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This section provides a general overview of TRADOC's efforts to integrate Military Environmental Protection across the Doctrine, Training, Leader Development, Organization, Materiel, and Soldier (DTLOMS) products. It will also tie together many of the techniques and procedures and focus on the issues of "training to standard" and the associated "train as you fight." This should help identify voids in the program that should be marked for future effort.

Environmental Integration Objective

Full integration will occur when everyone -- leaders, soldiers, and families -- automatically include environmental impact considerations in the planning and execution of activities. We have instilled the warfighting ethic throughout the force, and we are now instilling an environmental ethic as well. We must incorporate environmental considerations in our doctrine . . . in our decision-making process.

In 1992, the Chief of Staff of the Army, General Gordon Sullivan, stated the above environmental integration objective as part of the Army's Environmental Strategy. If TRADOC is successful in obtaining the objective, a soldier will respond to environmental issues as routine operations because it will be integrated into the way he thinks, the way he is trained, and the way he operates or fights.

The information provided here is designed to help you to see the "full court press" that is being made to integrate Military Environmental Protection across the Army. (For another look at this subject, see "Integration: The Key to Achieving the Army's Environmental Vision," in the Jul-Aug 98 issue of News From the Front! It is available at CALL's website as well. The article provides a look at how the USAES Environmental Division is accomplishing its mission of integrating environmental protection across the DTLOMS products in its role as the executive agent for Headquarters, TRADOC.)

DTLOMS Products/Goals

To achieve the environmental integration objective and incorporate the Army's environmental strategy, USAES decided the most variable framework to address the implications of environmental considerations was in terms of their impact on each of the DTLOMS products. USAES established DTLOMS domain goals as critical elements for achieving the environmental integration objective. USAES, working with the TRADOC Steering Committee and Working Group, translated these goals into specific projects and work priorities during annual In-Progress Reviews (IPRs). The DTLOMS products descriptions and goals are:

  • Doctrine. Doctrine provides a holistic basis for the Army to incorporate new ideas, technologies, and organizational designs. It is the philosophical underpinning for all DTLOMS products. Doctrine serves as a catalyst for change, explaining that change in language soldiers and leaders can understand. The doctrine integration goal is to: Integrate environmental considerations into Army operational concepts.

  • Training. Training molds the Army into a force that is capable of decisive victory. It ensures that soldiers are prepared to fight and win. The Army has one standard. That standard is tough, realistic, battle-focused training that prepares soldiers and units for a variety of missions. The training integration goal is to: Identify environmental training requirements by task, conditions, and standards, and integrate them into the Total Army Training System (TATS).

  • Leader Development. Leader development is the process of developing or promoting the growth of confident, competent military leaders who understand and are able to exploit the full potential of present and future doctrine, organizations, technology, and equipment. Leadership is the product of the leader development process. Effective leadership transforms human potential into effective performance. The leader development integration goal is to: Identify leader environmental-related tasks, responsibilities and duties, and integrate environmental stewardship into unit operations.

  • Organizations. Organizational design encompasses the allocation of personnel and equipment to units to perform specific types of missions. As the Army becomes smaller but is expected to accomplish a wider variety of complex missions, unit organizations and staffs will be tailored to the mission. These tailored organizations will face a variety of environmental challenges during all operations. The organizations integration goal is to: Identify staff organizations and procedures to integrate environmental considerations into the military decision-making process (MDMP).

  • Materiel. Materiel requirements encompass the combat development function. TRADOC's combat development staffs represent the "users," i.e., the field Army, in providing a statement of need, or "requirement," to DA and DOD decision-makers and to materiel developers in the Army Materiel Command (AMC). The Operational Requirements Document (ORD) drives the development of the Army's new equipment. The materiel integration goal is to: Integrate environmental considerations into the acquisition process to achieve pollution prevention throughout the system's life.

  • Soldiers. Quality soldiers, trained and led by competent and caring leaders, will remain the keys to success in Army operations. Soldiers of the 21st Century will face a variety of environmental challenges when preparing for and executing missions. The soldiers integration goal is to: Instill an environmental ethic into all soldiers to integrate environmental stewardship/pollution prevention concepts.

