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Appendix F

Haiti's Rulers Since Independence

Rulers Ruled Fate
Jean-Jacques Dessalines 1804-6 shot
*Henri Christophe 1807-20 suicide
Alexandre Pétion 1807-18 died of illness
Jean-Pierre Boyer 1818-43 fled to France
Charles Herard 1843-44 fled
Philippe Guerrier 1844-45 died of old age
Jean-Louis Pierrot 1845-46 unknown
Jean-Baptiste Riche 1846-47 unknown
Faustin Soulouque 1847-59 fled to Jamaica
Fabre Geffrard 1859-67 fled to Jamaica
Sylvain Saenave 1867-69 executed
Nissage Saget 1870-74 retired
Michel Domingue 1874-76 fled to Jamaica
Boisrond Canal 1876-79 fled to Jamaica
E. Felicite Salomon 1879-88 fled to France
F. Florvil Hyppolite 1889-96 apoplexy
Tiresias Simon Sam 1896-1902 fled
Nord Alexis 1902-8 fled to Jamaica
Antoine Simon 1908-11 fled to Jamaica
M. Cincinnatus Leconte 1911-12 blown up
Tancrede Auguste 1912-13 poisoned
Michel Oreste 1913-14 fled to Jamaica
Oreste Zamor 1914 murdered in jail
J. Davilmar Theodore 1914-15 fled
J. Vibrun Guillaume Sam 1915 dismembered
American occupation 1915-34
Stenio Vincent 1930-41 resigned
Elie Lescot 1941-46 fled to Florida
Dumarsais Estime 1946-50 overthrown
Paul Magloire 1950-56 overthrown
J. Nemours Pierre-Louis 1956-57 resigned
Frank Sylvain 1957 overthrown
Daniel Fignole 1957 overthrown
Francois Duvalier 1957-71 died of illness
Jean-Claude Duvalier 1971-86 fled to France
Henri Namphy 1986-88 stepped down
Leslie Manigat 1988 overthrown
Henri Namphy 1988 fled
Prosper Avril 1988-90 taken hostage
Etha Pascal-Trouillot 1990 fled to America
Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1991 ousted by coup
Cedras Junta 1991-94 exiled
American MNF "intervasion" 1994-95
Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1994-96 served term
*King of Northern Haiti.

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