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Abbott, Elizabeth, Haiti: An Insider's History of the Rise and Fall of the Duvaliers. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. Baily, Roger Norman, ed. The Haitian Journal of Lieutenant Howard, York Hussars, 1796-98. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1985. Balch, Emily Greene. Occupied Haiti. New York: Garland Publishing, 1972.

Bunce, Peter. Foundations on Sand. Unpublished manuscript, 1997.

Clausewitz, Carl von. On War, Michael Howard and Peter Paret, eds. and trans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. Dalmas, Antoine. Histaire de la Revolution de Saint Domingue. Paris, 1814.

Davis, H. P. Black Democracy: The Story of Haiti. New York: Dodge Publishing Company, 1936. Farmer, Paul. The Uses of Haiti. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1994.

Fauriol, Georges A., ed. Haitian Frustrations: Dilemmas for U.S. Policy. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1995. Geggus, David Patrick. Slavery, War and Revolution: The British Occupation of Saint Domingue 1793-1798. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982. Gold, Herbert. Best Nightmare on Earth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Heinl, Robert, and Nancy Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492-1995, Michael Heinl, ed. New York: University Press of America, 1996. James, C.L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingue Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1989. Korngold, Ralph, ed. Citizen Toussaint. New York: Hill and Wang, 1965.

Laguerre, Michel S. The Military and Society in Haiti. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1993. Langley, Lester D. The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean 1898-1934. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press, 1985. Leybum, James. The Haitian People. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1941. Madiou, Thomas. Histoire d' Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Imprimerie aug. a. Heraux, 1923. May, Robert. The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire, 1854-1861. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1973. McCoy, Jennifer. Haiti: Prospects for Political and Economic Reconstruction. Cambridge, MA: World Peace Foundation, 1995. McPherson, James, The Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. Millspaugh, Arthur C. Haiti Under American Control, 1915-1930. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1931. Plummer, Brenda Gayle. Haiti and the Great Powers, 1902-1915. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1988. Powell, Colin. My American Journey. New York: Ballantine Books, 1995.

Ros, Martin. Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti. New York: Sarpedon, 1994. Sarkesian, Sam C. U.S. National Security, Policymakers, Processes, and Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1989. Schultz, Donald, Haiti Update. Strategic Studies Institute Special Report. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997.
    Whither Haiti? Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S, Army War College, 1996.
Schultz, Donald E., and Gabriel Marcella. Reconciling the Irreconcilable: The Troubled Outlookfor U.S. Policy Toward Haiti. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, March 10, 1994. Schmidt, Hans. The U.S. Occupation of Haiti. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971. Seabrook, W. B. The Magic Island. New York: The Literary Guild of America, 1929. Segal, Ronald. The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1995. Silencing a People: The Destruction of Civil Society in Haiti. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993.

Thomas, Lowell. Old Gimlet Eye: The Adventures of Smedley D. Butler. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1932. Troillot, Michel-Rolph. Haiti: State Against Nation. New York: Monthly Review Press. 1990.
    Silencing the Past. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
Tyson, George F., ed. Toussaint L'Ouverture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973. U.S. Government Publications/Documents

Armed Forces Staff College Pub 1, The Joint Staff Officer's Guide 1993. Washington, D.C.: The U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. Center for Law and Military Operations. Law and Military Operations in Haiti: Lessons Learned for Judge Advocates, 1994-1995. Charlottesville, VA: The Judge Advocate General's School, 1995. XVIII Airborne Corps. JTF 180 Uphold Democracy Oral History Interviews, Cynthia L. Hayden, ed. Ft. Bragg, NC, 1996. Lykke, Colonel Arthur. Congressional Testimony on National Strategy to the Senate Armed Services Committee, 1991. 10th Mountain Division Handbook, Operations in Haiti, Planning/Preparation/Execution. Ft. Drum: Headquarters 10th Mountain Division, 1995. U.S. Department of the Army. Operation Uphold Democracy: Initial Impressions, Haiti D-20 to D+ 150. Center for Army Lessons Learned, Ft. Leavenworth, KS, April 1995. U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Pub 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., March 23, 1994. Articles

"A Creeping Mission." U.S. News & World Report, October 16, 1994, 24-27.

Adams, Thomas K. "Intervention in Haiti: Lessons Relearned." Military Review (September-October 1996): 45-56. Armstrong, Edward R. "Detainee Operations in Haiti During Operation Uphold Democracy." Military Police (Winter 1995): 16-19.

Addel, Nick. "Appeals Court Holds Rockwood Conviction, Captain to Seek Reversal from Highest Court over Haiti Incident." Army Times, March 16, 1998. Barry, John, and Douglas Walter. "How U.S. Forces Would Go In." Newsweek, 19 September 1994, 41-42. Baumann, Robert F. "Power Under Control." Military Review (July-August 1997): 13-21. Bensen. Kevin C., and Christopher B. Thrash. "Declaring Victory: Planning Exit Strategies for Peace Operations." Parameters (Autumn 1996): 69-80. Brown, Stephen D. "PSYOP in Operation Uphold Democracy." Military Review (September-October 1996): 57-73. Chamberlain, Greg. "What René Preval Brings to the Haitian Presidency," Haitian Insight (February-March 1996): 1. Crosskill, Hugh. "Haiti at a Crossroads." The World Today (February 1996).37-39. Drummond, Tammerlin. "A Constabulary of Thugs." Time, February 17, 1997, 62-63. Dunn, James, and Jon Custer. "Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY: The Role of the SOCCORD as Part of a Joint Task Force." Special Warfare (July 1995): 29. Elmore, Robert. "BSA Defense in Cap-Haitien." Army Logistician (September-October 1996): 12-23. Fishel, John T., and Edmund S. Cowan. "Civil Military Operations and the War for Moral Legitimacy in Latin America." Military Review (January 1988). Gordon, Michael. "Top U.S. Officials Outline Strategy for Haiti Invasion." The New York Times, September 14, 1994. Hodges, Michael. "Watching over Small-Town Haiti." The Washington Times, October 18, 1994. Husarska, Anna. "Conduct Unbecoming" Village Voice, April 11, 1995, 21-26. Ide, Douglas. "A Presence for Peace." Soldier 49, no. 11 (November 1994): 14-16.