Horizontal and Vertical Integration

Horizontal integration is the application of the Army's environmental strategy, policies, and operating procedures across all DTLOMS products to achieve efficiencies and synergistic effectiveness. Vertical integration is the application of the DTLOMS products to all Army systems. The DTLOMS model illustrates this relationship. Environmental DTLOMS initiatives are described in the paragraphs below.


Doctrine Methodology

Doctrinal principles, tenets, and fundamentals guide the conduct of all Army operations. The Army's doctrine is based on fundamental, well-understood principles rooted in military experience. Army doctrine is also the authoritative basis for force design, materiel acquisition, professional education, and individual/unit training. Although the Army published an environmental strategy in 1992, commanders made no connection between environmental requirements in garrison and those in operational doctrine. Mapping the requirements of the Army's environmental strategy into operational doctrine entails a gradual process of introducing concepts and norms into keystone and capstone doctrine manuals simultaneously, while developing specific requirements in procedural publications.

TRADOC annually publishes the doctrinal integration priorities in the Environmental DTLOMS Integration Plan (EDIP). USAES, as TRADOC's executive agent, reviews all doctrinal manuals for environmental integration and forwards reviews to the manual proponent. The TRADOC Environmental Steering Committee member, representing the Combined Arms Center, reviews and coordinates the integration efforts for capstone and combined arms (corps/division level) manuals. TRADOC Service School Working Group members coordinate the branch-specific proponency manuals and soldier publications. USAES developed the DTLOMS Integration Environmental Tracking/Environmental Review (DIETER) database to track and standardize environmental integration into doctrinal manuals.

Doctrine Integration

In 1995, USAES published a series of white papers to gain acceptance of environmental concepts and their eventual inclusion into future revisions of the Army's keystone manual, FM 100-5, Operations. These papers examined why environmental protection considerations are relevant to Army operational doctrine. The intent of these white papers was to promote cognizance of the importance of environmental considerations in mission planning and to obtain general acceptance of this idea from military commanders. Based on positive field comments, the TRADOC Chief of Staff published environmental integration guidance for Army doctrine. It summarized the rationale for incorporating environmental protection into operational doctrine, provided a baseline of current requirements and developments, established guidelines for doctrine writers, and offered a methodology for rapid and flexible communication of environmental requirements to units.

Environmental-Specific Doctrine

TRADOC published the following environmental-specific doctrine:

  • Training Circular (TC) 5-400, Unit Leader's Handbook for Environmental Stewardship. USAES published TC 5-400 in September 1994 as a primer on the environment. The manual identified leader actions that effectively integrate the Army's environmental program into unit training and operations. Over 100,000 copies were distributed to the field.

  • FM 20-400/MCRP 4-11B, Military Environmental Protection (Draft). USAES, in concert with the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), will publish this multi-service field manual. It will be the capstone environmental publication, providing a comprehensive understanding of how environmental considerations affect operational doctrine. The manual describes how a leader trains, deploys, fights, and re-deploys his unit while integrating environmental considerations. This manual is scheduled for publication in 3rdquarter FY 99. The latest version of the draft is available on the internet at .

  • TC 20-401, The Soldier and the Environment (Draft). This TC will become a basic soldier publication outlining the soldier's environmental ethic, the Army's environmental strategy, and soldier responsibilities and duties. Initial entry soldiers and officer candidates will receive a copy of this manual during basic training and pre-commissioning courses. USAES will publish TC 20-401 in 3rd quarter FY 99.


Training Methodology

TRADOC uses the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) to focus its initial training development efforts. SAT is a disciplined, logical approach to making collective, individual, and self-development training decisions for the total Army. It determines whether or not training is needed; what is trained; who is trained; how and where the training is presented; and the training support/resources required to produce, distribute, implement and evaluate those products. TRADOC reviewed environmental training needs and developed a plan to conduct environmental task analysis of common Military Occupational Speciality (MOS) and Officer Foundation Standards (OFS) tasks. TRADOC reviewed environmental training initiatives and validated requirements for additional training products. Rather than developing new stand-alone environmental courses, TRADOC integrated environmental considerations into the training development regulations/courses, TRADOC common core curriculum for professional development courses, and MOS training. TRADOC annually publishes training integration priorities. These priorities focus on influencing the training development process first and then on the development of resident, nonresident, and unit training products. Currently, TRADOC has completed, or has under development, 27 training products to include: 13 training support packages (TSPs), 6 television tapes (TVTs), 2 graphic training aides (GTAs), 2 computer-based instructions (CBIs), and 3 Army correspondence courses (ACCPs).

