do B became nonaligned. After the PC do B was legalized in 1985, under the leadership of former deputy and former guerrilla Joo Amazonas, it elected more deputies in 1986 and 1990 than its arch rival, the PCB. The PC do B joined the FBP in support of Lula in 1989 and 1994. The PC do B doubled its delegation from five to ten federal deputies, representing nine states, in 1994. This feat resulted from PC do B domination of student organizations in most states and astute use of coalitions.

PPS - Popular Socialist Party (Partido Popular Socialista). The Party was founded in 1992 from the former Brazilian Communist Party (PCB). The PCB--Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro). Founded in 1922, the PCB was ideologically communist but has cooperated with mayors and governors of more moderate parties. It supported the Sarney administration. It maintains ties with West European communist parties and identifies with Soviet President Gorbachev's reforms. At Moscow's initiative, Luis Carlos Prestes took over the PCB's leadership in the mid-1930s. Prestes presided over the party until the early 1980s, when he was ousted by a renovated Euro-communist faction that had tired of his Stalinist line. During its illegal period (1948-85), the PCB was able to elect a few of its members under other party labels. The PCB regained legal registry in 1985, elected three representatives to the ANC in 1986, and again in 1990, always in coalitions. Deputy Freire carried the PCB banner as candidate for president in 1989, and became floor leader of the Franco government in 1992.

In 1993 the Brazilian Communist Party, in a stormy national convention led by its president, Deputy Roberto Freire, removed Marxist-Leninist doctrine from the party statutes and the hammer and sickle from its flag, and changed its name to the PPS (Popular Socialist Party). In 1994 the PPS joined the FBP in support of Lula and elected one senator (Freire) and only two federal deputies.

In the 2006 presidential election, the Popular Socialist Party (PPS) president, Roberto Freire, ran for President, not with any hope of winning, only to help some of the party's candidates for Federal Deputy. On the left wing, in 2006 there was speculation that some combination or elements of the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and Popular Socialist Party (PPS) might merge into one or two viable parties (or the PCdoB might be folded into Lula's PT), but the PTB would have no interest in joining them. The new, real opposition bloc after the 2006 election included the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), the Liberal Front Party (PFL), and the Socialist People's Party (PPS), with a combined strength of about 140 deputies. The common practice of party switching for personal or political gain impacted the Socialist People's Party (PPS, a small, leftist opposition party). The Socialist People's party (PPS) elected 22 federal deputies in October 2006, had 17 by 01 February 2007, and by March 2007 had only 14. The Superior Electoral Court ruled on 27 March 2007 that elective offices belong to the parties, not the individual. With this ruling it is expected that the seats of politicians who switch after taking office may be declared vacant and assigned to the alternate ("suplente").

PSOL - Socialism and Freedom Party / Partido Socialismo e Liberdade . The Socialism and Freedom Party (PSOL) was formed after the 2002 elections. Some of its members were elected in the 2002 legislature as candidates of the Workers' Party. On 27 September 2005, the Workers Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores - PT) released the final results of its September 18 internal election. A number of leftists, including five federal deputies, concluded that their bid to expand their influence within the party has failed and announced their intention to leave the PT. Most intended to join the leftist Party of Socialism and Liberty (PSOL). Plinio de Arruda Sampaio, a 75-year-old former federal deputy who helped found the PT in 1980 and was later Lula's running mate in two unsuccessful presidential bids, claimed that the PT's governing centrist majority had abdicated the party's role as an instrument of social change. Since the election had left this faction in control of the National Directorate, he chose to continue his own social struggle under the banner of the PSOL. The PSOL, founded in 2004 by deputies and senators who were expelled from the PT for their refusal to vote the party line, now had two senators and seven federal deputies.



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