Light Marine Air Defense Integrated System [LMADIS]
Ground-based air defense [GBAD] combines systems like the existing RADA RPS-42 S-band radar, the Sierra Nevada Modi electronic warfare system, Lockheed Martin visual sensors and the Raytheon Coyote anti-drone UAV to allow air defense Marines to detect, track and destroy hostile drones. The GBAD future weapons system is designed to modernize Low Altitude Air Defense Battalions (LAAD Bn), by providing increased capability and lethality to meet evolving and future threats.
By early 2013, commercial off the shelf drones started appearing in United Sates Central Command’s area of operations. At that time, commercial drones had a flight time of fifteen minutes; negating a substantial threat. It was not until a drone was shot down in 2015, that the U.S. discovered enemy combatants were utilizing drones to conduct intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance against U.S. forces. Every year, a new generation of drones hits the shelves boasting longer ranges, better cameras, and intricate features that can be modified, exploited and weaponized. Combatants have even gone as far as modifying consumer drones capable of carrying and dropping homemade ordnance to military grade payloads at specific locations.
The Department of Defense defines CUAS as a system that can detect, track, identify, and defeat an Unmanned Aerial System. This CUAS increment of the MADIS is driving the deployment of future MADIS increments, which enhance LAAD’s current capability to counter manned aviation. The MADIS is the first CUAS with systems in place capable of all four objectives. This is an improvement upon previous CUAS systems such as the Drone Defender and Drone Buster; both hand-held, point-directional CUAS systems which rely heavily on the Marine operators. The MADIS was developed specifically to combat the weaponized commercial drone development. It is equipped with state-of-the-art sensors, optics to track and monitor targets at extensive ranges, and kinetic capabilities to physically disable a UAS on approach.
The GBAD is built to be expeditionary. The prototype version was built to operate from a forward operating base, a Marine M-ATV or a pair of the Marines’ new MRZR off-road vehicles. LMADIS consists of the RADA RPS-42 hemispheric air surveillance AESA radar system mounted on a MRZR buggy. The short-range S-band radar is highly sensitive and can spot a range of targets, including traditional helicopters and aircraft, as well as small radar signatures like ultralight aircraft and small drones. A gyro-stabilized CM202 multi-sensor optical ball can positively identify aerial targets day or night. If the target is deemed unfriendly, a Modi jammer can be turned on to target and break the data-link between the drone and its controller on the ground.
Modi II Electronic Countermeasure (ECM)
The Sierra Nevada Corporation [SNC] Modi II is the most modern & highly-capable dismounted EMC system in the DOD inventory. On 16 October 2015 Sierra Nevada Corporation was awarded a $73.2 million contract by the United States Marine Corps (USMC). Fulfillment includes providing the USMC’s Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) with the most modern and highly-capable dismounted Electronic Countermeasure (ECM) system in the DOD inventory, the Modi II. The delivery order on this indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract is for 581 systems, including spares and training. Work is expected to be completed by August 2016.
Modi II is one of SNC’s Electronic Warfare and Range Instrumentation (EWR) solutions. It is used both offensively and defensively to disrupt enemy communications on the battlefield. SNC’s EWR products are currently fielded in support of numerous United States military contingencies worldwide, protecting our forces against Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices (RCIEDs). This new capability is a natural evolution of previous SNC EWR systems Thor II/AN PLT-5 and Thor III AN/PLQ-9. The AN/PLT-5 man-packable ECM system, known as Thor II, was developed for joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal forces and AN/PLQ-9 was developed for joint conventional forces.
SNC’s EWR software-definable ECM systems are configured for use in man-packable (backpack), vehicular, fixed-site and airborne applications. The Modi II system is state-of-the-art and is becoming a truly viable building block for a potential multi-function, networked, DOD system of systems architecture. It has industry-leading size, weight and power metrics and has become an exceptionally cost effective, sustainable capability set of the future.