Initial Environmental Awareness Training

In 1993 TRADOC directed USAES to develop 13 separate Environmental Awareness TSPs for inclusion into professional development courses and initial entry training. The purpose of the TSPs was to provide initial environmental awareness training prior to the integration of specific environmental tasks into MOSs. Each TSP consisted of a two-hour lesson and the accompanying videotape, TVT 5-56, The Soldier and the Environment. The TSPs contain basic environmental awareness and knowledge necessary for a soldier of a particular rank to perform his job and minimize the impact to the environment. In January 1994, USAES forwarded these TSPs to all TRADOC service schools. TRADOC instructed the service schools to incorporate the new common core TSPs into their program of instruction (POI) prior to March of 1994.

Task Analysis and Integration into MOS Producing Courses

TRADOC is striving to integrate environmental considerations into all MOS training. Service schools have the task to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into all MOS training. To meet this need, TRADOC directed the service schools to incorporate environmental considerations into branch-specific training products and doctrinal manuals. Integration is more urgent for some skills than others. For example, fuel handlers, heavy equipment operators, mechanics, and heavy weapons handlers require immediate attention due to their high environmental impact. In conjunction with the working group, USAES is conducting task analysis of 70 high-profile MOSs to identify tasks, conditions, or standards requiring environmental integration. This analysis includes the development of a list of common environmental skills and knowledge. This list is compared against current inventories of the targeted MOSs.

USAES works with service school subject matter experts to determine the environmental implication of MOS-specific tasks. They analyze the data and recommend, as appropriate, environmental steps and measures for inclusion into the existing inventories. USAES is scheduled to complete the analysis by October 1998. At the conclusion of each specific task analysis, USAES prepares and forwards the final MOS report for service schools to use when they change MOS critical task lists or revise Soldier Training Publications (STPs).

Environmental integration into the training domain will require a dedicated effort from the service schools, the TRADOC proponent (DCSBOS), and the executive agent (USAES) over the next three years to ensure that all training products are completed and fully integrated into service school POIs and unit training. USAES will complete all current projects by 4th Quarter 99.


Leader Development Methodology

Leader development is a continuous and cumulative process of education and training, experience, assessment, reinforcement, and feedback. It involves evaluating and selecting individuals for promotion, positions of greater responsibility, and additional duties. It is an integrated, progressive, and sequential process that involves institutional training and education, operational assignments, and self-development. USAES has developed a series of initiatives to affect the institutional leader training and education regulation and leader common-core tasks.

Leader Common-Core Tasks

Common-core task lists contain the approved training required of, and common to, all leaders regardless of branch or career management field. Common-core task lists consolidate all approved common military, common leader, and directed training into a single task list for officer (to include pre-commission), warrant officer (to include pre-appointment), and noncommissioned officer leader education and training courses.

TRADOC is currently reviewing and aligning tasks that are common to the officer, warrant officer, and NCO education systems. As part of that effort, USAES is integrating environmental tasks into the common-core curriculum of all leader development courses. USAES is developing environmental tasks and TSPs that will become the basis of the leader environmental training program to replace the original environmental awareness training. Service schools will implement these TSPs and integrate environmental concerns throughout course POIs.


Organization Methodology

USAES's original concept for affecting the organizational design centered on establishing an environmental officer Additional Skill Identifier (ASI). The ASI would identify positions that require special qualifications in managing the Army Environmental Program and in providing environmental planning services to the commander. The ASI would be added to existing Table of Equipment (TOE) positions. This idea was eventually dropped due to manpower shortages and difficulties in managing low-density ASIs.

In an attempt to provide environmental expertise and coordination at the unit level, USAES proposed that unit commanders appoint and train Unit Environmental Compliance Officers (UECOs) as an additional duty appointment. The Army approved this concept. TRADOC directed USAES to develop the UECO training program. Additionally, USAES reviewed and integrated the UECO concept in the Army's primary environmental regulation, AR 200-1, Environmental Protection and Enhancement, February 1997.

