Peacemaking is normally completed by diplomats and politicians. It combines negotiation with nonmilitary tools of coercion to achieve a resolution of a conflict. When these tools are inadequate, military tools may be used to establish and maintain, forcibly if necessary, a cessation of hostilities. A stable environment better allows diplomats to pursue a peaceful solution to the conflict.
Peacemaking normally precedes the initiation of military operations. Peacemaking occurs simultaneously with, and continues throughout the duration of, peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations. The political goals and objectives established for the peacemaking effort help define the military objectives of the intervening forces and provide the commander parameters within which to develop supporting operational planning and execution. Thus, peacemaking constitutes the political framework for application of military force. Without a peacemaking effort, peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations will always fail.
Even if military force is authorized by the United Nations, all military operations involve continuous negotiation, with all parties, and at many different levels. This can be a time-consuming and frustrating business. However, negotiation saves unnecessary loss of life and offers the best long-term prospects for a final peaceful settlement.
Introduction and References
Chapter II: Peacekeeping
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