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Military

CHAPTER V

TRAINING


TOPIC: Training for Peacekeeping

DISCUSSION: Units selected for peacekeeping duty normally require 4-6 weeks of specialized training. The unit has to tailor its entire training methodology toward the tasks required to be effective peacekeepers.

LESSON(S):

  • Peacekeeping requires specific training.

  • The entire chain of command must develop a different mind set for warfighting.

  • A peacekeeping force may quickly lose its fighting edge and may not be suited for transition to peace enforcement operations.

  • The unit training program should include:

    • Nature of Peacekeeping
    • Regional Orientation/Culture of Belligerents
    • Negotiating Skills
    • Mine/Booby Trap/Unexploded Ordnance Training
    • Checkpoint Operations
    • Investigation and Reporting
    • Information Collection
    • Patrolling
    • Media Inter-relationships
    • Staff Training
    • Perform Relief in Place (FM 7-20)
    • Establish Lodgement (FM 7-54)
    • Establish a buffer zone
    • Supervise a truce or cease-fire
    • Contribute to maintenance of law and order
    • Assist in rebuilding of infrastructure
    • Demilitarize cities or geographical areas
    • Monitor boundaries
    • Political Mandate(s)
    • Rules of Engagement

  • Continue training on warfighting skills. The unit can be better prepared to transition from peacekeeping to peace enforcement operations.

TOPIC: Training for Peace Enforcement Missions

DISCUSSION: Peace enforcement forces will have to be equipped and trained differently than for peacekeeping operations. They will have to be considerably larger in numbers and more capable than conventional peacekeepers. To be competent peace enforcers, units will require special skills for their soldiers (negotiating and foreign language competence), and the provision for adequate firepower and defensive capability to protect themselves from hostile actions by those they seek to help.

A force entering into a peace enforcement operation must have sufficient combat power to fight and win a war, should that become necessary. It must execute that combat power with great restraint in support of diplomatic efforts, in which the military may actively participate. The demonstration of combat power should be sufficient to preclude the necessity for its employment, except in certain circumstances.

It is the Army's warfighting ability that makes it capable of peace enforcement. The best training is based on the unit METL, with the modifications and additions that are necessary for special circumstances.

LESSON(S):

  • Expect peace enforcement missions to be similar to actual combat missions but with tighter ROE. Consider the political aspects of the conflict.

  • Concentrate unit training on platoon- and company-level tasks. Peace enforcement operations usually involve more small unit operations than battalion- or brigade-level operations.

  • Some recommended battalion-level missions to train for are:

    • Fight a Meeting Engagement
    • Conduct Movement to Contact/Search and Attack
    • Perform Air Assault (ARTEP 7-20-MTP)(FM 90-4)
    • Enforce UN sanctions
    • Protect human rights of minorities
    • Protect humanitarian relief efforts
    • Separate warring factions
    • Disarming belligerents
    • Restore territorial integrity
    • Restore Law and Order
    • Open secure routes
    • Cordon and Search

TOPIC: Rules of Engagement (ROE)

DISCUSSION: During peacekeeping operations, the two principal ROE tenets are the use of force for self-defense only, and total impartiality when applying force. The ROE for peacekeeping operations will be more restrictive than the ROE for peace enforcement operations.

LESSON(S):

  • Soldiers must know and understand the ROE.

  • The degree of force used must ONLY be sufficient to achieve that task at hand and prevent, as far as possible, loss of human life and/or serious injury.

  • Leaders must ensure that soldiers are not limited by the ROE in their ability to defend themselves.

  • Develop and issue to all soldiers a single card that clearly outlines the ROE for reference, keeping in mind that the card in itself is not the answer. Soldiers must know the ROE.

  • The ROE must be realistic, simple, and easy to understand.

  • Do not chamber a round unless you are prepared to fire IAW the ROE or ordered to do so.

  • Do not tape over magazines to keep soldiers from chambering rounds.

  • Peacekeeping forces have no mandate to prevent violations of peace agreements by the active use of force. (Observe and report only.) To maintain the peace, units may need to be positioned between belligerents. Commanders must realize that soldiers are being placed at risk. Force protection must be emphasized.