Based on some of the emerging techniques and procedures from operational environments like Bosnia, there may be new considerations for the redesign of some organizations, or even the creation of new units, that support the commander in accomplishing his Military Environmental Protection roles. Although currently formed in an ad hoc fashion, organizations such as the BCCA and the subordinate BCAT are not "flash in the pan" requirements, but fill roles and functions that will be required for any contingency in which we operate. The discussion of these requirements, and how to best organize to accomplish them, will be a future agenda item.


Materiel Requirement/Methodology

The materiel products encompass the combat development function. TRADOC's combat development staffs represent the "users," i.e., the field Army, in providing a statement of need, or "requirement," to DA and DoD decision-makers and to materiel developers in the Army Materiel Command (AMC). The requirement development and determination processes are complex because there are so many potential solutions to a problem and there is a vast amount of new technology constantly being introduced. Because of the expense and significance of each decision, the process is lengthy, highly proceduralized, and subject to multiple decision steps by senior leadership. The result, however, provides a requirement determination that drives the development of the Army's new equipment.

TRADOC, as the Army's combat developer and materiel "gate keeper," determines and approves all materiel requirements and can significantly influence the acquisition process. By successfully integrating pollution-prevention (P2) requirements in the process, it can effectively mitigate future environmental costs and increase readiness. USAES has concentrated on integrating pollution prevention concepts into the acquisition and logistics regulations/policies and the requirements determination process. This process uses operational requirements documents (ORDs) to link the user and the materiel developer.

Examples of environmentally related materiel that either needs to be developed or purchased to support the force in accomplishing aspects of Military Environmental Protection may include:

  • New sampling equipment for preventive medicine personnel.
  • Additional purchases of the recent "environmental" chip for the mobile mass spectrometer on the M93 Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System (NBCRS).
  • Lightweight portable toilet for unit field sanitation kits.


Soldier Methodology

USAES environmental integration efforts into soldier support concentrate on establishing and inculcating a soldier environmental ethic and linking it to the ethical decision-making process. The premise is that soldiers have an inherent professional and personal responsibility to understand and support the Army's environmental program.

Establish a Soldier Environmental Ethic

Stewardship is a key element of the Army's environmental ethic. The Army is charged with protecting and defending the nation, to include safeguarding the environment. In addition, the Army has been entrusted with large land areas and many other resources. The American people expect the Army to exercise good judgment in the use and management of those resources. The soldier's quality of life, as affected by his immediate environment, and his pride in the professional standards of the Army are related to the institutional environmental ethic established in the other domains. Environmental protection practices in the Army will directly affect the pride, morale, recruitment, and retention of soldiers and their families. Environmental stewardship can be achieved only if natural and cultural resource concerns are integrated into the Army decision-making process. Army operations and strategies must include these concerns from the outset so that environmental issues are identified and resolved quickly. USAES has made a concerted effort to revise current military leadership concepts to include the Army Environmental Strategy Goal -- Spread the Environmental Ethic. USAES has worked with leadership doctrine writers to integrate the environmental ethic as part of ethical decision-making. FM 22-100, Military Leadership, currently defines ethics as "principles or standards that guide professionals to do the moral or right thing which should be done." To achieve this goal, USAES has made this task an objective for all DTLOMS initiatives.


TRADOC has made significant strides toward the environmental DTLOMS integration objective and in accomplishing the individual DTLOMS products' goals. By the year 2000, all of the currently identified DTLOMS initiatives will be complete, and the essence of the environmental ethos will be well entrenched into the Army way of doing business. At that point the program will enter its sustainment phase. USAES will continue to function as the tasks/course proponent for 36 environmental DTLOMS products, responsible for their maintenance and revision. Additionally, USAES, as the executive agent, will continue to analyze environmental DTLOMS requirements, conduct analysis of the program's effectiveness, coordinate integration among the schools, and assist TRADOC in developing future products. The keys to achieving the integration objective are:

  • Sustained funding of the program.
  • Continued USAES involvement as the executive agent.
  • Proactive doctrine and POI integration by service schools and proponents.
  • Acceptance and use of doctrine and unit training products by the field.
  • Periodic evaluations of the integration, usage, and effectiveness of DTLOMS products.
  • Sustained maintenance of DTLOMS products to ensure they are current and relevant.
  • Committed Army and TRADOC leadership.

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