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APPENDIX A

Training for Civil Disturbances


When units prepare for peacekeeping or stability operations, there is very little Army doctrine that addresses the question: How should we train? The following example has been modified from a draft MTP currently developed by the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, KS.1The draft MTP was developed as a training document to use to train soldiers and units on how to respond to emergencies that are likely to occur at U.S. Army confinement facilities. The following training outlines and evaluations are modified versions of this impressive work. They are provided here in response to numerous requests for training techniques from soldiers and units preparing to execute peace operations.

PERFORM CIVIL DISTURBANCE PROCEDURES

Objective: The objective of the following training and evaluation outlines is to train company-sized units in the performance of civil disturbance procedures. Proficiency in performing civil disturbance procedures is reflected by the ability to quickly and deliberately execute the disturbance control procedures required to prevent the loss of life, property or to regain control of a unit's assigned area of responsibility.

Leader Training: Preliminary leader training should include:

  • Instruction on unit SOPs and regulations.
  • Instruction on crowd psychology and the U.S. Army goals in the area of operations to which the unit is preparing to deploy.
  • Training Exercise Without Troops (TEWT) to ensure leaders articulate one clearly understood standard to the soldiers.
  • Leader training on basic disturbance control procedures IAW FM 19-15.

Training Enhancers: After the leaders have been trained and the soldiers have displayed competency in the supporting individual tasks, the following Lane Training Exercises (LTXs) can be conducted under several different OPFOR options as training enhancers.

  • Rioter responding to show of force only.
  • Loss of control of a protected area (a mosque or a cathedral).
  • Loss of control of a restricted area (a base camp housing American soldiers and equipment).

The exercise should be tailored to the proficiency level of the unit and the type of civil disturbance most likely to be encountered in the unit's real-world mission. The trainers must build upon basics before attempting complex options.

During training, leaders must enforce the individual task standards. As completed tasks become more difficult by adjusting the OPFOR, the correct performance of individual task becomes paramount.

The OPFOR must be rehearsed and limited to a few realistic scenarios to be taken against the training unit. The OPFOR evaluator/controller must exercise close control over the OPFOR's actions to ensure the OPFOR provides responses appropriate to the training desired.

Element: Company

Task: Perform Civil Disturbance Procedures.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: The Company has been directed to be the assault force to quell a civil disturbance. The disturbance has been limited to a single road intersection in front of the city hall.

Task Standard: Civil order is restored.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

*+1. The Company Commander receives the unit's mission and plan
from the BN Operations Officer.

+2. The 1SG coordinates for equipment issue.

*+3. The Company Commander issues warning order to PSGs.

*+4. The Company Commander/First Sergeant conducts troop-leading
procedures.

a. Analyze and restate the mission.
b. Begin estimate of the situation.
c. Conduct backward planning.
d. Plan use of available time.
e. Begin formulation of tentative plan.
f. Organize soldiers and equipment; designate special teams.
g. Continue situation estimate.
h. Develop and analyze courses of action.
i. Conduct leader's reconnaissance.
j. Complete tentative plan.
k. Coordinate and update information.
l. Complete the plan.
m. Issue operation order.
n. Inspect, rehearse, supervise.

*+5. The Company Commander briefs the company on the use of force
and priorities of force.

*+6. The Company Commander designates staging area/site assembly point.

*+7. The Company Commander coordinates fire support, and engineer support.

*+8. The Company Commander coordinates with adjacent units.

+9. The company moves to the staging area/site assembly area.

+10. The company gains access to the disturbance site.

a. Breach/remove any obstacles or obstructions to the disturbance area.
b. Secure breach to prevent possible escapes.
c. Move unit through breach.

+11. The company isolates the disturbance site.

a. Prevent the disturbance from spreading to unaffected areas.
b. Prevent other demonstrators from entering the disturbance area.
c. Allow the safe departure of demonstrators from the disturbance area.

