FIGHTING AT THE SMALL UNIT LEVEL
in a night attack depends largely upon direction, control and surprise. The
thousand and one contingencies that an attack by night gives rise to must be
foreseen and provided for. Especially must careful provision be made for maintaining
direction, for preserving control and for ensuring secrecy. Owing to the power
of modern armament, night attacks will probably be more frequent in future
conflicts. Particularly will darkness aid in the passage of areas that enemy
fire. " -Chapter XXV, Infantry In Battle - |
Many of the world's armies and militias possess some kind of night-fighting
equipment, ranging from high-tech radars to sophisticated night vision goggles.
It is relatively easy to procure most of this equipment at reasonable rates
on the world market. To "own
tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) that maximize our night-fighting
technological advantages while countering the enemy's night capabilities.
AND CONTROL (C2).a.
C2 is the most important factor in night fighting. Its purpose is to synchronize
fires and maneuver at the decisive point. The endstate is to destroy the enemy
without committing fratricide. To achieve this endstate, all soldiers must
operate as efficiently at night as during the day. Moreover, leaders must master
night C2 TTP.b.
The TTP covered in this manual require leaders to acquire the targets with
AN/PVS-7B goggles, point out the targets with the AN/PAQ-4 or a hand-held laser
designator, and control fires. These tasks, coupled with the "normal" confusion
of the battlefield, can amount to greater confusion when not applied properly.
After testing this TTP in a STX scenario, it was determined that hand-held
laser pointers should not be issued down to team leader level because too many
lasers on the battlefield confused C2 in the infrared (ir) spectrum. Team leaders
can use AN/PAQ-4 and tracers to designate targets for their soldiers. Squad
leaders and above can use hand-held laser pointers to facilitate C2. Leaders
determine when it is appropriate to employ hand-held laser pointers, ir flares,
or ir signaling devices.c.
Leaders must consider the enemy's night-fighting capability before executing
a battle drill. The technology on hand must be applied in a manner consistent
with the situation encountered on the battlefield. For example, in a scenario
where the enemy has a night-vision capablility, you must choose C2 techniques
that employ ir emitters in moderation. In a situation where the enemy has no
night-vision capability, unrestrained use of the ir spectrum is possible. However,
even in the latter case, you must plan in detail the C2 measures you plan to
employ in the ir spectrum.d.
Light discipline takes on a new and challenging dimension in the ir spectrum.
Current technology does not allow for the detection of colors in the ir spectrum.
The ir lights differ only by intensity and size. Leaders must be ingenious
in the application of ir technologies to mark soldiers, unit positions, etc.e.
The drills enclosed in this document call for the employment of certain pieces
of equipment. Leaders decide whether the use of the technology is appropriate.
DO NOT employ the technology just because the drill employs a specific TTP.
Use your brain. Analyze the uniqueness of the situation you face. Let experience
is the key to mastering the night battle drills. Although these battle drills
do not deviate from ARTEP
7-8, MTP DRILL,
there are numerous night unique critical leader and soldier tasks that you
must master. To be an effective fighting force, leaders must continually train
these drills and refine the TTP and their unit night-fighting SOPs. The Division's
Own the Night (OTN) Individual Training Program is designed to ensure all paratroopers
are proficient in the individual skills fundamental to owning the night. You,
the leader, must leverage off that training and ensure that your squad/platoon
is proficient in the collective TTP required to own the night. Just wearing
AN/PVS-7s does not equate to owning the night. Owning
the night begins with you. Train to MOVE,
SHOOT, and COMMUNICATE
the following in your training:(1)
Maintain Night-Vision Goggles and Devices.
Operate Night-Vision Goggles and Devices.
Detect, Recognize, and Identify Targets with Devices/Goggles.
Acquire Targets with the devices.b.
Individual Training Program.
Division's OTN individual program provides outstanding guidelines for training
individual soldiers in the individual skills required to own the night. The
program consists of unaided night-vision training, aided night-vision training,
a marksmanship confidence exercise, and a drivers' training program. This program
gives soldiers confidence in their night-fighting equipment. This program is
an annual requirement for all soldiers. After soldiers complete this program,
they possess the fundamental skills necessary to operate efficiently and effectively
organization of the eight battle drills outlined in this manual are in accordance
7-8, MTP DRILL.a.
task is the title as well as the collective task to be performed.b.
conditions are the statements of the situation or the environment in which
the unit is experiencing while executing the drill. In these drills we assume
that the unit must perform the task at night and that the enemy may have limited
Criteria for success.d.
The performance measures are a sequential listing of the leader and collective
tasks that must be performed to execute the drill to standard. These subtasks
are observable and measurable. The tasks, in addition to those outlined in
7-8, MTP DRILL,
include the following:(1)
Zero AN/PAQ-4 to M16, M249, M60.
Engage Targets with AN/PAQ-4 and AN/PVS-7/4.
Control Organic Fires with Hand-held Laser Pointers.
Operate Ir Target Pointer/Illuminator GCP-1A.
Navigate while Wearing AN/PVS-7B.
remaining tasks are outlined in ARTEP
7-8, MTP Drill.
The only addition is the night-time condition.
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