  • Peace Enforcement missions allow the active use of force. The ROE resembles the ROE for hostilities (wartime).

  • The formulation of ROE should consider the cultural differences of multinational forces.

  • Train soldiers in the ROE, using tactical vignettes or simulated events.

  • Train soldiers to avoid unnecessary collateral damage to property.

TOPIC: Soldier Discipline

DISCUSSION: The nature of the peacekeeping mission demands a high standard of discipline and, in particular, self-discipline. Commanders at all levels must be conscious of this and must give special attention to leading and supervising their soldiers.

LESSON(S):

  • A peacekeeping mission is meant to be visible to all concerned.

  • The force will be scrutinized by the locals, the other UN forces, as well as by the belligerent forces, and international media.

  • The units must reflect vigilance, readiness, and competence in their duties.

  • Individuals in isolated observation posts and checkpoints may become bored with the daily routine.

  • Innovative leadership is required to keep up morale and avert boredom during peacekeeping operations.

  • Properly and continually brief all personnel to ensure everyone understands the mission and situation, and train on ROE.

  • Issue clear, concise, and simple orders.

  • Motivate all personnel to maintain a high standard of discipline and military appearance.

  • Maintain high standards of cleanliness, care, and maintenance of all weapons, equipment, and uniforms.

TOPIC: Pre-Deployment Training

DISCUSSION: Training of U.S. Army soldiers participating in these missions includes instruction to prepare and sustain the force in the performance of its mission. Pre-deployment training covers subjects that pertain to mission accomplishment. It is given at home station and includes training in both individual and collective tasks tailored to meet the needs of the units identified to support the mission. During this period of training, it is essential that all personnel who will participate in the mission are available for the training.

LESSON(S): Suggested training requirements include the following individual and collective tasks.

Individual Tasks:

  • Marksmanship
  • UN Organization, Mission, and Background
  • Customs and Basic Language Phrases
  • Survival Skills (including actions if kidnapped)
  • Observation and Reporting Procedures
  • Vehicle, Aircraft, Water Craft, Weapon, Uniform, and Insignia Identification
  • Field Sanitation
  • Rules of Engagement
  • Safety (Integrated Training)
  • Stress Management
  • Identification of Mines and Handling Procedures
  • First Aid and Evacuation Procedures
  • Terrorism Prevention Skills
  • Reaction to Hostage Situations
  • Physical Security (Prevention of Pilferage and Theft)
  • Peacekeeping Skills (Negotiation and Mediation)
  • Land Navigation/Range Estimation
  • Handling of Detainees
  • RTO Procedures

Collective Tasks:

  • OP/CP Operations (Observe and Report)
  • UN Reporting Formats
  • Slingload Operations
  • Mounted and Dismounted Patrolling
  • TOC Operations
  • Patrolling in Urban Terrain

Specialty Tasks:

  • Combat Lifesaver
  • Field Sanitation Specialist
  • Generator Operator
  • Vehicle Operator
  • Mail Handler

TOPIC: Situational Training Considerations

DISCUSSION: Units will encounter situations for which they normally do not train. These situations will present challenges to the leaders and generate confusion and stress for soldiers.

LESSON(S):

  • Develop situational training exercises to prepare soldiers for unexpected problems and dilemmas.

  • The unit commander must prepare the proper responses for their soldiers. These responses are a method to express the commander's intent for the operation.

  • Turn the responses into battle drills so that the unexpected situations become routine operations for the soldier. Some examples are:

    • Appeals are received for medical assistance.
    • Civilian criminal is apprehended.
    • Crowd mobs food distribution truck or center.
    • Land mine is discovered.
    • Sniper fires.
    • Dead body is found.
    • UN relief worker requests transportation on military vehicle(s).
    • A soldier is taken hostage or kidnapped.
    • Convoy encounters a belligerent checkpoint.

TOPIC: Liaison Officers (LOs)

DISCUSSION: Experience has shown that the use of liaison officers can make a significant contribution to the success of coalition/UN peacekeeping operations. Individuals serving as LOs may be able to help resolve interoperability problems with other coalition/UN forces.