+12. The company applies priorities of force as necessary.

a. Commander uses riot-control formations to contain and demonstration.
b. Positive command and control are maintained.
c. Deploy snatch-and-grab teams to extract and apprehend instigators
as necessary.
d. Deploy escort teams to escort and link up with civil authorities, PAO,
PSYOP, SJA or Civil Affairs personnel.
e. Evacuate injured soldiers and demontrators to casualty collection point.
f. Commander reports accountability of instigators, hostages, and
casualties to Bn S-3.

+13. Company secures area and awaits further orders.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"

NOTE: *+ Indicates a critical leader subtask.
+ Indicates critical subtask.

Individual tasks supporting T&EO:

STP 19-95C14-SM-TG

191-381-1290 Detect Symptoms of Unusual or Potentially Deviant Behaviors of Prisoners
191-381-1323 Prepare Observation and Disciplinary Reports
191-376-5128 Protect a Crime Scene
191-381-1255 Restrain a Prisoner
191-381-1289 Strip-Search a Prisoner
191-376-4121 Use a Riot Baton
191-376-5103 Use Unarmed Self-Defense Techniques
191-381-1257 Participate in Riot-Control Formations
191-381-1291 Apply Priorities of Force
191-381-1321 Take Action in Case of Disorder


EMPLOY A SNATCH-AND-GRAB TEAM

Element: Company

Task: Employ a Snatch-and-Grab Team.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: A Snatch-and-Grab Team is identified from within the company formation and instructed to detain an instigator from an on-going civil disturbance.

Task Standard: The Snatch-and-Grab Team moves the instigator from the area per instructions of the OIC without injury to the instigator or team members, using the minimum amount of force necessary.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

*+1. OIC receives mission.
a. Alerts snatch-and-grab team, combat cameraman and Line Medic.
b. Determines if instigator has a weapon.
c. Ensures team members take precautions against HIV infection.
d. Determines if OC pepper spray is authorized.
e. Briefs snatch-and-grab team leader.

*+2. Team Leader.

a. Briefs assembled team members on move.
b. Determines and assembles equipment required to complete move.
c. Checks each team member for proper wear of equipment.
d. Conducts rehearsal as time permits.

+3. On-duty combat cameraman.

a. Films briefing and the actual snatch and grab of the instigator.
b. Ensures use of force statement is completed upon completion of the
detainment of the instigator.

*+4. OIC briefs assembled personnel. Brief contains:

a. Identification of the instigator.
b. Where the instigator will be moved to and classification once moved
there (strip-searched, handcuffed).
c. Reason or incident that has resulted in the requirement for the use
of force and what the team will be instructed to accomplish.
d. Motives and history of the group that is demonstrating, and of the
instigator if available (verbally or physically abusive, indicted war criminal).
e. Identification of over-watching element.
f. OC pepper spray authorized/not authorized.
g. Additional instructions, if needed.

+5. Team members state duty position/requirements.

a. Each member of the snatch-and-grab team, to include the line medic
will step in front of the camera and state the following:
(1) I am (state name and rank); I am the number one man.
My mission is to pin the instigator using the minimum amount of
force necessary.
(2) I am (state name and rank); I am the number two man.
My mission is to secure the instigator's right arm and apply the wrist
restraints using the minimum amount of force necessary. I carry the
wrist restraint(s). The number two person will hold up the wrist restraints.
(3) I am (state name and rank); I am the number three man.
My mission is to secure the instigator's left arm and assist the number
two man in applying the wrist restraints using the minimum amount of
force necessary.
(4) I am (state name and rank); I am the number four man.
My mission is to secure the instigator's right leg and apply the leg
restraints using the minimum amount of force necessary. The number
four man will hold up the leg restraints.
(5) I am (state name and rank); I am the number five man.
My mission is to identify the instigator and to secure the instigator's left
leg and assist the number four man in applying the leg restraints using the
minimum amount of force necessary. I am also the team leader for this
mission and I am responsible for ensuring that the team uses the minimum
amount of force necessary throughout the move.
(6) I am (state name and rank); I am the number six man.
My mission is to assist the team in any way possible using the minimum
amount of force necessary. The number six man will hold up any
additional equipment that is being utilized.
(7) I am (state name and rank); I am the line medic. I will treat
any and all medical emergencies that may occur during the move.
b. Each member of the team after stating their mission will then
execute an about-face allowing the camera to see the number on the
back of his helmet and flak vest, take one step forward and execute
another about-face.

