RESOURCING THE STRATEGY
TRAINING AREAS AND RANGES
Task Force Eagle resourced their training strategy in two ways. The first was to bring in resources and develop ranges that units could use in their area of operations (AOR) on a daily basis during the course of daily operations. The second was to bring in resources and develop larger ranges outside their AOR to conduct live-fire gunnery training.
Task Force Eagle Ranges in the AOR
Numerous ranges and resources were available in the TFE AOR. Small arms ranges and Tank Crew Proficiency Course/Bradley Crew Proficiency Course (TCPC/BCPC) ranges were constructed near main camps to facilitate training and to maintain warfighting skills.
TFE organic engineers built small arms ranges (similar to the ones shown) adjacent to main base camps.
Before ranges could be used, units had to ensure that the range met safety standards. TFE safety inspection teams inspected all ranges and certified their use.
Most areas adjacent to base camps could not support more than a 25-meter range. The typical layout used by most units is very similar to the diagrams.
TCPC/BCPC ranges will be discussed in the next section.
Training Areas Outside TFE AOR
As stated earlier, the second strategy TFE used to resource their training strategy was to develop larger training areas where live fires could be conducted. TFE concentrated this effort in two areas: Taborfalva Training Area (TTA) and Resolute Barbara Range.
Taborfalva Training Area (TTA)
TTA is a Hungarian military training facility located approximately 60 kilometers southeast of Budapest. It consists of a life support area/administrative area, a small arms range, a maneuver area, an artillery firing area, a maneuver range and a small artillery impact area. The range is capable of supporting up to Tank and Bradley Table XII and Artillery Table VI.
The major gunnery range consists of a live-fire maneuver range, a range tower, a range operations center, a VIP shelter, an After-Action Review (AAR) facility and two GP medium tents with wooden floors set up for the training unit's command post, warmup tent and dining facility for those soldiers fed on the range. An M16, M9, M249 and Infantry Squad Assault Course is located on the left most portion of the range. The live-fire maneuver range will support up to a Table XII. Tanks and Bradleys will fire only training ammunition. TTA provides two artillery firing points for the conduct of indirect fire proficiency training up to platoon qualification Table VI.
USAREUR (Forward) and 7ATC developed the range at TTA. The range is characterized as a "roll-on, roll-off range" with 7ATC to replicating all of the functions of a battalion headquarters. The concept for units (Company/Team/Troop) was to fly to the Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) and move by bus to TTA. There, the unit would fall in on pre-positioned equipment and fire. To prepare for gunnery at TTA, units would conduct pre-gunnery training in the TFE AOR prior to qualification. The normal rotation for a unit through TTA was eight days. This included a short R&R in Budapest.
As mentioned earlier, units would leave their equipment in the AOR and move to TTA. At TTA, the would fall in on prepositioned equipment. Equipment available at TTA is shown in the diagram below. The 7ATC was responsible for overall maintenance and recovery of this pre-positioned equipment.
This concept turned out to be a great success. The range was well resourced, flexible in tailoring different training plans, and allowed units to focus solely on training. Most importantly of all, TFE did not resource the range, tying up assets.
Resolute Barbara Range (Glamoc, Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Resolute Barbara Range located in Glamoc, Bosnia-Herzegovina, was the primary gunnery range for artillery, mortars, and aviation. It is located in the Multinational Division Southwest (MND(SW)) AOR. Life support was very limited and movement to and from the range was difficult. The range and impact area was sufficient to maintain gunnery skills for TFE units.
TRAINING AIDS, DEVICES, SIMULATIONS AND SIMULATORS (TADSS)
TFE used numerous TADSS to sustain warfighter skills during Operation Joint Endeavor. Most of these TADSS are used in static locations and nearly duplicate real scenarios. TADSS that were available to TFE are depicted in the diagram below.
- Individual marksmanship trainer
- Simulates live firing of M16A2
- Range capabilities (25-300-meter targets)
- Visual display of shot signature on monitor
Multi-Purpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS)
- Low-cost, PC-based marksmanship trainer (approx. $1,250 per system)
- Individual trainer with moving target engagement capability
- Real-time shot pattern feedback
Tank Weapons Gunnery Simulation System (TWGSS)/Precision Gunnery System (PGS)
- Trains basic precision gunnery skills for the M1A1 Tank and M2/M3 Bradley
- Full crew, on vehicle simulation with vehicle stationery or moving
- Supports fully interactive gunnery drills with eye-safe laser, hit-kill indicators, aural and visual cues
- Supports force-on-force operations
Armor Full-Crew Interactive Simulation Training (A-FIST)
- Individual Tank appended device
- Designed to train a full four-man crew in gunnery coordination of M1A1 Tanks while on vehicle
- Uses virtual scene technology through hood placed over the sighting apertures
Thru-Sight Video (TSV) System
- Consists of two subsystems: audio and video recording subsystem and AAR subsystem
- Vehicle-appended system providing video and audio recording of gunnery or tactical engagements
- Supports training at all proficiency levels during simulated or live-fire exercises
Engagement Skills Trainer (EST)
- Interactive video/graphic simulator using wide screen projection
- Uses actual modified weapons that are fitted with eye-safe laser emitters
- Every shot is recorded and scored to provide maximum feedback
Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES)
- Family of eye-safe laser transmitters and sensors designed to simulate directorate fire weapon systems
- Each weapon system has its own distinct code and transmitting characteristics
- Transmissions are received by sensors on the target, decoded, and processed to determine engagement
Mobile Conduct of Fire Trainer (M-COFT)
- Trains crew coordination skills
- Gunner trained on reacting to fire commands and performing engagement techniques
- Commander trained on initiating fire commands; acquiring and designating targets; conducting target hand-off procedures; and performing engagement techniques
Section II - Executing the Strategy
Section IV - TTP for Tank and Bradley Gunnery
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