LESSON(S):

  • LOs can provide the commander with an immediate channel of communication to effect operations that may impact on combined operations throughout the theater of operations.

  • Individuals who serve as LOs should have high quality and sufficient rank and authority appropriate to their level of liaison.

  • Considerations for liaison operations are:

    • Identify LOs early in the planning process.

    • LO functions are prescribed by the parent organization with the concurrence of the commander to whom they are assigned to assist.

    • LOs must be knowledgeable of the capabilities and limitations of their parent unit.

    • LOs should attend all briefings and maintain constant communication with their commander.

    • Equip liaison teams with redundant communications systems to allow constant contact wih the commander.

    • Staff liaison teams with enough personnel to conduct 24-hour operations and to allow the senior LO to travel with the allied commander when necessary.

    • LO teams must be capable of accomplishing rapid detailed staff planning for the allied commander (especially staff estimates).

    • Use language-qualified personnel as LOs or include adequate linguists as part of the liaison team.

    • Be prepared to establish liaison with the belligerent forces, relief agencies, host-nation government, local political groups, as well as adjacent and higher HQ.

TOPIC: Language Capability and Use of Interpreters

DISCUSSION: The Army has a very small pool of language-qualified individuals. Units assigned to peacekeeping or peace enforcement missions may not have adequate numbers of regionally oriented linguists. Some civil affairs (CA) teams may be available to help. During Operations DESERT STORM and RESTORE HOPE, the U.S. forces used contracted interpreters.

LESSON(S):

  • The use of contracted interpreters, both from within and outside the U.S., works extremely well.

  • While having language capability within CA teams and units is preferred, in operations other than war, such as RESTORE HOPE, where the use and security of classified material is minimal, the use of contracted interpreter services is a more practical approach.

  • Keep OPSEC in mind when using interpreters or when discussing future operations in their presence.

TOPIC: Mine and Booby Trap Awareness

DISCUSSION: Mine and booby trap education for soldiers deploying to foreign countries is one of our greatest challenges. There are over 2,700 different types of mines and fuse combinations in the world today. Land mines and booby traps are a constant threat during peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations.

LESSON(S):

  • All soldiers need to know how to identify, mark, and report the presence of minefields.

  • Expect constant changes in local mine warfare techniques.

  • Never attempt to disarm a land mine; report its location through your chain of command.

  • Do not move over the most obvious and easiest ground without first checking it for mines.

  • Never pull, or cut any wire, taut or slack without first examining both ends. It is preferable that you do not touch the wire while examining it.

  • In convoys, the lead vehicle should proof the route of march. Use sand bags, flak vests, steel plates, or lumber to protect the crew. Limit the number of personnel in the vehicle.

  • A mine or suspicious object immediate-action drill is: WARN THOSE IN THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY, DETERMINE LIMITS OF THE MINEFIELD, MARK THE LIMITS OF THE MINEFIELD, REPORT TO HIGHER, and AVOID. In areas which may be mined, always move with eyes open and treat with suspicion any object, natural or artificial, which appears out of place in its surrounding. If a soldier is wounded from a mine, use the following casualty immediate action drill. One person clears a route to the casualty. LOOK, PROBE, DETECT. Clear the area immediately around the casualty. Administer essential first aid. Remove the casualty from the minefield using a cleared route. Administer additional first aid. Evacuate the casualty as soon as possible.

16 Aug 92: The UN convoy leaving Gorade was blocked by a newly laid minefield. The convoy reached Sarajevo at dusk after French Un soldiers cleared the mines.

18 Aug 92: A Canadian soldier was killed clearing mines in Croatia.

24 Aug 92: A UN APC in Western Sarajevo with a Canadian Captain and six Egyptian soldiers was hit by a rocket or a mine and all were wounded; the vehicle was destroyed.

19 Oct 92: A Ukrainian peacekeeper was killed when his APC hit a mine. It is estimated that approximately two million mines of all types have been laid in the former Republic of Yugoslavia, and mine injuries are currently running at about ten per month for UN forces.



Chapter IV: Notes for Commanders
Chapter VI: Force Protection



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