Brazil - Political Parties - Center-Right
PDS--Democratic Social Party (Partido Democratico Social). Founded in 1982, the PDS was the modern version of the ARENA party, which represented Government of Brazil interests during 21 years of military-dominated governments (1964-85). It advocated using foreign capital for economic development. Its popular support was greatest in certain rural strongholds and among upper/middle class in urban areas.
PL - Liberal Party (Partido Liberal). The PL was a center-right party that was popular among small businessmen and has growing strength in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Presidential candidate Guilherme Afif Domingos gave the party greater name recognition. Deputy Alvaro Valle (PDS-Rio de Janeiro) founded the center-right Liberal Party in 1985. Dubbed the businessman's Workers' Party, the Liberal Party rapidly supplanted the Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente Liberal--PFL) in São Paulo. In the elections of November 15, 1986, the Liberal Party secured seven seats in the Chamber of Deputies and one in the Senate. It received 4.8 percent of the national vote in 1990 and elected fifteen deputies. On taking their seats in February 1991, the new Liberal Party deputies joined the opposition bloc against Collor. In 1994 the Liberal Party elected no governors, one senator, and thirteen deputies.
PP - Progressive Party (Partido Progressista). The PP origins remounts to dictatorship party ARENA. It is know for its religious right-wing orientation. Late on 14 February 2005, after two rounds of voting, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies selected an undistinguished back-bencher to be its next Speaker. Severino Cavalcanti of Pernambuco, aged 74, is a high school graduate who has spent his entire career with what is now the right-wing Progressive Party (PP) -- which at the time he joined was the party of Brazil's military regime.
The Progressive Party grew out of the PTR (Workers' Renewal Party). In 1990 the PTR and the Social Workers' Party (Partido Social Trabalhista--PST) had elected just two federal deputies each. The new Progressive Party had thirty-seven deputies in 1993, and by 1994 had grown to forty-five, the fifth largest delegation in the Chamber of Deputies. In 1995 the Progressive Party became leaderless, with no clear political strategy. Thus, it merged with the PPR (Progressive Renewal Party) to form the PPB (Brazilian Progressive Party).
The PPR - Progressive Renewal Party (Partido Progressista Renovador) was organized by the fusion of the PDS (Democratic Social Party) and the Christian Democratic Party (Partido Democrático Cristão--PDC) in April 1993. After the Workers' Party, the PPR has the most consistent ideology. It generally supports the interests of business and rural landlords. It has a radical position in favor of privatization, economic modernization, and reduction of the state's role in the economy. In 1994 the PPR elected three governors, two senators, and fifty-three federal deputies. The PPR contributed one minister (health) to Cardoso's cabinet, but the party did not automatically support government positions in Congress. In 1995 Paulo Maluf remained the main leader of the PPR, which attempted to form a bloc with the Progressive Party. In mid-September 1995, Maluf merged the PPR with the Progressive Party to form the Brazilian Progressive Party (Partido Progressista Brasileiro--PPB).
PR - Republic Party / Partido da República led by Sérgio Tamer, was was founded in 2007. The Republic Party is a conservative party and great representation in politics. It had three senators and along with this block a total of 41 deputies after the 2010 election. The PR came through a merger of the PL (closely affiliated with the evangelical Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Universal Church) with the PRONE, ultranationalist party. The Party is the second largest in membership in the Evangelical Bench. The Senator is well known LGBT: Magno Malta (ES). Malta promotes crusades against LGBT rights in speeches that maintain "there is homophobia in Brazil." All councilors of the Party of the Republic of São Paulo voted for the "Straight Pride Day" in 2011. In late 2010, when Congress voted to increase its own salary by 62%, the whole party voted for the measure. Moreover, the party has the greatest number of deputies elected suffering process of justice, with 9 in total. Also in 2010, the party was in 4th place, along with the PSDB in the number of candidates barred by the law of "Clean Sheet".
PRN--National Reconstruction Party (Partido da Reconstrucao Nacional). The PRN was created by Collor in February 1989 by a takeover of the Youth Party as an election vehicle for Collor's candidacy. PRN immediately received twenty deputies and two senators. After Collor's election, the party increased its congressional delegation in 1990, but had a dismal performance in the October 3 elections that year: forty deputies and only 7 percent of the vote, and no governors. In 1994 the party, reduced to four deputies and four senators, elected one federal and two state deputies. Collor and his advisers generally advocate free-market solutions to Brazil's economic problems. His electoral support was greatest in rural areas and in small towns across the country.