+6. Team action during the move.

a. The cameraman will position himself where the entire event
can be recorded. This film is important, for legal reasons, during
peacekeeping missions where intent and actions on execution
can be shown.
b. The line medic will carry an aid bag and be positioned where he
can observe the entire situation. The medic will render medical assistance
to anyone that may require it during the mission.
c. On order, the team will march in column to the instigator's location
and remain in a column, prepared to enter and restrain the instigator.
d. The number one person carrying the pinning shield will stop in front
of the instigator's location. The number one person now becomes the
"eyes and ears of the team."
e. The number one man will observe the entire area, checking for
anything that may cause harm to the team or the instigator.
f. If the number one man does note a danger or hazard, he will notify
the rest of the team. To ensure that all team members have heard the
number one man, each member of the team will grab the right shoulder
of the member in front of him and pass the message up the column.
If there is no response, the number one man will repeat the information
until all members are aware of the danger.
g. Upon contact with the instigator, the number one man's mission
is to pin the instigator by attempting to guide the instigator into the team
and secure the instigator's head to prevent any injury to the instigator
or to the team.
h. The number two man will stand directly behind the number one man,
with both hands on the waist of the number one man, preparing to push the
number one man into the crowd if there is resistance. Once inside the crowd,
the number two man will secure the instigator's right arm and apply the
wrist restraints to the instigator's wrist behind the instigator's back, using
the minimum amount of force necessary.
i. Once the number two man has the wrist restraints secured on the instigator,
the number two man will announce to the team, "HANDS SECURE" and will
position himself where he can carry the instigator at the direction of the team leader.
j. Once the hands are secure, the number three man will position himself
where he can carry the instigator as the team leader directs.
k. Once the hands and arms are secure, the number four man will secure
the instigator's right leg and apply the leg restraints on the instigator, using the
minimum force necessary. The number five man will secure the instigator's left leg
and assist the number four man in applying the leg restraints, using the minimum
amount of force necessary.
l. Once the leg restraints are secured, the number four man will announce
to the team "LEGS SECURE." The number four and five men will position
themselves where they can carry the instigator as the team leader directs.
m. Once the crowd is out of sight, the team leader will command the team,
"Prepare to Lower," "Team Lower." At this time, the team will simultaneously
slowly lower the instigator to the floor. At that time the team leader will ensure
that both hand and leg restraints are double-locked to prevent injury to the
instigator during subsequent movement, as applicable.
n. At this time, the medic will check the instigator for injuries.
o. When the medic has completed examining the instigator, the team leader
will direct the team to lift and move the instigator to the pre-designated
holding area.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"

NOTE: *+ Indicates a critical leader subtask.
+ Indicates critical subtask.

Individual supporting tasks:

STP 19-95C14-SM-TG

191-381-1323 Prepare Observation and Disciplinary Reports
191-381-1255 Restrain a Prisoner
191-376-5103 Use Unarmed Self-Defense Techniques
191-381-1257 Participate in Riot-Control Formations
191-381-1292 Apply Priorities of Force


PERFORM CASUALTY COLLECTION

Element: Company

Task: Perform Casualty Collection Procedures.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: The company has been directed to perform casualty collection procedures as a result of a natural disaster. There are fatalities and numerous injuries. Both cadre and instigators have been injured. The unit has been recalled. The disaster is over, and the building has been declared safe to enter.

Task Standard: Quickly locate and evacuate all injured personnel without compromising custody and control. Maintain accountability of all personnel.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

*+1. Company Commander receives the unit's mission.

*+2. Company Commander briefs PSGs on the mission.

*+3. Company Commander task-organizes and assigns missions to
subordinate units.

a. Combat lifesavers are identified and utilized.
b. Unit integrity is maintained.

