Glossary and Acronyms
AO: area of operations.
BiH: Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina., composed of two entities, the largely Muslim and Croat-inhabited Federation and the largely Serb-inhabited Republika Srpska.
BELUGA Group: SFOR transportation unit consisting of military assets from Belgium, Luxembourg, Greece, and Austria. Responsible for the transportation of voting materials between the OSCE warehouse in Sarajevo and the 32 storage and distribution centers throughout BiH.
Canton: A geographic area similar to a U.S. state made up of several opstinas. The cantonal-level government directly appoints members of the Federation House of Peoples. The RS does not have cantons.
Condition for Free and Fair Elections: Threshold requirements as established by the Dayton Peace Accords which must be met before elections could occur in BiH. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), certified in June 1996, that these conditions had been met. The conditions consisted of a politically neutral environment; protection and enforcement of the right to vote in secret without fear or intimidation; freedom of expression and of the press; freedom of association, (including political parties); and freedom of movement.
Core Supervisor: OSCE employee with supervisory and logistics responsibility for supervisors and observers.
Dayton Agreement: U.S.-brokered 1995 agreement under which the warring factions agreed to end the fighting in BiH. Also known as the GFAP or General Framework For Peace.
DP: displaced person. In Bosnia, DPs are considered to be people displaced from their homes during the war, but who did not to flee to another country.
ECMM: European Community Monitoring Mission. The ECMM was established by the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in July, 1991. It is composed of current and former elected officials from Europe. The ECMM monitors all aspects of the GFAP. ECMM personnel were considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers were authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect ECMM monitors against hostile acts or intent.
E-Day: Election's Day/13 - 14 September 1997.
Entity: One of the two political bodies that comprise the BiH. The Federation and the Republka Srpska are the two entities that comprise the BiH.
Federation: One of the two entities making up BiH. It is primarily inhabited by Muslims and Croats.
FOM: Freedom of Movement.
Form 1: A registration form that allows Bosnians to register to vote in the place where they resided in 1991. This form is primarily used to register to vote absentee because the individual's name is included automatically on the Provisional Voters' List (PVL) if he/she was counted in the 1991 census. If an individual's name is on the PVL, there is no need to file a registration form unless he/she does not plan to vote in person. A Bosnian may also file a Form 1 to register if his/her name was not initially included on the PVL.
Form 2: A registration form that allows a Bosnian to register to vote in a municipality where he/she did not live in 1991, but where he/she would like to live in the future. For the municipal elections, the Form 2 option may only be available to displaced persons residing in Bosnia and may not be open to refugees residing abroad. As of 2 October 1996, the PEC was deciding whether or not to change the rules regarding Form 2 for the municipal election process.
Form 3: Form 3 is an adjustment document. If someone is denied registration to vote, they can appeal the decision with Form 3.
Free and Fair Elections: The desired end state after voting ended in the 1997 municipal elections.
FVL: Final Voters' List. A list used by LECs to check registration of voters during the Municipal Application Ballot Process and election day(s).
FWF: Former Warring Faction. One of the three principal entities (Serb, Muslim and Croat) involved in fighting the 1992-95 war in Bosnia-Hezegovina.
GFAP: General Framework For Peace. U.S.-brokered 1995 agreement under which the warring factions agreed to end the fighting in BiH. Also known as the Dayton Agreement.
IO: International Organizations. Created by international treaty, convention or other form of agreement to perform specific functions. Examples are the United Nations, UN High Commission for Refugees, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Postal Union, etc.
IPTF: The International Police Task Force. TPTF was a UN-managed program that assigns police officers from its constituent members to provide law enforcement support to selected nations. IPTF personnel have freedom of movement privileges through SFOR checkpoints and are considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers are authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect these individuals against hostile acts or intent. IPTF responsibilities are covered in Annex 11 of the GFAP.
Internationally Protected Persons: Those persons designated by international agreement to be defended by SFOR if required. Examples include the OSCE and the ECMM. Any attack on these individuals would be treated as an attack on SFOR.
LEC: Local Election Commission. Responsible for management of voter registration, voting and counting of ballots. Composed of local nationals. There is generally one LEC per opstina responsible for all election activity in that opstina.
NGO: non-governmental organization. Normally created to provide humanitarian assistance, emergency relief or development assistance. Examples are Feed the Children, Norwegian People's Aid, International Rescue Committee and CARE.
