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Congressional Budget Offive [CBO] Reports


  • Long-Term Implications of the 2016 Future Years Defense Program Report January 14, 2016 - The Department of Defenses five-year plan calls for budgets averaging $534 billion (in 2016 dollars) from 2016 through 2020, but they would average $565 billion per year from 2021 through 2030 under the departments cost assumptions.


  • Replacing Military Personnel in Support Positions With Civilian Employees Report December 2, 2015 - The Defense Department could cut federal costs by replacing some military personnel in support positions with civilian employees. If DoD replaced 80,000 military personnel, it could eventually save $3.1 billion to $5.7 billion annually.
  • An Analysis of the Navys Fiscal Year 2016 Shipbuilding Plan Report October 29, 2015 - CBO estimates that the cost of the Navys 2016 shipbuilding planan average of about $20 billion per year (adjusted for inflation) over 30 yearswould be $4 billion higher than the funding that the Navy has received in recent decades.
  • Preserving the Navy's Forward Presence With a Smaller Fleet Report March 13, 2015 The Navy can sustain its forward presence under smaller shipbuilding budgets by using longer deployments, more overseas basing, and more rotating crews. But those methods would offset some of the savings and have other disadvantages.
  • Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2015 to 2024 Report January 22, 2015 CBO estimates the Administrations plans for nuclear forces would cost $348 billion over the next decade, close to last years estimate. However, projected costs for both the Departments of Defense and Energy have changed somewhat.


  • Growth in DoD's Budget From 2000 to 2014 Report November 20, 2014 The Department of Defense's base budget increased by 31 percent (adjusted for inflation) between 2000 and 2014, mainly because of higher costs for military personnel and operation and maintenance.
  • Veterans' Disability Compensation: Trends and Policy Options Report August 7, 2014 From 2000 to 2013, the number of veterans receiving VA disability payments rose by nearly 55 percent, and spending for those benefits almost tripled. How might changes in VA's disability compensation program affect the federal budget?
  • Approaches to Reducing Federal Spending on Military Health Care Report January 16, 2014 Between 2000 and 2012, the cost of providing health care to service members, retirees, and their families increased by 130 percent (after adjusting for inflation). What approaches might curtail the growth in those costs?


  • An Analysis of the Navys Fiscal Year 2014 Shipbuilding Plan OCTOBER 2013 - The total costs of carrying out the 2014 planan average of about $21 billion in 2013 dollars per year over the next 30 years would be one-third higher than the funding amounts that the Navy has received in recent decades.
  • The Armys Ground Combat Vehicle Program and Alternatives APRIL 2013 - The Army is planning to develop and purchase a new Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) that will serve the dual purposes of operating as a combat vehicle and transporting soldiers to, from, and around the battlefield.
  • Approaches for Scaling Back the Defense Departments Budget Plans Report March 18, 2013 The costs of the Department of Defenses (DoDs) budget plans through 2021 would be much higher than the funding permitted under the Budget Control Acts statutory caps. CBO examined four options to cut back on DoDs forces and activities.


  • Costs of Military Pay and Benefits in the Defense Budget Report November 14, 2012 For fiscal year 2013, the Department of Defense (DoD) requested about $150 billion to fund the pay and benefits of current and retired members of the military. That amount is more than one-quarter of DoDs total base budget request.


  • The Cost-Effectiveness of Nuclear Power for Navy Surface Ships MAY 2011 - Congress has shown interest in powering some of the Navys future destroyers and amphibious warfare ships with nuclear rather than conventional (petroleum based) fuel.
  • 2010





  • Options for the Navys Future Fleet MAY 2006 - Todays Navy numbers about 285 battle force ships. The Navy indicated that it needs a fleet of 313 ships to perform all of its missions. Building and sustaining such a force, however, would require greater budgetary resources over the next three decades than the Navy has received in recent years. The
  • Alternatives for Long-Range Ground-Attack Systems March 2006 - Capabilities and costs associated with alternative long-range strike systems that DoD might develop and procure to improve its ability to conduct ground-attack operations.
  • 2005

  • 30-YEAR PLAN October 2005 - The U.S. Navy sent Congress a long-term force structure plan on March 23. The plan presents two options for the fleet of 2035: one with 260 vessels, one with 325.
  • Letter to Honorable Roscoe G. Bartlett, Chairman, Subcommittee on Projection Forces, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives April 25, 2005 - Assessed the nearterm and long-term demands for shipbuilding resources associated with sustaining either a 260-ship or 325-ship fleet.
  • 2004

  • The Future of the Navy's Amphibious and Maritime Prepositioning Forces November 2004: Are there ways to modernize the amphibious and maritime prepositioning forces at a lower cost than what the Navy plans to spend?


