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Military

CHAPTER 1
NIGHT FIGHTING AT THE SMALL UNIT LEVEL

Introduction
Table of Contents
Chapter 2:  Battle Drill 1A Conduct Squad Attack
"Success in a night attack depends largely upon direction, control and surprise. The thousand and one contingencies that an attack by night gives rise to must be foreseen and provided for. Especially must careful provision be made for maintaining direction, for preserving control and for ensuring secrecy. Owing to the power of modern armament, night attacks will probably be more frequent in future conflicts. Particularly will darkness aid in the passage of areas that enemy fire. " -Chapter XXV, Infantry In Battle -

1. GENERAL. Many of the world's armies and militias possess some kind of night-fighting equipment, ranging from high-tech radars to sophisticated night vision goggles. It is relatively easy to procure most of this equipment at reasonable rates on the world market. To "own the night" requires tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) that maximize our night-fighting technological advantages while countering the enemy's night capabilities.

2. COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2).

a. C2 is the most important factor in night fighting. Its purpose is to synchronize fires and maneuver at the decisive point. The endstate is to destroy the enemy without committing fratricide. To achieve this endstate, all soldiers must operate as efficiently at night as during the day. Moreover, leaders must master night C2 TTP.

b. The TTP covered in this manual require leaders to acquire the targets with AN/PVS-7B goggles, point out the targets with the AN/PAQ-4 or a hand-held laser designator, and control fires. These tasks, coupled with the "normal" confusion of the battlefield, can amount to greater confusion when not applied properly. After testing this TTP in a STX scenario, it was determined that hand-held laser pointers should not be issued down to team leader level because too many lasers on the battlefield confused C2 in the infrared (ir) spectrum. Team leaders can use AN/PAQ-4 and tracers to designate targets for their soldiers. Squad leaders and above can use hand-held laser pointers to facilitate C2. Leaders determine when it is appropriate to employ hand-held laser pointers, ir flares, or ir signaling devices.

c. Leaders must consider the enemy's night-fighting capability before executing a battle drill. The technology on hand must be applied in a manner consistent with the situation encountered on the battlefield. For example, in a scenario where the enemy has a night-vision capablility, you must choose C2 techniques that employ ir emitters in moderation. In a situation where the enemy has no night-vision capability, unrestrained use of the ir spectrum is possible. However, even in the latter case, you must plan in detail the C2 measures you plan to employ in the ir spectrum.

d. Light discipline takes on a new and challenging dimension in the ir spectrum. Current technology does not allow for the detection of colors in the ir spectrum. The ir lights differ only by intensity and size. Leaders must be ingenious in the application of ir technologies to mark soldiers, unit positions, etc.

e. The drills enclosed in this document call for the employment of certain pieces of equipment. Leaders decide whether the use of the technology is appropriate. DO NOT employ the technology just because the drill employs a specific TTP. Use your brain. Analyze the uniqueness of the situation you face. Let experience guide you.

3. TRAINING.

a. Training Strategy. Training is the key to mastering the night battle drills. Although these battle drills do not deviate from ARTEP 7-8, MTP DRILL, significantly, there are numerous night unique critical leader and soldier tasks that you must master. To be an effective fighting force, leaders must continually train these drills and refine the TTP and their unit night-fighting SOPs. The Division's Own the Night (OTN) Individual Training Program is designed to ensure all paratroopers are proficient in the individual skills fundamental to owning the night. You, the leader, must leverage off that training and ensure that your squad/platoon is proficient in the collective TTP required to own the night. Just wearing AN/PVS-7s does not equate to owning the night. Owning the night begins with you. Train to MOVE, SHOOT, and COMMUNICATE at night. Include the following in your training:

(1) Maintain Night-Vision Goggles and Devices.
(2) Operate Night-Vision Goggles and Devices.
(3) Detect, Recognize, and Identify Targets with Devices/Goggles.
(4) Acquire Targets with the devices.

b. OTN Individual Training Program. The Division's OTN individual program provides outstanding guidelines for training individual soldiers in the individual skills required to own the night. The program consists of unaided night-vision training, aided night-vision training, a marksmanship confidence exercise, and a drivers' training program. This program gives soldiers confidence in their night-fighting equipment. This program is an annual requirement for all soldiers. After soldiers complete this program, they possess the fundamental skills necessary to operate efficiently and effectively at night.

4. ORGANIZATION. The organization of the eight battle drills outlined in this manual are in accordance with ARTEP 7-8, MTP DRILL.

a. Task. The task is the title as well as the collective task to be performed.

b. Conditions. The conditions are the statements of the situation or the environment in which the unit is experiencing while executing the drill. In these drills we assume that the unit must perform the task at night and that the enemy may have limited night-vision capabilities.

c. Standards. Criteria for success.

d. Performance Measures. The performance measures are a sequential listing of the leader and collective tasks that must be performed to execute the drill to standard. These subtasks are observable and measurable. The tasks, in addition to those outlined in ARTEP 7-8, MTP DRILL, include the following:

(1) Operate AN/PVS-7/4.
(2) Zero AN/PAQ-4 to M16, M249, M60.
(3) Engage Targets with AN/PAQ-4 and AN/PVS-7/4.
(4) Control Organic Fires with Hand-held Laser Pointers.
(5) Operate Ir Target Pointer/Illuminator GCP-1A.
(6) Navigate while Wearing AN/PVS-7B.

The remaining tasks are outlined in ARTEP 7-8, MTP Drill. The only addition is the night-time condition.

Introduction
Table of Contents
Chapter 2:  Battle Drill 1A Conduct Squad Attack



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