Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military




Burhanuddin Rabbani

Burhanuddin RabbaniA suicide bomber on September 19, 2011 killed former Afghan president and head of the country's High Peace Council Burhanuddin Rabbani, who was spearheading peace efforts with the Taliban. Police said the bomber entered Mr. Rabbani's house late Tuesday for peace talks, and detonated a bomb hidden in his turban while greeting the former president. Rabbani was simply called "ustad" or teacher, for his credentials as a former professor at Kabul University's Shari'a (Islamic Law) Faculty

Burhanuddin Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, was born in 1940 in Badakhshan, a province of Afghanistan. After finishing school in his native province, he went to Darul-uloom-e-Sharia (Abu-Hanifa), a religious school in Kabul. When he graduated from Abu-Hanifa, he went to Kabul University to study Islamic Law and Theology. During his four years at Kabul University he became well known for his works on Islam. Soon after his graduation in 1963, he was hired as a Professor at Kabul University. Rabbani went to Egypt in 1966, and entered the University Al-Azhar in Cairo. In two years, he received his masters degree in Islamic Philosophy.

In 1968, Rabbani returned to Afghanistan, where the High Council of Jamiat-i-Islami of Afghanistan gave him the duty of organizing the University students. Due to his knowledge, reputation, and active support for the cause of Islam, in 1972, a 15-member council selected him as head of Jamiat-i-Islami of Afghanistan; the founder of Jamiat-i-Islami of Afghanistan, Ghulam M. Niyazi was also present.

In the spring of 1974, police cars came to Kabul University to arrest Rabbani for his pro-Islamic stance, but with the help of his students the police were unable to capture him, and he managed to escape to the country side. Later with his base in Pakistan, Rabbani managed to lead his party now evolved into a sucessful mujahideen fighting group to resist the Soviet Invasion. Rabbani's forces was the first mujahideen group to enter Kabul in 1992 and defeat the Communists once and for all.

In 1992 he became President of the Islamic Council of Afghanistan (effectively ruler of the country), until Kabul was captured by the Taliban in 1996. The struggle for power among mujahedeen groups sparked a civil war that resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people. Rabbani's presidency ended in 1996, with the rise of the Taliban. An ethnic Tajik, he then became the nominal head of the Northern Alliance. He set up the Northern Alliance headquarters in the northern Afghan town of Faizabad and led, with support from Iran and Russia, one of the five anti-Taliban factions. Northern Alliance military commander Ahmad Shah Massoud was killed by al-Qaida suicide bombers posing as journalists on September 9, 2001, just two days before the September 11 attacks on the United States. The Northern Alliance joined with international forces in ousting the Taliban from power in 2001.

He was still recognised as ruler of Afghanistan by the United Nations and most other countries until he formally handed over power to an interim government headed by Hamid Karzai on December 22, 2001.

He was not given a cabinet post, and had been an outspoken critic of the new government. Mr Rabbani was expected to stand for election as the new head of state, but pulled out at the last minute. He maintains his status as head of the Jamiat-e Islami party, but in reality has little power. Mr Rabbani has promised that the Northern Alliance will not cling to power. He says he would welcome a broad-based government in Afghanistan. While in power, he allowed women to work and girls to enter higher education. As Hamid Karzai sought support in the presidential elections, Rabbani remained in the wings, although he had declared his support for Karzai.

As head of Afghanistan's High Peace Council, former President Burhannudin Rabbani spearheaded efforts to find a political solution to the decade-long war with the Taliban. Afghan President Hamid Karzai appointed the council in October of 2010. The 68-member body made up of tribal elders, religious leaders, and politicians was set up to facilitate contacts with insurgents willing to lay down their arms and join the government.

Salahuddin Rabbani

Salahuddin RabbaniIn October 2011, Salahuddin Rabbani was appointed as the acting head of Jamiat-e-Islami. Salahuddin Rabbani was named as High Peace Council chairman on 14 April 2012. On 14 April 2011, President Karzai appointed Mr. Rabbani as Chairman of High Peace Council with strong support and encouragement of the Political leaders, Ulema, Tribal leaders and elders as well as members of the High Peace Council.

The Afghan government convened a consultative jirga in 2010 on initiating peace talks with the Taliban, and following forums recommendation, Burhanuddin Rabbani [Salahuddin's father] was named chairman of the 70-member panel. A suicide bomber on September 19, 2011 killed former Afghan president and head of the country's High Peace Council Burhanuddin Rabbani, who was spearheading peace efforts with the Taliban.

After Burhanuddin Rabbanis assassination, negotiations with the Taliban came to a halt for approximately six months. The United States, meanwhile, launched parleys with the insurgent movement in Doha, the capital of Qatar, where Talibans political bureau was expected to open.

Sallahuddin Rabbani was born in Kabul in 1971. He is from northeastern Badakhshan province. After graduating from high school, he went to Saudi Arabia for higher education. In 1995, he received his Bachelor of Arts Degree (BA) in Marketing and Management from the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran. In Saudi Arabian, he worked for the Saudi oil giant -- ARAMCO. In 1996, he moved to Sharjah, the United Arab Emirates, where he worked till 1998. Later that year, he returned to Afghanistan and worked at the Presidential Palace as an interpreter and advisor. In June 1999, he went to London for higher studies and received his Masters in Business Administration from the Kingston University's Business School in 2001.

In 2002 Salahuddin joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2003 to 2006, he served as political consular at Afghanistans Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York.

In 2006, he left the Foreign Ministry and got admission to the Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA), where he received his second Masters' in International Affairs. After graduating from the Columbia University in 2008,, he returned to Afghanistan and joined Jamiat-i-Islami's political department. In August 2010, he rejoined the Foreign Ministry and in December 2010 he was appointed as ambassador to Turkey.

In 2002, Salahuddin joined the Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2003 to 2006 he worked as political counselor at the Permanent Mission of Afghanistan to the United Nations in New York. He represented Afghanistan in the first committee of the United Nations, International security and disarmament.

In 2006 Mr. Rabbani resigned from the Foreign Ministry and applied at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) where he received his second Masters' degree in International Affairs. His concentration in SIPA was International Security Policy. In 2008, after graduating from Columbia University, he returned to Afghanistan and worked in Jamiat-e-Islami's political department, as deputy head for political affairs.

In August 2010 he rejoined the Foreign Ministry and in December 2010 he was appointed as Ambassador of Afghanistan to Turkey. Mr. Rabbani returned to Afghanistan in September 2011 after the martyrdom of his father, Jamiat-e-Islamis leader Professor Burhanuddin Rabbani.

Mr. Rabbani is married and has four Children.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list