Kifner, John. "Haitian Police Crush Rally as American Troops Watch." The New York Times, September 21, 1994.

Kirkland, Faris R., Ronald R. Halverson, and Paul D. Bliese. "Stress and Psychological Readiness in Post-Cold War Operations." Parameters (Summer 1996): 79-91. McGeary, Johanna. "Did the American Mission Matter?" Time, February 19, 1996, 36-39.

Maguire, Robert. "Defanging the Predatory State." Hemisphere 7, no. 1 (1995): 14-16.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "Foreign Policy as Social Work." Foreign Affairs (January-February 1996): 16-32.

Naylor, Sean. "The Invasion That Never Was." Army Times, February 26, 1996, 13.

O'Neill, William. "Building a New Haitian Police Force and Justice System." Haiti Insight (October-November 1995): 1, 3, 8.

Riehm, Peter. "The U.S.S. Harlan County Affair." Military Review (July-August 1997): 31-36.

Roberson, Todd. "'Macaroni' Means Hero in Haiti Town." The Washington Post, October 26, 1994.

Rohter, Larry. "Cables Show US Deception on Haitian Violence." The New York Times, February 6, 1996.

Shacochis, Bob. "Our Two Armies in Haiti." The New York Times, January 8, 1995.

Shaw, Robert C. "Integrating Conventional and Special Operations Forces." Military Review (July-August 1997): 37-41.

Slavin, J. P. "The Haitian Police: Struggling with Inexperience and Leadership Woes." Haiti Insight (April-May 1996): 4-5.

"U.S. Facing Weapons, Werewolves." The Washington Post, November 24, 1994.

"U.S. Force Battling Language, Voodoo." The St. Petersburg Times, October 29, 1994.

"Words of Clinton and His Envoys: A Chance to Restore Democracy," The New York Times, September 20, 1994. Theses and Unpublished Papers

Carr, Damian. "U.S. Army Public Affairs During Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY." Unpublished M.M.A. S. thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Davino, Michael F. "The 4th Battalion, 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment During Operation Uphold Democracy." Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996 Godfrey, Larry J. "Health Services Support Planning Joint Task Force 190 and Multinational Force Operation Uphold Democracy." Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Horoho, Patricia Dallas. "Health Facility Assistance 'Hit Team.'" Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Hurley, Donald J. "The Effectiveness of Naval Intelligence Support to 10th Mountain Division Units Embarked on the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69), September 14-21, 1994." M.M.A.S. thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1997. Kim, Jiyul. "Perspectives of UPHOLD DEMOCRACY from the Army Staff Operations Center." Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Shaw, Robert. "Organization and Planning for Operations in Haiti (1991-1995)." Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Trenda, Douglas. "Haiti--The Other Side of the Border." Unpublished A657 (course) research paper, HOHP, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Urquhart, Martin I. "The Effectiveness of Human Intelligence in Operation Uphold Democracy." M.M.A.S. thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1996. Archives

Combat Studies Institute Uphold Democracy Project Collection, Archives, Combined Arms Research Library, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.

Special Studies

Human Rights Watch/Americas and National Coalition for Haitian Refugees. "Haiti: Human Rights After President Aristide's Return," 7, no. 11 (October 1995).


Walter E. Kretchik, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, is Chief, Special Research Projects, Combat Studies Institute (CSI), U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where, in addition to leading the Haiti project writing team, he serves as a military history instructor. Kretchik is a graduate of CGSC and the School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS). A former corps-level chief of plans, he also served as the U.S. Army command historian in Bosnia and Herzegovina during Operation Joint Endeavor. He holds a B.A. degree in History from the University of Arizona, an M.A. in Political Science from the University of Louisville, an M.M.A.S. from CGSC, and is a Ph.D. student in U.S. history and international relations at the University of Kansas. He traveled to Haiti in October 1996 to conduct research and has twice presented papers on Operation Uphold Democracy to the Haitian Studies Association. Kretchik is the producer-director of the CSI documentary film, Rhythm of the Street, a visual accounting of the U.S. "intervasion" of Haiti in 1994.

Robert F. Baumann is a historian at CSI, CGSC, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He received a B.A. degree from Dartmouth College and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. A specialist in Russian military history, he was a researcher-in-residence at Moscow University from 1979 to 1980 and taught history at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, from 1983 to 1984. In the fall of 1992, he was a visiting professor at Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. He is the author of Leavenworth Paper No. 20, Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan, published in 1993. Dr. Baumann traveled to Haiti in January and October 1996 to conduct research and has twice presented papers to the Haitian Studies Association. He also served as assistant producer of the CSI documentary film, Rhythm of the Streets, on Operation Uphold Democracy.

John T. Fishel received his B.A. degree from Dartmouth, his M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science from Indiana University, and is a professor of Latin American affairs at the National Defense University. When this book was written, he was professor of national security affairs at CGSC. While serving on active duty as a lieutenant colonel, he was the principal planner for postconflict operations in Panama and was chief of policy and strategy for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Southern Command. Fishel traveled to Haiti in January 1996 to conduct research, In addition to this book, he is the author of Civil Military Operations in the New World.

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