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Appendix A

Historical Chronology of Haiti


Before 1492--Before this time, no recorded history exists, and very little is known about the Indian inhabitants.

26 Dec 1492--Columbus discovers the island and names it La Isla Espanola, the island of Hispaniola.

16th Century--Native Arawak Indians are slaughtered and enslaved by the Spanish. Disease kills those that escape.

1644--French pirates based in the Cayman Islands use the west end of Hispaniola as a safe haven and outpost.

French establish Part-de-Paix in the northwestern part of the island. The French West India Company takes possession.

1697--By the Treaty of Rijswijk, the western one-third of the island is ceded to France by Spain.

The French rename the western portion of Hispaniola, Saint Domingue.

17th Century--By the end of this century, the island achieves a high degree of economic prosperity as a trading center.

24 Aug 1791--Stimulated by the French Revolution, slaves in Hispaniola stage a rebellion.

1791-1801--The island is in utter chaos as the result of the slave rebellion. Pierre Dominique Tossaint Louverture, a black military leader, finally restores order in 1800.

1794--Slavery is abolished in Hispaniola.

1795--In the Treaty of Basel, Spain cedes the rest of the island to France.

1 May 1800--Toussaint becomes governor general of Hispaniola. His success arouses the suspicion of Napoleon.

1800-1803--French domination of Haiti unravels as General Charles-Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc, Napoleon's brother-in-law, with a force of 25,000 men, lands in Haiti and occupies the seaports. He eventually is forced by the savage nature of the guerrilla war and disease to offer amnesty to Toussaint. During negotiations, Toussaint is treacherously seized and imprisoned in France. Fighting begins again against the French, with the Haitian guerrilla army under the new leadership of Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe. General Leclerc dies of yellow fever, leaving the French army weak and demoralized. The French army of Haiti is defeated by the black army in 1802.

7 Apr 1803--Toussaint dies of yellow fever in France.

9 Nov 1803--Viscount deRochambeau surrenders the remainder of the French army of Haiti.

18 Nov 1803--France signs an armistice, withdrawing from the island, but maintains a presence until 1809.

1 Jan 1804--The entire island is declared independent, with its original Arawak Indian name of Haiti (Hayti).

8 Oct 1804--Dessalines declares himself Emperor Jacques I and begins a general massacre of all remaining whites.

17 Oct 1806--Dessalines is assassinated.

1806-20--The power struggle divides Haiti between Henry Christophe in the north and Alexandre Sabes Pétion in the south. Pétion dies in 1818. Christophe kills himself during a mutiny in 1820.

1808-9--A revolt, with British support, occurs in Santo Domingo to overthrow the French-speaking black domination of this Spanish area.

1814--Spanish control of Santo Domingo is restored.

1820--Jean-Pierre Boyer succeeds Christophe as president.

1822--Boyer leads Haiti in an invasion and conquest of Santo Domingo less than a year after it became independent of Spain. He unites the island under one government.

1825--France recognizes Haitian independence.

1833--Britain recognizes Haiti.

1843--Boyer is overthrown.

1843-89--Thirteen successive revolutions occur in Haiti, with fourteen leaders assassinated or overthrown during the period.

1847--Emperor Faustin-Elie Soulouque leads an extremely repressive government and declares himself president for life.

1861--Fear of Haiti results in a Spanish annexation of the Dominican Republic.

1862--The United States recognizes Haiti.

1908-15--Seven coup d'états occur during this period, laying a foundation for anarchy inspired by thet political elite and their use of the Cacos as an irregular force to topple regimes not viewed as favorable.

28 Jul 1915--The United States intervenes in Haiti by landing a force of U.S. Marines. The primary stated objective of the intervention is to restore public order. The occupation of Haiti continues until the Marine Corps is withdrawn on August 1, 1934.

1 Feb 1916--Admiral William B. Caperton announces that all military and police duties will be performed by the U.S. Marine-trained Gendarmerie d'Haiti. The U.S. expeditionary force will act in a supporting role.

1915-16--The First Caco War begins after the intervention, and the U.S. selects Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave as the president of Haiti. The Caco (Haitian peasants) revolt when their choice (Dr. Rosalvo Bobo) is not selected. The coup is prevented by the U.S. presence. Nationalism adds to a growing revolutionary fervor.

1919-20--The second Caco War erupts when Charlemagne Massena Peralte, a former general in the Haitian Army and a supporter of Dr. Bobo, is imprisoned by Dartiguenave. Peralte escapes from prison and declares himself to be general in chief of the revolution. On October 31, 1919, Peralte is killed in a daring raid by the U.S. Marines. Benoit Batraville, a former police chief of Mirebalais, takes over as leader of the revolution. On April 4, 1920, he kills an American Marine prisoner and cannibalizes him in an effort to turn the momentum of the war. Batraville is killed forty-five days later when U.S. Marines overrun his encampment. The war ends with his death.

Oct 1930--The Haitian National Assembly elects Stenio Joseph Vincent president.

Oct 1935--A plebiscite extends Vincent's term as president to 1941 and lays the foundation for future elections to be decided by popular vote.