RPS-42 Tactical Volume Surveillance Radar
RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. - a leading defense electronics contractor specialized in the development, production, and sale of Tactical Land Radars - announces 12 June 2014 the selection of its RPS-42 Tactical Volume Surveillance Radar System by the US Navy Office of Naval Research (ONR). The system was selected for the Ground-Based Air Defense (GBAD) Directed Energy (DE) On-The-Move (OTM) Development Program as part of ONR’s plans to increase the US Marine Corps’ current low-altitude air-defense capabilities in dealing with new threats, specifically Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Delivery of the system to the US Navy was planned for July 2014.
The GBAD DE OTM is a Future Naval Capability development program, aimed at demonstrating a vehicle-mounted on-the-move short-range air-defense laser system to defeat Low Observable/Low Radar Cross Section (LO/LRCS) threats to Marine Corps forces, such as UAS.
RADA’s RPS-42 Tactical Volume Surveillance Radar System, based on its Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar (MHR), detects, tracks and classifies micro and mini UAS (Groups 1&2) at ranges of up to 10km. It accurately tracks the threats up to very high elevation angles, operates on-the-move, and introduces unprecedented performance-to-price ratio. In addition to UAVs and short-range RAM (Rockets, Artillery and Mortars), the system also detects and tracks other aerial targets, including fighter and transporter aircraft, helicopters, etc.
The uniqueness of the RPS-42 system lies in its ability to detect exceptionally small, low and slow-flying UAS - categorized as significant tactical threats to maneuver forces - which cannot be detected by most existing air defense radars. Advanced VSHORAD systems, especially those based on Directed Energy, require compact tactical radars that are able to detect these and other threats, operate on-the-move, and provide vital real-time threat information to the fire control system. All these critical capabilities are provided by the RPS-42 system - delivering volume surveillance and detection of multiple threat types, including the smallest threats.
The MHR – an S Band, Software-Defined, Pulse-Doppler, AESA radar – is a digital radar platform which is GaN based and introduces sophisticated beam forming capabilities and advanced signal processing. It provides multiple missions on each radar platform and can combine C-UAS and C-RAM operational missions on the same radar, thus delivering ideal organic, tactical surveillance solutions for force protection systems.
The RPS-42 Tactical Air Surveillance Radar System is a volume surveillance radar for Very Short-Range-Air Defense (VSHORAD) solutions. It is optimized to detect, classify and track all types of aerial objects, ataltitudes from 30ft to 30,000 ft within a radius of up to 30km – with emphasis on all types of UAVs, from micro and mini ( groups 1-3) to the medium and large (groups 4-5). Other aerial objects are fighters, helicopters, transport aircraft, and others.
The RPS-42 is a member of RADA’s Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar (MHR) family, enabling advanced force and border protection solutions. Key characteristics of the MHR technology:
- PulseDoppler,Software-Defined Radars
- AESA ( Active Electronically Scanned Array) Antenna
- Extremely High Elevation Coverage
- Non-Rotating, Solid State Radars
- Digital: BeamForming, Receivers, Pulse Compression
- Compact and Mobile, for Tactical Applications
- SuperiorPerformance-to-Price Ratio
Hemisphere coverage can be achieved by the simultaneous operation of four identical and interchangeable radars, each covering 90°in Azimuth and 80° in Elevation. The RPS-42 exceptional real-time configurability provides a wide range of capabilities:
- Real-time control of scanning modes
- “Spotlight”examination of specific tracks while scanning is continued
- Operator-control or remote-control of radar operation modes
- Management of hundreds of simultaneous tracks
The RPS-42 Radar System can be integrated with any C4I system and other radars/sensors using its standard Ethernet interfaces, and can operate stand-alone or as part of a large-scale surveillance system. It can be mobile or positioned at stationary sites.
The MHR (Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar) is a family of stationary and mobile radars designed for force and border protection applications. The family includes the RPS-40 radar system for hostile fire detection and management, the RPS-42 for tactical air surveillance, and the RHS-44 for border intrusion management.
- The RPS-40 Hostile Fire Detection Radar System detects, tracks, classifies and locates direct and elevated threats fired at stationary or mobile forces. It computes the Point-Of-Origin (POO) and Point-Of-Impact (POI) of the threats, which may be rockets, artillery, mortars, ATGMs, RPGs, and more. The system can be integrated with any protection and/or C4I system and be installed at stationary bases and posts, or onboard fighting vehicles.