Observers: Persons from the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) under contract to OSCE to observe and report on the BiH election.
OHR: Office of the High Representative. The OHR was a United Nations agency, appointed by the United Nations Security Council as requested by the Parties under the General Framework and Agreement for Peace (GFAP). The OHR coordinated the activities of all organizations and agencies involved in the civilian aspects of the GFAP. The OHR provided general guidance to the entities about the impact of their activities on the implementation of the peace settlement. OHR personnel were also considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers were authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect these individuals against hostile acts or hostile intent. The High Representative at the time of the 1997 municipal elections was Carlos Westendorp.
opstina: A geographic area similar to a U.S. county. Several opstinas, sometimes referred to as municipalities, make up a canton, except in the RS which does not have cantons. There are 109 opstinas in Bosnia, several are split into multiple parts by the IEBL. There are 58 opstinas (including split opstinas) in Task Force Eagle's AOR. The responsibility of some opstinas are shared with other Multinational Divisions (MNDs).
OSCE: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. OSCE was an organization of 54 member states (including the U.S. and Canada) that monitored and encouraged the settlement of disputes, arms control and assisted emerging democracies. The OSCE provided organizational support for the municipal elections. OSCE/IPTF personnel were considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers were authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect these individuals against hostile acts or intent.
PEC: Provisional Electoral Commission. The PEC was established under the GUAP Annex 3 Article III, and has the final decision on all matters pertaining to the election. The PEC can overrule a LEC. Ambassador Frowick, Head of Mission for the OSCE in Bosnia, headed the PEC.
Polling Sets: Refers to the group of election equipment (i.e., screens, boxes, ink applicators, UV lights, ballots), representing the capacity to vote. One polling set should contain the capacity to serve 1,000 voters. A polling place may contain one or more polling sets.
Polling Station: A polling station is a room or building where voting takes place. It may contain more than one polling set. If, for example, each polling set handled 1,000 voters and 5,000 voters are expected at Polling Station 001, there would be five polling sets there.
Polling Place: A polling place is a physical location or grid coordinate. There may be more than one polling station at the same polling place (i.e., an absentee polling station and a regular polling station in two separate rooms of the same building). A polling place may also only be active on one day or the other during the two-day election period. If a mobile polling station is at one polling place one day, it will move to another polling place on the second day.
PVL: Provisional Voters' List. List held by LECs with names of all registered voters residing in that particular opstina.
PVO: Private Volunteer Organization. Not essentially different from non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Refugee: A Bosnian who fled to another country to escape the effects of the war.
ROE: Rules of Engagement. Military rules governing tactical conduct of forces during and immediately prior to hostilities.
RS: Republka Srpska. One of the two entities comprising the BiH, largely inhabited by Serbs.
Supervisors: OSCE employees who are authorized under GFAP to observe the election process in BiH to ensure free and fair elections. Given authority to intervene if situation threatens free and fair elections.
Swiss Truck Company: Civilian trucking company contracted by OSCE to assist in the transportation of election materials from Austria to Sarajevo.
UNCA: United Nations Civil Affairs. UNCA was a United Nations agency composed of professional diplomats. UNCA officers are the senior UN personnel in BiH. The UNCA was involved in mediations and meetings regarding BiH political issues. During the BiH elections, UNCA will monitor election activity. UNCA personnel are considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers are authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect these individuals against hostile acts or hostile intent.
UNHCR: United Nations High Commission for Refugees. The UNHCR was established in 1951. The UNHCR's purpose was to assist displaced persons and refugees. During the BiH elections, UNHCR was monitoring freedom of movement for displaced persons and refugees. UNHCR personnel are considered persons with "designated status" and SFOR soldiers are authorized to use force, up to and including deadly force, to protect these individuals against hostile acts or hostile intent.
Voter Routes: Routes previously approved by the Ministers of Internal Affairs which focus upon local law enforcement resources and ensure that voters can safely move from one opstina to another (and across the IEBL) to vote in designated polling places. Voting routes consist of a start point, a bus-load area, a search area, polling places along the route and a termination point with a bus turn-around area.
VRC: Voter Registration Center. Place where potential voters registered for the September elections. Unlike the 1996 elections, voters had to register at a VRC to vote.
Combat Service Support
Appendix B: Election "Hot Spots"
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