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Guinea-Bissau - Military Spending

The weak economy was based almost exclusively on a single crop (cashews) and the irregularities in government policies and world markets result in almost annual food shortages. By 2010 there was infrequent access to basic services such as water and electricity. The GOGB would not be able to pay civil service or military salaries without foreign donations. The justice system does not function. Police and public security forces cannot even afford fuel for the few vehicles that they have and there is no prison to house any criminals that they manage to capture and convict. All these problems alone are daunting enough, but in Guinea-Bissau they are merely backdrop for the entrenched cocaine trafficking and associated corruption that has seized the country.

The greatest challenge to security and defence sectors (SSR) reform implementation in Guinea-Bissau remains resource-mobilization. The budget estimate of US$184.3 million is based on the Governments 2007-2009 Three-Year Investment Plan for SSR. About US$43.2 million, representing only about 23% of the total budget has already been pledged by partners; the remaining US$141.1 million (77%) is expected to be raised through further resourcemobilization efforts from partners. The Government of Guinea-Bissau expected to contribute US$18.4 million (10% of the total budget). Government and partners acknowledge that a proper approach to providing assistance to SSR would involve phaseby-phase and sector-by-sector funding by partners of project components within the overall SSR Programme that would eventually form part of a coordinated strategy aimed at ensuring that all sectors targeted for reform are covered.

Specific programmmes within the Governments 2007-2009 Three-Year Investment Plan for SSR also benefitted from assistance by other international bilateral and multilateral partners. Examples include (i) the provision by Portugal of technical assistance under the Security Sector Restructuring Programme; (ii) the provision by Brazil and Portugal of support to the Security Forces Modernisation Programme, including training for law enforcement; (iii) the provision of support by Spain, Italy, UK and UNDP to the Programme for Capacity-building to Control Organized Crime including equipment and technical assistance; (iv) support by UNDP under the Defence Restructuring and Resizing Programme; (v) support by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF), Portugal, Brazil and Spain to the Defence Forces Modernization Programme, to rehabilitate military infrastructure and military-technical cooperation; (vi) support by ECOWAS, in partnership national and international partners, under the Programme for Reintegration of Demobilised Personnel; (vii) support by China, Portugal, France, Germany, the PBF and UNDP under the Justice and Security Programme, including administration of justice, rule of law, access to justice and penitentiary infrastructure and administration; and (viii) strategic support to the SSR process, currently being provided by Brazil and UK, among others.

According to the World Bank, military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country).

Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)

NATO defines defense expenditure as payments made by a national government specifically to meet the needs of its armed forces or those of Allies. A major component of defense expenditure is payments on Armed Forces financed within the Ministry of Defense (MoD) budget. Armed Forces include Land, Maritime and Air forces as well as Joint formations such as Administration and Command, Special Operations Forces, Medical Service, Logistic Command etc. In view of the differences between the NATO and national definitions, the figures shown may diverge considerably from those which are quoted by national authorities or given in national budgets.

They might also include "Other Forces" like Ministry of Interior troops, border guards, national police forces, customs, gendarmerie, carabinierie, coast guards etc. In such cases, expenditure should be included only in proportion to the forces that are trained in military tactics, are equipped as a military force, can operate under direct military authority in deployed operations, and can, realistically, be deployed outside national territory in support of a military force. Also, expenditure on Other Forces financed through the budgets of ministries other than MoD should be included in defense expenditure.

Pension payments made directly by the government to retired military and civilian employees of military departments should be included regardless of whether these payments are made from the budget of the MoD or other ministries. Expenditures for peacekeeping and humanitarian operations (paid by MoD or other ministries), the destruction of weapons, equipment and ammunition, and the costs associated with inspection and control of equipment destruction are included in defense expenditures.

Research and development (R&D) costs are to be included in defense expenditures. R&D costs should also include those for projects that do not successfully lead to production of equipment. Expenditure for the military component of mixed civilian-military activities is included, but only when this military component can be specifically accounted for or estimated. Financial assistance by one Allied country to another, specifically to support the defense effort of the recipient, should be included in the defense expenditure of the donor country and not in the defense expenditure of the receiving country. War damage payments and spending on civil defense are both excluded from the NATO definition of defense expenditure.

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