  • Letter to the Honorable Robert Byrd regarding the U.S. military's ability to sustain an occupation in Iraq [2.75 MB PDF] September 2003-- "Over the near term-that is, about the next 12 months-the Department of Defense plans to deploy a substantial fraction of its ground forces for occupation duty in Iraq.
  • Transforming the Navy's Surface Combatant Force May 2003 -- This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study looks at the composition, missions, and modernization programs of the Navy's surface combatant force as well as alternatives to the Navy's current approach to the force.


  • Estimated Costs of a Potential Conflict with Iraq September 2002 -- "In response to your request of September 20, 2002, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has estimated the cost of activities related to possible military operations in Iraq. CBO estimated that the incremental costs of deploying a force to the Persian Gulf (the costs that would be incurred above those budgeted for routine operations) would be between $9 billion and $13 billion. Prosecuting a war would cost between $6 billion and $9 billion a month. Further, the incremental cost of an occupation following combat operations could vary from about $1 billion to $4 billion a month. " [PDF Version 72 Kb]
  • Increasing the Mission Capability of the Attack Submarine Force March 2002 - In 1999, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff released a study concluding that the Navy would need 68 SSNs by 2015 and 76 by 2025 to carry out critical peacetime missions.
  • 2001









  • SELECTED OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING NAVAL CAPABILITY IN REGIONAL CONFLICTS June 1993 - This memorandum identifies options for additional investment designed to enhance the U.S. Navy's capabilities in six mission areas associated with its ability to fight regional wars.
  • 1992




  • MOVING THE MARINE CORPS BY SEA IN THE 1990s October 1989 - The paper examines the Administration plan and three alternative approaches to buying and retaining amphibious ships.
  • 1988


  • Naval Combat Aircraft: Issues and Options - November 1, 1987 - The Navy's plans for its combat aircraft have been a topic of Congressional debate for many years. This year, for example, the Congress debated whether the Navy could afford to purchase two new aircraft carriers while also funding its plans to modernize and increase the number of its combat aircraft.
  • 1986




  • Rapid Deployment Forces: Policy and Budgetary Implications February 1983, Reprinted May 1983 - The planned growth of U.S. Rapid Deployment Forces (RDF), which may nearly double in size in the coming few years, raises important policy and budgetary issues for Congressional consideration. This growth in forces earmarked for the RDF is being accomplished not by adding combat forces but by changing the primary mission of existing forces.
  • 1982

  • Army Ground Combat Modernization for the 1980s: Potential Costs and Effects for NATO November 1982 - The Administration is proceeding with a major investment program to improve ground combat capabilities by upgrading or replacing existing weapons systems.
  • Costs of Expanding and Modernizing the Navy's Carrier-Based Air Forces May 1982 - The Administration's defense program includes a major expansion of the Navy. This program would involve substantial expenditures not only for additional ships but also for naval aircraft, both to establish new carrier-based air wings and to complete the modernization of the 12 existing wings.
  • Building a 600-Ship Navy: Costs, Timing, and Alternative Approaches March 1982 - Between 1970 and 1980 the total number of ships in the U.S. Navy fell from 847 to 538 and uniformed personnel strength declined from 675,000 to about 525,000. The fleet envisioned by current Navy planners features 15 deployable aircraft carriers. This fleet would number over 600 ships (including the strategic force of ballistic missile submarines).
  • 1981

  • Naval Surface Combatants in the 1990s: Prospects and Possibilities April 1981 - Looking ahead to the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Navy faces a substantial drop in the surface combatant force level as ships currently in the fleet reach retirement age.
  • 1980



  • U.S. Air and Ground Conventional Forces for NATO: Air Defense Issues March 1978 - The effectiveness of U.S. air and ground conventional forces for NATO is closely related to the capabilities of our NATO allies. Therefore, the allies' contribution to NATO's defense should be considered in making decisions on U.S. conventional forces.
  • U.S. Air and Ground Conventional Forces for NATO: Firepower Issues March 1978 - U.S. air and ground conventional firepower assets are procured mainly for the defense of NATO. Decisions concerning these weapons over the next five years will help shape the roles that U.S. forces play in NATO defenses.
  • U.S. Air and Ground Conventional Forces for NATO: Mobility and Logistics Issues March 1978 - Mobility and logistics are increasingly important to the defense of Western Europe. If NATO is to respond effectively to a Warsaw Pact non-nuclear attack across the West German border, it must be able to move and re-equip troops with materiel rapidly.
  • U.S. Air and Ground Conventional Forces for NATO January 1978 - The principal role of a large part of the U.S. air and ground forces is to participate with our allies in a defense of NATO Europe. Therefore, judgments about the requirements for that defense and the appropriate role of the United States in it will underlie Congressional budget decisions.


  • Assessing the NATO/Warsaw Pact Military Balance December 1, 1977 - How the United States plans to fulfill its defense commitments to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the major determinant of the defense budget.

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