+4. 1SG coordinates for equipment issue.

+5. Unit searches for casualties in affected area.

a. NCOIC maintains control.
b. NCOIC maintains contact with litter team NCOIC.
c. Proper safety equipment is used by all members of the team.
d. Search continues until all personnel are accounted for.

+6. Unit evacuates wounded to the casualty collection point.

a. Renders immediate aid and uses proper technique for transporting by litter.
b. Uses proper restraints when necessary.
c. Maintains identification items with instigator when possible.
d. Litter teams NCOIC maintains contact with search team NCOIC and
casualty collection point NCOIC.

+7. Unit maintains security and accountability at the casualty collection point.

a. NCOIC sets security to prevent any unauthorized entry or exit.
b. NCOIC maintains log and accountability roster.
c. Sign-out roster is reported to the EOC as required.
d. Proper restraints are used.
e. NCOIC maintains contact with litter team NCOIC and escort NCOIC.
f. Separates the dead from the wounded.

+8. Unit escorts detainees to area aid stations or hospitals.

a. NCOIC ensures that proper restraints are used when transporting suspects.
b. NCOIC ensures that the proper level of escort is provided with each vehicle.
c. NCOIC coordinates with each hospital NCOIC to ensure the proper
number of guards are provided.

+9. Unit provides security as required.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"

NOTE: *+ Indicates a critical leader subtask.
+ Indicates a critical subtask.


REACT TO THE MEDIA

Element: Company

Task: React to the Media.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: The unit is participating in a stability and support operation and is approached by what appears to be legitimate media representatives outside of a controlled area or compound. An interview would not affect any soldier's ability to conduct his assigned tasks.

Task Standard: Soldiers and unit leaders are able to effectively interact with reporters, television crews, and other members of the media.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

1. Soldiers are not forced to talk to the media, but they do not give the impression
that they are withholding information.

2. When soldiers are approached, they:

a. Do not speculate or render opinions.
b. Discuss only areas or matters of which they have direct knowledge.
c. If soldiers do not know the answer to a question, they respond by saying,
"I don't know."

3. Soldiers understand public affairs/commander's guidance.

4. Media personnel are treated equally and fairly, regardless of whether they are
credentialed.

5. Interviews are authorized with unescorted, non-credentialed media representatives.

6. Soldiers do not allow access to controlled areas if the media are not credentialed
or escorted by a higher headquarters public affairs escort.

7. Recognized reporters are allowed access to controlled areas with a unit escort
or media liason.

8. Higher command is notified.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"


ESTABLISH AND SUPERVISE A TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT

Element: Squad

Task: Establish and Supervise a Traffic Control Point.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: Units conducting stability and support operations will be tasked with a wide variety of tasks that will require engineer-type obstacles and must be able to secure the obstacle to enforce control and compliance with existing treaties and mandates. During the execution of responding to a civil disturbance, establishing traffic control points will assist units in isolating potential riots, and minimize escalation.

Task Standard: By maximizing the use of engineer-type obstacles, the unit was effective in asserting the necessary population control measures required to support the overall stability operation.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

1. Conduct reconnaissance and develop a plan:

a. Reconnaissance and barrier emplacement are completed rapidly.
b. Barrier material is selected based on likely traffic.
c. Obstacle supports overall plan and uses the terrain to prevent people from
bypassing the traffic control point.

2. Squads construct necessary obstacles:

a. Primary obstacles are constructed first.
b. Unit maintains security during construction.
c. Leader positions personnel to operate the control point as completed.

3. Obstacles are sited:

a. Obstacles support the overall unit plan.
b. Control points are covered by observation and direct fire for force
protection.
c. Control point supports adjacent unit mission.
d. Observation points are outside hand-grenade range.

4. Unit operates the traffic control point.

a. Sentries are posted to stop, redirect traffic, and explain the purpose
of the control point.
b. Signs showing closed roads, areas, or detours are posted.
c. When vehicles or personnel attempt to breach or bypass the traffic
control point, sentries use the graduated response technique as authorized
by the Rules of Engagement.

