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Mali - Military Spending

The Malian government planned to invest 316 billion CFA francs (about $ 504 million) in the defense and security sectors in 2017. At 265 billion CFA francs (about $ 422 million) for the defense sector alone, and 51 billion CFA francs (about $ 82 million) for the security sector. This represents 13.9% of the overall budget of the country for the year 2017 which amounts to 2270.647 billion Fcfa (about $ 3.88 billion). Expenditures, especially in defense, are part of the implementation of the Military Orientation and Planning Act (LOPM - loi dorientation et de programmation militaire). Covering the period 2015-2019, this law provides for a global investment of CFAF 1230 billion ($ 1.9 billion) for the purchase of equipment and the recruitment of 10,000 soldiers. The Malian army currently has only 13,000 soldiers.

According to the Malian authorities, the implementation of this law will make it possible to meet the challenges facing the country's defense tool today. This includes its conditioning to cope with major crises and new forms of insecurity. But also to improve the conditions of remuneration, work, life of the defense forces with the requirements of the profession of arms and their responsibilities. Also, in terms of military equipment, 31 million euros have already been spent by the Malian government for the acquisition of armored and semi-armored Renault Trucks Defense vehicles and six (06) Super Puma helicopters. Six (06) A-29 Super Tucano light attack aircraft have also been ordered from the Brazilian manufacturer Embraer to replace the Russian MiG-21s, now out of service, which were fitted to the Malian Air Force.

According to the World Bank, military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country).

Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)

NATO defines defense expenditure as payments made by a national government specifically to meet the needs of its armed forces or those of Allies. A major component of defense expenditure is payments on Armed Forces financed within the Ministry of Defense (MoD) budget. Armed Forces include Land, Maritime and Air forces as well as Joint formations such as Administration and Command, Special Operations Forces, Medical Service, Logistic Command etc. In view of the differences between the NATO and national definitions, the figures shown may diverge considerably from those which are quoted by national authorities or given in national budgets.

They might also include "Other Forces" like Ministry of Interior troops, border guards, national police forces, customs, gendarmerie, carabinierie, coast guards etc. In such cases, expenditure should be included only in proportion to the forces that are trained in military tactics, are equipped as a military force, can operate under direct military authority in deployed operations, and can, realistically, be deployed outside national territory in support of a military force. Also, expenditure on Other Forces financed through the budgets of ministries other than MoD should be included in defense expenditure.

Pension payments made directly by the government to retired military and civilian employees of military departments should be included regardless of whether these payments are made from the budget of the MoD or other ministries. Expenditures for peacekeeping and humanitarian operations (paid by MoD or other ministries), the destruction of weapons, equipment and ammunition, and the costs associated with inspection and control of equipment destruction are included in defense expenditures.

Research and development (R&D) costs are to be included in defense expenditures. R&D costs should also include those for projects that do not successfully lead to production of equipment. Expenditure for the military component of mixed civilian-military activities is included, but only when this military component can be specifically accounted for or estimated. Financial assistance by one Allied country to another, specifically to support the defense effort of the recipient, should be included in the defense expenditure of the donor country and not in the defense expenditure of the receiving country. War damage payments and spending on civil defense are both excluded from the NATO definition of defense expenditure.

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