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The Role of the Armed Forces in the Americas: Civil-Military Relations for the 21st Century

Conference Report

Edited by Dr. Donald E. Schulz.

April 01, 1998

198 Pages

Brief Synopsis

In November 1997, the United States Army War College joined with the U.S. Southern Command, the Inter-American Defense Board, the National Guard Bureau, and the Latin American Consortium of the University of New Mexico and New Mexico State University to cosponsor a conference entitled "The Role of the Armed Forces in the Americas: Civil-Military Relations for the 21st Century." The meeting was held from 3 to 6 November in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and was hosted by the New Mexico National Guard. The conference brought together over 150 prominent civilian governmental and military leaders and some of the most noted scholars from throughout the Americas. It was designed to support the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Southern Command's objectives of strengthening democratic institutions, assisting nations in eliminating threats to their security, supporting economic and social progress, and enhancing military professionalism. In addition, the meeting sought to promote the Army Chief of Staff's goals of conflict prevention through peacetime engagement, strategic outreach to organizations and institutions outside the Department of Defense, and the enhancement of Active and Reserve component integration. Included in this publication are the papers and speeches delivered at the conference, rapporteurs' synopses of the working group discussions and an analysis, with recommendations, of the implications for civil-military relations and U.S. policy. These presentations, the level and scope of participation, the candor of the dialogue, the outstanding support provided by our cosponsors, and the charming atmosphere of Santa Fe all contributed to making the meeting a success.

Foreword

In November 1997, the United States Army War College joined with the U.S. Southern Command, the Inter-American Defense Board, the National Guard Bureau, and the Latin American Consortium of the University of New Mexico and New Mexico State University to cosponsor a conference entitled “The Role of the Armed Forces in the Americas: Civil-Military Relations for the 21st Century.” The meeting was held from 3 to 6 November in Santa Fé, New Mexico, and was hosted by the New Mexico National Guard.

The conference brought together over 150 prominent civilian governmental and military leaders and some of the most noted scholars from throughout the Americas. It was designed to support the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Southern Command’s objectives of strengthening democratic institutions, assisting nations in eliminating threats to their security, supporting economic and social progress, and enhancing military professionalism. In addition, the meeting sought to promote the Army Chief of Staff’s goals of conflict prevention through peacetime engagement, strategic outreach to organizations and institutions outside the Department of Defense, and the enhancement of Active and Reserve component integration.

Included in this publication are the papers and speeches delivered at the conference, rapporteurs’ synopses of the working group discussions and an analysis, with recommendations, of the implications for civil-military relations and U.S. policy. These presentations, the level and scope of participation, the candor of the dialogue, the outstanding support provided by our cosponsors, and the charming atmosphere of Santa Fé all contributed to making the meeting a success.

The U.S. Army War College extends sincere appreciation to General Charles E. Wilhelm, the Commanderin- Chief, U.S. Southern Command, and to Major General John C. Thompson, Chairman of the Inter-American Defense Board, and their staffs for the leadership and financial support that made the conference possible. We also recognize Lieutenant General Edward D. Baca, Chief of the National Guard Bureau; Major General William A. Navas, Jr., Director of the Army National Guard; the Adjutants General of New Mexico and Utah, and their outstanding soldiers who provided the crucial escort, logistical and interpretation support.

The conference represented a joint military-civilian effort. The Governor of New Mexico, the Honorable Gary E. Johnson; his Chief of Staff, Mr. Lou Gallegos; the Santa Fé County Commission, and the City of Santa Fé permitted use of their facilities and ensured gracious hospitality during our stay in their beautiful state and city. Last, but not least, we would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Gilbert Merkx, Mr. Theo Crevenna, Dr. José García and Ms. Vicki Madrid Nelson, from the University of New Mexico-New Mexico State University Latin American Studies Consortium for their assistance in organizing, coordinating and administering the conference. Without their help, this endeavor could not have been undertaken.

Our mutual goals as neighbors in this hemisphere are to promote democracy, preserve the peace, and provide for our nations’ common security in the 21st century. We hope this conference will be but one step on the path toward those objectives.

Table of Contents

Foreword
Colonel Richard H. Witherspoon, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Recommendations

Part One: Introduction

1. The Americas: The Strategic Landscape
Colonel Michael R. Gonzáles, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Part Two: The Role of the Military: Current Issues and Future Prospects

2. Building New Security Relationships in the Americas: The Next Critical Steps
Dr. Richard Downes, North-South Center, University of Miami

3. Brazilian National Defense Policy and Civil-Military Relations in the Government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Dr. Eliézer Rizzo de Oliveira, Campinas State University, Brazil

4. Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: Pitfalls and Prospects
General Fred F. Woerner (USA Ret.), Boston University

5. Armed Forces Missions and the Strengthening of Democracy in the Americas
Licenciado Luis Tibiletti, Ser 2000, Argentina

Part Three: National Security and Civil-Military Relations in the 21st Century: Three Views From Latin America

6. Civil-Military Relations in the Americas for the 21st Century: A Latin American Perspective
Professor Luis Bitencourt Emilio, Catholic University of Brasília

7. The Colombian Army in the 21st Century
Major General Manuel José Bonett Locarno, Commanding General of the Armed Forces, Colombia

8. The Peace Process in Guatemala
Brigadier General Víctor Manuel Ventura Arellano, Vice-Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Guatemala

Part Four: Civil-Military Relations and U.S. Policy: A U.S. Military Perspective

9. The U.S. National Guard and State to State Partnership: Implications for Latin America
Major General William J. Jefferds, Ed. D. (ARNGUS Ret.), Special Assistant to the Chief, National Guard Bureau
Colonel Robert B. James, Director of International Affairs, National Guard Bureau

Part Five: The Workshop Reports

10. The Inter-American Defense System
Dr. Thomas Bruneau, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School

11. Inter-Institutional Relations in the National Policy Process
Dr. Judith Gentleman, U.S. Air War College

12. Cooperative Security and Peacekeeping
Lieutenant Colonel Victor Tise, U.S. Air Force Academy

13. Subregional Cooperation
Dr. William Stanley, University of New Mexico

14. Emerging Roles and Missions
Dr. Andrés Serbin, Venezuelan Institute of Social and Political Sciences, and Central University of Venezuela

Part Six: Conclusions and Recommendations

15. The Role of the Armed Forces in the Americas: Conclusions, Lessons, Recommendations and Unresolved Issues
Dr. Donald E. Schulz, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Recommended Reading

About the Editor


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