5. Unit leader reports emplacement/removal of control point to higher headquarters:

a. Leader reports changes/completion of obstacle.
b. Unit recovers obstacles with the same personnel who emplaced them.
c. Unit reports removal of control point.

6. Or, unit reports transfer of responsibility when relieved.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"


APPLY THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT

Element: Company

Task: Train the Rules of Engagement.

ITERATION: 12345(Circle)

TRAINING STATUS: TPU(Circle)

Conditions: Your unit is deployed to a noncombat, but potentially hostile situation, to promote stability, provide humane assistance to distressed areas, assist civil authorities, or protect U.S. interests.

Task Standards:
1. Defend yourself and members of your unit with initiative.
2. Apply all levels of force only when necessary.
3. Apply an amount of force proportionate to each threat encountered.
4. Transition appropriately to combat when ordered to do so by your chain of command.

Sub-Tasks and StandardsGO NO GO

1. Returns fire with aimed fire.

2. Identifies clear demonstrations of hostile intent using the SALUTE factors.
(Size, how many individuals are you facing? Activity, what is he doing, for
example, is he pointing a weapon? Location, is he within small arms range?
In a prepared firing position? Has he entered a restricted area? Unit, is he
wearing a uniform? Part of an organized armed force? Time, how soon before
he is upon you? Equipment, is he armed? With what? What are the range and
lethality of his weapon?) Anticipates attack by firing first.

3. Identifies situation where hostile intent is unclear using the SALUTE factors.
Holds fire while maintaining or seeking a secure position.

4. Responds with measured force when confronted with a potentially hostile force.
Uses the scale of VEWPRIK measures. (Verbal warning: tell person(s) in
native language to disperse, stay away, or halt. Exhibit Weapon: show your
weapon or use some other display that shows you have superior force at your
disposal. Warning shot: shoot a warning shot, if authorized. Caution: Warning
shots may be interpreted as incoming fire by the person you are trying to
"warn" away. Pepper Spray: spray cayenne pepper spray, if authorized and
available, and the individual is close enough. Riot Stick: strike with riot stick,
if authorized and available, and if the individual is close enough. Poke fleshy parts
of the body first, arms and legs next, and, if necessary, escalate to striking the head.
Injure with fire, shoot to wound. Kill with fire, shoot to kill.

5. Omits lower level VEWPRIK measures if the threat quickly grows deadly
(civilian pulls grenade out from underneath clothing and prepares to throw).

6. Declines to use deadly force when piece of property is snatched (sunglasses).

7. Uses deadly force, if indicated, to protect comrades and persons
under U.S. control.

8. Uses deadly force, if indicated, to protect key property designated
by commander (U.S. aircraft).

9. When told that a force has been designated a "hostile force," fires aimed
shots at members of hostile force whether or not they show hostile intent.

10. When told that a force has been designated a "hostile force," continues
to use RAMP when encountering civilians, prisoners, and casualties. (Return fire
with aimed fire. Anticipate attack. Use force first if, but only if, clear indicators
of hostile intent are observed. Measure the amount of force that you use, if time
and circumstances permit. Use only the amount of force necessary to protect lives
and accomplish the mission. Protect with deadly force only human life, and
property designated by your commander. Stop short of deadly force when
protecting other property.)

11. When told that attacks of a particular kind have been reported against U.S.
or coalition forces in the area (hand grenades delivered by civilians, car bomb
attacks, Molotov cocktails), consider these potential threats when looking for
indicators of hostile intent.

12. Seeks clarification in terms of RAMP when given instructions on use of
force that does not fit the RAMP format.

TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK

ITERATION12345TOTAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS EVAL
TOTAL SUBTASKS & STANDARDS "GO"

__________

Endnote:

1. Developed by SFC Michael Jones, Correctional Emergency Response Team (CERT) NCOIC, 705th Military Police Battalion.


btn_tabl.gif 1.21 K
btn_prev.gif 1.18 KChapter 4: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures
btn_next.gif 1.18 KAppendix B: Sources of Information on Civil Disturbance Operations



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