Oct 1937--A border dispute breaks out between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. An American inspired reconciliation treaty leads to a settlement of the dispute.

1946--Students and workers strike and hold violent protests in opposition to President Elie Lescot, Vincent's successor in 1941.

Three military officers seize power and establish Dumarsais Estime as president.

1950--Estime tries to extend his term and is ousted by the military. Colonel Paul E. Magloire is elected president in a plebiscite.

1950-86--All political power in Haiti rests with the Duvalier family.

Dec 1956--The Army forces Magloire to resign after he attempts to extend his term.

Sep 1957--Unrest exists within the country following Magloire's resignation, and Francois ("Papa Doc") Duvalier is elected president. He promises to return political and economic power to the black masses.

Jul 1958--"Papa Doc" Duvalier survives a coup attempt and begins organizing a private military force that becomes known as the Tontons Macoutes.

1964--Firmly in control of Haiti, Duvalier has himself elected as president for life. He dies in 1971.

1971--Francois Duvalier designates his son Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") Duvalier as his successor.

1985-86--High unemployment, poor living conditions, and lack of political freedom lead to a series of popular uprisings that the Tonton Macoutes cannot put down. "Baby Doc" flees Haiti with U.S. assistance, going into exile in France.

1986--A military junta takes control of the government and promises free elections in January 1988. The junta is led by Lieutenant General Henri Namphy. The election is fraudulent, Namphy overthrows the new president, and is himself overthrown.

17 Sept 1988--Lieutenant General Prosper Avril is installed as president. He survives coup attempts in 1989 and 1990.

1990--Avril is forced to resign, and power is handed over to an interim government led by Supreme Court Justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot.

16 Dec 1990--The first fully free elections are held in Haiti. A leftist Roman Catholic Priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, wins the election in a landslide. His party also wins a plurality in the parliament.

7 Feb 1991--President Aristide takes office and appoints Lieutenant General Cedras commander in chief of the army. The reorganization of the army is announced immediately.

30 Sep 1991--A coup unseats Aristide. Cedras takes over as the head of the junta that includes Brigadier General Philippe Biamby, chief of staff of the army, and Lieutenant Colonel Michel Francois, chief of police.

8 Oct 1991--The Organization of American States imposes a trade embargo on Haiti.

31 Jan 1992--The number of Haitians fleeing the country and picked up at sea reaches 14,000.

1 Feb 1992--The Bush Administration begins forcibly repatriating Haitian boat people not eligible for political asylum.

23 Feb 1992--Aristide and members of the Haitian Congress sign the OAS-brokered "Washington Protocol," laying down conditions and a timetable for restoration of democracy and reinstatement of Aristide.

1 Apr 1992--The OAS approves a resolutionto "tighten and broaden" economic sanctions after the Supreme Court of Haiti declares the Washington Protocol null and void.

20 May 1992--President Bush signs an executive order requiring the Coast Guard to repatriate all Haitian boat people without allowing them to apply for asylum. The flood of refugees slows to a trickle.

Jan-Feb 1993--President Clinton decides to continue former President Bush's policy of repatriating Haitian boat people.

Mid-Apr 1993--Cedras rejects the proposals of Dante Caputo, UN/OAS special envoy, under which key military figures will step down and a "consensus" government will be formed. This government would prepare the way for Aristide's return and reinstatement.

17 Jun 1993--The UN Security Council imposes an oil and arms embargo on Haiti. The country's foreign assets are frozen.

3 Jul 1993--Aristide and Cedras sign the ten-point Governors Island Accord brokered by UN/OAS mediator Dante Caputo. The accord provides for Aristide to return by October 30, 1993, the early retirement of Cedras and other military leaders, and the lifting of UN and OAS sanctions.

Aug 1993--Aristide names Robert Malval as interim prime, minister. He is charged with smoothing the way for Aristide's return.

27 Aug 1993--Based on the Governors Island Accord, the UN Security Council suspends sanctions on Haiti.

6 Oct 1993--The USS Harlan County, carrying 200 U.S. and UN troops, sets sail for Haiti on a mission to train and professionalize the army and police of Haiti.

8 Oct 1993--Haitian Army-backed toughs prevent the USS Harlan County from docking, Cedras reneges on promises made at Governors Island, refusing to resign and permit the return of Aristide.

13 Oct 1993--The UN Security Council reimposes suspended sanctions on oil and arms.

14 Oct 1993--Gunmen fatally shoots transition prime minister Robert Malval's justice minister, Guy Malary, outside his office in Port-au-Prince. The rest of the Malval cabinet goes into hiding.

15 Oct 1993--The deadline for Cedras to resign, set at Governors Island, is ignored. The U.S. begins naval blockade with dispatch of warships.

16 Oct 1993--The UN Security Council authorizes military force, including a naval blockade, to enforce the sanctions. Other countriesjoin the naval blockade.

Dec 1993--Prime Minister Malval resigns.

5 May 1994--The UN Security Council gives the Haitian military ruler fifteen days to leave the country. The warning includes the threat to remove him by force.

