TOPIC: Information Gathering
DISCUSSION: Belligerent parties may perceive information gathering as a hostile act. Intelligence operations may, therefore, destroy the trust that the parties may have in the peacekeeping force. However, it is reasonable to assume that the parties will pursue their divergent aims by exploiting the presence of the peacekeeping force. They may even attempt to deceive it from time to time. Circumstances may place the force under direct attack. Such attacks may come from one of the parties to the agreement, or from extremist elements acting independently. This poses a serious problem, but whatever the circumstances, the peacekeeper needs information. If the peacekeeper cannot use the full range of his national intelligence resources, he must, at a minimum, have their products.
- Every item of operational information becomes important during peacekeeping operations.
- Members of a peacekeeping force have to be information conscious at all times.
- Peacekeepers must remain constantly alert to what takes place around them and to any change or inconsistency in the behavior, attitude, and activities of the military and civilian populace.
TOPIC: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB)
DISCUSSION: The IPB process continues to provide commanders and staffs with a logical and systematic frame of reference from which critical nalysis and viable courses of action can be developed. Uniqueness of conducting peace enforcement missions in a Humanitarian Relief operational environment has rendered some of the traditional IPB products (warfighting templates) nonapplicable. However, U.S. forces in Somalia adapted IPB methodology and internally merged requirements of humanitarian relief, peace enforcement, and peacekeeping operations. Review both FM 31-130 and FM 100-20 to assist in IPB for operations other than war.
- During operations other than war, the IPB process is still a valuable tool used by both commanders and staffs as a framework for organizing the thought processes and in analyzing the situation.
- The IPB process is flexible enough that soldiers can substitute or eliminate portions of the process according to situational needs.
for peace enforcement operations should include:
- Key terrain and lines of communications (LOCs).
- Cross-country mobility.
- Ethnic and religious lines of confrontation.
- Combatants' disposition and strength.
- Identification of the tactical centers of gravity.
- Human intelligence (HUMINT).
DISCUSSION: Ground and aerial photographs of urban areas enhance the commander's intelligence picture. If taken well ahead of time, photos of key facilities, intersections, staging areas and potential trouble spots from both air and ground levels can be stored and later disseminated to all levels of command for planning purposes. Prior to Operation JUST CAUSE in Panama, U.S. patrols used video cameras to document hostile actions by the Panamanian Defence Force (PDF) soldiers. The presence of the video camera helped to discourage hostile acts and harassment of U.S. forces. In the topic, Security Risks to Peacekeepers, the second lesson discourages anyone from taking pictures to avoid charges of espionage by the belligerents. If there is a need to take photographs to enhance intelligence efforts, take them discreetly.
- Use photo assets to give commanders updated views of areas of operation. This will assist them and their staffs in the planning process.
- Helicopters are good platforms for photography and route reconnaissance missions.
- Use video cameras to film convoy routes and use the film during convoy briefings and rehearsals.
- Consider using remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) instead of helicopters during peace enforcement operations because of the threat of hostile fire.
- Use video cameras to document violations of peace agreements.
TOPIC: Use of Standardized Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR) Checklist
DISCUSSION: Units dramatically improve their nontraditional intelligence collection efforts by developing detailed PIR checklists. In operations other than war, PIR may be considerably different than normally expected in a combat environment. In Somalia, checklists were developed for each of the following five mission areas:
- Area Assessment Checklist.
- Patrol Checklist.
- Convoy Debrief Checklist.
- Roadblock Checklist.
- Airfield Security Checklist.
- Use of a standardized checklist can greatly enhance the intelligence collection effort and minimize trainup time.
- Units presented with nontraditional intelligence requirements should develop detailed checklists to ensure the collection effort is standardized and complete.
TOPIC: Area Assessment Checklist
DISCUSSION: A standardized checklist can enhance the intelligence collection effort and minimize trainup time for S2 sections. The area assessment checklist below was developed by U.S. forces during Operation RESTORE HOPE in Somalia to enhance the intelligence collection effort during operations other than war. For additional guidance, see Appendix B, FM 41-10, Civil Affairs Operations.
LESSON(S): Use the following checklist as a guide to develop a standardized checklist.
- Where are the refugees originally from? What is the size of the original population? What is the size of the area and population that the village services in the surrounding countryside? What is the size of the refugee population? Why did they come here? What is the relationship of the village with the surrounding villages? Are they related? Do they support each other? Are they hostile toward each other? Is any portion of the village population discriminated against?
- What is the food and water status of the village? Where do they get their food? What other means of subsistence is available? Are the villagers farmers or herders? What is the status of their crops/herds? What is the quality of the water source?
- What is the medical status of the village? What services are available in the village? What is the location of the nearest medical facility? Is there evidence of illness and/or starvation? What portion of the population is affected? What is the death rate? What diseases are reported in the village?
- What civilian organization exist in the village? Who are their leaders?
- What civil/military organizations exist in the village? Who are their leaders?
- What organization/leadership element does the general population seem to support or trust the most?
- Which organization seems to have the most control in the village?
- What UN relief agencies operate in the village? Who are their representatives? What services do they provide? What portion of the population do they service? Do they have an outreach program for the surrounding countryside?
- What is the security situation in the village? What element(s) is the source of the problems? What types and quantities of weapons are in the village? What are the locations of the minefields?
- What commercial or business activities are present in the village? What services or products do they produce?
- Determine the groups in the village that are in the most need. What are their numbers? Where did they come from? How long have they been there? What are their specific needs?
- What civic employment projects would the village leaders like to see started?
- Determine the number of families in the village. What are their names (family)? How many in each family?
- What food items are available in the local market? What is the cost of these items? Are relief supplies being sold in the market? If so, what items, what is their source, and what is the price?
- What skilled labor or services are available in the village (non-HRA)?
- What is the size of any transient population in the village? Where did they come from and how long have they been there?
TOPIC: Psychological Operations (PSYOP)
DISCUSSION: The successful execution of peacekeeping operations often depends on the continued cooperation of all parties to the cease-fire agreement, the impartiality of the peacekeepers, and the support of world opinion. PSYOP can play an important role in facilitating cooperation between the belligerents and the peacekeeping forces. Tactically, PSYOP can assist the peacekeepers through persuasion rather than through intimidation. Because of such local information programs as radio and television newscasts, and leaflet distribution, PSYOP can help ensure the peacekeeping objectives and efforts are fully understood and supported by the parties to the dispute and their civilian populations.
- PSYOP can help promote acceptance of a cease-fire, withdrawal of troops, and compliance with security agreements by influencing attitudes, emotions, opitions, and behavior.
- Such efforts can help counter rumors and disinformation and may even resolve some problems between the parties while the search for a long-term solution to the conflict is ongoing.
- No black or grey propaganda should be disseminated. PSYOP and Public Affairs (PA) personnel must coordinate their statements. Information should be timely, correct, and complete.
Chapter VI: Force Protection
Chapter VIII: Conduct of Operations
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