- The RPS-42 Tactical Hemispheric Air Surveillance Radar System can detect, classify and track all types of aerial vehicles -- including fighters, helicopters, UAVs, transport aircraft, etc. at tactical ranges. Mobile or stationary, the system can be integrated with any C4I system and other radars and sensors, and can operate either as a stand-alone or as part of a large-scale surveillance system.
- The RHS-44 Radar System for Border Protection can detect, identify, and track aerial and surface border intruders including slow and small aircraft, vehicles, vessels, and pedestrians at tactical ranges. The RHS-44 can operate either as a stand-alone or as part of a large-scale surveillance system.
Marine Air Defense Integrated System [LMADIS]
The Low Altitude Air Defense (LAAD) Battalion (Bn) currently employs Ground Based Air Defense [GBAD] equipment in support of its primary mission to provide close-in, low altitude, surface-to-air weapon fire to defend forward combat areas, maneuver forces, vital areas, installations, or to support units engaged in special or independent operations. Its secondary mission is to provide a task organized, ground security force in defense of MAGTF air sites when not engaged in air defense operations. The PM GBAD portfolio consists of the legacy Advanced Man Portable Air Defense System (A-MANPADS) employing the Stinger missile system and its ancillary support equipment and the requirement to develop the GBAD Future Weapons Systems (FWS) to counter unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and emerging fixed winged and rotary winged (FW/RW) threats.
By June 2018 forward-deployed Marines were using a new system to protect U.S. troops from the threat of cheap and lethal unmanned aerial vehicles. The Marine Corps’ Ground-Based Air Defense (GBAD) Counter-UAS system was developed over the last two years to detect, identify, track and defeat small unmanned aircraft are that are putting forward forces at risk,
“This is the first time that fleet marines are going to be utilizing the MADIS to go through the full kill-chain from detection to destruction with kinetic and non-kinetic means in a forward location.” said Capt. Traver Mayfield, the 2nd LAAD CUAS Detachment officer in charge. “The MADIS drastically increases the range we can detect a UAS,” said Gunnery Sgt. Jermaine Vereen, 2nd LAAD CUAS Detachment staff non-commissioned officer in charge. “We can engage hostile drones even before they enter the forward operating base instead of waiting for them to come to us.” Marines with the 2nd LAAD CUAS Battalion provide close-in, low-altitude, surface-to-air weapons fire in defense of forward combat areas in the Central Command area of operations. LAAD is confident and ready to combat the makeshift air force.
“Our basis is in fighting conventional aircraft, but we aren’t fighting a conventional enemy,” said Sgt. Brandon Stuart, a gunner with 2nd LAAD CUAS Detachment. “This is literally in our job title; the skills we learn within our military operational specialty translates flawlessly to this.” 2nd LAAD’s update from conventional aircraft defense to more non-conventional aerial threats put more Marines in the fight and enhances regional theater security. “We haven’t fought conventional aircraft in quite some time, it makes sense and it makes us more relevant,” said Vereen. “It really puts us to good use. The enemy is evolving, it’s only natural that we do too.”
MADIS will consist of two variants. The MADIS Mk1 includes a turret-launched Stinger missile, multi-functional EW capability, direct fire weapon, Electro Optical Infra-Red (EO/IR) optic, and a shoulder-fired Stinger missile for dismounted operations. The MADIS Mk2 (C-UAS variant) includes a multi-function EW capability, 360-degree radar, direct fire weapon, EO/IR optic, and supporting C2 communications suite. The Mk1 and Mk2 form a complementary pair and are the basic building block of the LAAD Battalions’ GBAD capability.
Ground Based Air Defense- Future Weapon Systems (GBAD-FWS) $157.376M - FY20 funding will provide for initial procurement of Marine Air Defense Integrated System Increment (MADIS Inc 1) JLTV systems, an increase from 0 to 28 vehicles. Also included is an increase from 0 to 1 Expeditionary MADIS C-UAS System, to support critical infrastructure at bases, posts or stations. FY20 also funds an increase from 0 to 162 for the Night Sight Replacement to support equipment reaching obsolescence. The Night Sight will enable Marines to perform target acquisition during day or night, during reduced visibility conditions and when engaging low observable targets.