PTB--Brazilian Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro). The PTB, founded in 1945, is a populist party but long without a major national leader. It strongly supports organized labor but advocates center-right positions on many economic issues. PTB was the party of Getulio Vargas, one of Brazil's most popular presidents. For several decades, beginning in 1945, the PTB exercised political control over Brazil's labor sector. PTB support is strongest among urban working class, professionals, and small shopkeepers, particularly in Sao Paulo and Parana states.
The Brazilian Labor Party, a pre-1964 leftist party, was resurrected as center-rightist in 1980. Two factions--one led by Leonel Brizola and the other led by Ivette Vargas--vied for leadership of the PTB. Although twenty of the twenty-three federal deputies who originally joined the PTB were brizolistas, Ivette Vargas was allied with General Golbery do Couto e Silva, chief of Ernesto Geisel's Civil Household of the Presidency, who pressured the TSE (Superior Electoral Court) to give the label to Vargas's pro-government faction in May 1980.
The PTB elected thirteen deputies in 1982 and became the junior member in a coalition with the PDS to give the latter a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. In 1986 the PTB elected seventeen federal deputies, and in 1990 it elected two governors, four senators, and thirty-eight federal deputies. The party became a convenient election vehicle for politicians without space in the larger parties. In 1994 the PTB formed a coalition with the PFL and PSDB in support of Cardoso's candidacy. In that election, the PTB elected one governor, three senators, and thirty-one federal deputies--a slightly worse record than in 1990. In 1995 the PTB remained loyal to its coalition with the PSDB and PFL in support of the Cardoso government and occupied two ministries.
DEM - Democrats Heading lists most corrupt parties in recent years , the Democratic Party follows almost the same line of the PP and PR parties. With 27 federal deputies in the House and five senators. the former party leader in the Senate, Demosthenes Torres (GO) was investigated by the Federal Police involvement in an illegal scheme to operate slot machines in Goiás. Of the 33 federal deputies that the party had in 2010, 32 voted in favor of increased own salary in 2010.
The Democrats (DEM), renamed in 2007, succeeded the PFL (Party of the Liberal Front), which emerged from the division of ARENA and brought together its more liberal members. A conservative party, it advocates economic neoliberalism and forms part of the main opposition to the current government.
The Democrats were formerly known as the Liberal Front Party / Partido del Frente Liberal (PFL). Once the country's second largest party; defeated in the 1989 presidential campaign, it then aligned with President Fernando Collor de Mello. The PFL espouses views similar to those of the PDS [Democratic Social Party], but looked to different political leaders and maintained fewer ties to the military establishment. The PFL was strongest in medium-sized towns and the more conservative cities, especially in the northeast. It was founded in 1985 by Democratic Social Party (PDS) dissidents.
Liberal Front Party, a center-right party, was launched in December 1984 by a manifesto signed by three governors, ten senators, and sixty federal deputies. In the January 15, 1985, electoral college, the PMDB-Liberal Front-PDS ticket of Tancredo Neves and José Sarney received the votes of 102 federal deputies, fifteen senators, and fifty-one delegates still nominally affiliated with the PDS. In 1985 the PFL became the second largest party in Congress. It received a mere 8.8 percent of the votes in the municipal elections of November 1985, but when Sarney was able to reform the cabinet inherited from Tancredo Neves in February 1986, the PFL received six ministries. In 1992 the PFL elected nearly 1,000 mayors, second only to the PMDB.
Although the PFL was noted for its neoliberal ideology, it was always predisposed to pragmatic bargaining, such as in 1994, when it abstained from running its own presidential candidate and joined with the PSDB and PTB. Although it elected only two governors, it remained the second largest party in Congress, electing eleven senators and eighty-nine federal deputies (57 percent from the Northeast), in addition to the vice president. In Congress the PFL is known to have the most articulate and cohesive delegation, on a par with the Workers' Party. As a Cardoso coalition partner, the PFL received three ministries in 1995. It became the first-ranked party in 1997.
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