The Marine Air Defense Integrated System (MADIS) Increment 1 (Inc 1) will be accomplished with the procurement and installation of Government Furnished C-UAS Equipment on a Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) beginning in FY20. MADIS Increment 2 will focus on extended range for the Increment 1 system as well as kinetic and non kinetic capability. In order to deliver this mission critical capability more rapidly to address emerging hostile threats from Cruise Missiles in a Peer, Near Peer Competitor Environment, an initial Medium Range Intercept capability, Inc 3, will begin procurement in FY21. Inc 3 will be comprised of missile launchers, intercept missiles, and a Command and Control (C2) system that will be compatible and integrated with CAC2S and Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR), as well as, be able to operate on Marine Corps and Joint Integrated Air Defense System networks.
The United States Marine Corps Program Executive Officer for Land Systems (PEO LS), Program Manager for Ground Based Air Defense (PM GBAD) sought via RFI M67854-19-I-0018 released 04 December 2018 to identify interested vendors for the procurement and integration of a radar onto a Marine Corps vehicle platform to meet track and ID requirements for the Future Weapons Systems Increment 1 (FWS Inc. 1) – Marine Air Defense Integrated System (MADIS) program of record. This RFI was focused on the existing commercially available radar technology with capability to meet production requirements for the MADIS Program, to be fielded in FY21 through FY25.
Increment 1 of the FWS modernizes the existing GBAD system by mounting a mix of legacy and technologically mature capabilities onto tactical vehicles mitigating the risk of attacks from UAS and FW/RW aircraft, while maintaining pace with maneuver forces. It is a family of systems consisting of specific, integrated capabilities required to carry out active air defense missions against UAS and FW/RW aircraft, and is called the MADIS. The defense of maneuver forces requires an integrated and in-depth air defense umbrella based upon the rapid kill chain sequence of “detect”, “track”, “identify”, and “defeat”. This doctrinal task sequence provides the foundation for the concept of operation enabling the MADIS to use organic and/or non-organic data to acquire, engage, and negate or destroy aerial threats inflight by kinetic and non-kinetic means. The MADIS achieves success by employing a dispersed, integrated, and composite defense comprised of layers of GBAD systems protecting the MAGTF operating across the full range of military operations while considering standoff, lethality, range, and effectiveness.
The two variants of MADIS vehicles which operate together are the Stinger variant (Mk 1) and Counter-UAS variant (Mk 2). The Mk1 includes a turret launched Stinger Missile with integrated Mode 5 Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator, multi-function electronic warfare (EW) capability, direct fire weapon, optic, and a shoulder fired Stinger Missile for dismounted operations. The Mk2 includes a turret launched kinetic C-UAS capability, multi-function EW capability, 360 degree radar, direct fire weapon, optic, and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) gateway / server capability. Together they form a complementary pair and are the basic building block of the LAAD Battalions’ GBAD capability.
Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the MADIS is planned for 2021 and is defined as one Platoon per Low Altitude Air Defense (LAAD) Battalion equipped with both MADIS Mk1 and Mk2 variants and an initial training package. Full Operational Capability (FOC) for the GBAD FWS Increment 1 is planned for 2025 and is defined as delivery of the full Approved Acquisition Objective (AAO) along with spares, and defined training support materials.
Speaking at the White House on 18 July 2019, Donald Trump said that USS Boxer, an amphibious assault ship of the U.S. Navy, destroyed the drone that threatened the U.S. warship by flying within 1,000 yards of it and ignored multiple warnings. Trump said the drone was "threatening the safety of the ship and the ship's crew," calling the downing a "defensive action."
"Despite the illusory claims by (the U.S. President Donald) Trump, all the drones belonging to the Islamic republic in the Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz region, including the drone which Trump talks about, have returned safely to their bases (on Thursday) after their reconnaissance missions," the Spokesman for the Iranian Armed Forces Sardar Abolfazl Shekarchi said in a statement on 19 July 2019. "The baseless remarks of the U.S. president aim at creating tension and insecurity in the important region of the Gulf and the strategic waterway of Strait of Hormuz," he said. Iranian Armed Forces are "legally" duty-bound to protect the security of the Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz with vigilance and in accordance to the international regulations, Shekarchi added.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|