6 May 1994--The Security Council approves tighter sanctions, including banning travel by Haitian military leaders, their families, and their supporters and banning all commerce to and from Haiti except food, medicine, cooking oil, and journalistic supplies.

11 May 1994--The junta installs Supreme Court Justice Emile Jonassaint, 81, as provisional president of Haiti.

10 Jun l994--President Clinton announces more sanctions against the Haitian government, including the cessation of commercial air traffic from the United States and the banning of financial transactions between the countries.

12 Jun 1994--In response to the tightening of sanctions, the junta declares a state of emergency.

4 Jul 1994--Up to 150 Haitian refugees die when their boat capsizes less that a half-mile from the coast of Haiti.

5 Jul 1994--Overwhelmed by thousands of boat people, the United States changes its policy, barring thousands of Haitians from the United States, who are subsequently detained at the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Other Haitians are diverted to "safe havens" in other Caribbean countries.

7 Jul 1994--Washington sends 2,000 U. S. Marines to waters off Haiti and states that U.S. forces have been practicing for an invasion.

31 Jul 1994--UN Security Council Resolution 940 allows for the "application of all necessary means to restore democracy in Haiti." This enables a military intervention by the United States. Reacting to the resolution, the military junta declares a state of siege.

29 Aug 1994--Father Jean-Marie Vincent, a prominent Catholic priest loyal to Aristide, is gunned down in Port-au-Prince.

30 Aug 1994--UN Secretary General Butros Butros-Ghali acknowledges the failure of the UN's efforts to find a peaceful solution to the Haitian crisis.

7 Sep 1994--CJCS briefs President Clinton and his advisers on three-phase operational plan for Haiti.

Deputy Secretary of State John Deutch orders the activation of the first eight RO/RO ships of the Ready Reserve Fleet.

8 Sep 1994--CJCS sends alert order to CINCUSACOM to begin execution planning for Operation Uphold Democracy.

10 Sep 1994--Joint Staff Response Cell is activated in National Military Command Center (NMCC).

Secretary of Defense William Perry signs the execute order for Operation Uphold Democracy.

11 Sep 1994--10th Mountain Division leaves Fort Drum, New York, by railroad for Bayonne, New Jersey, and Norfolk, Virginia.

Senior government officials join senior joint staff officers from Pentagon and USACOM at "walk through" of day-by-day scenarios of detailed actions to be taken during the invasion and its aftermath. Dress rehearsals take place at National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.

12 Sep 1994--Department of Defense officials begin to brief embers of Congress on Operation Uphold Democracy.

USS America unloads organic aircraft to make room for U.S. Army soldiers and equipment.

14 Sep 1994--USS Eisenhower also unloads aircraft to make room for troops of the 10th Mountain Division (Light) and their helicopters.

USS Mt. Whitney, command ship for the Multinational Force, commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Shelton, U.S. Army, sails from Norfolk, Virginia.

17 Sep 1994--Carter-Nunn-Powell delegation--with Major General Jared Bates, U.S. Army, representing the Joint Staff--depart for Haiti to discuss how and when the junta will resign and depart and how U.S. forces will enter Haiti.

18 Sep 1994--President Clinton signs the execute order for Operation Uphold Democracy.

Former President Carter's delegation sends back agreement with junta that allows for peaceful landing of the U.S. task force.

CINCUSACOM initiates recall of the assault force.

CJCS sends message canceling original D-day/H-hour at one minute after midnight on September 19, 1994.

19 Sep 1994--CJCS sends execute order authorizing unopposed landing by 10th Mountain Division (Light) and other elements of the MNF.

Lead elements and two battalions of 10th Mountain Division arrive in Haiti. Major General David Meade, U.S. Army division commander, and Lieutenant General Henry Shelton, MNF commander, land. First C-5 aircraft land at Port-au-Prince.

21 Sep 1994--CINCUSACOM estimates that a total of 14,900 troops will be in Haiti by September 25, 1994.

Soon after Haitians are murdered in front of U.S. troops, the JCS changes the rules of engagement (ROE) to authorize senior U.S. commanders on scene in Haiti to intervene to prevent Haitian military or police from committing acts that threaten innocent lives.

22 Sep 1994--CINCUSACOM sends FRAGO calling upon MNF to conduct operations to protect U.S. citizens and representatives of the UN; coordinate operations with interagency organizations, international organizations, and the legitimate government of Haiti; professionalize the Haitian Arrny and Police; and assist in providing humanitarian assistance.

23 Sep 1994--Part of 1,000 U.S. MPs charged with preventing abuses by Haitian Police and to patrol streets in Port-au-Prince.

24 Sep 1994--Secretary of Defense and CJCS visit in Haiti.

Firefight between. U.S. Marines and Haitian Police and attachés in Cap Haitien. One U.S. Navy interpreter is wounded; ten armed Haitians are killed.

Some 10,000 protesters surround Haitian military headquarters at Gonaive. U.S. Army troops disarm, detain, or evacuate individuals. Two attachés are detained for their own protection and turned over to the Haitian Army.

25 Sep 1994--Shelton and Cedras arrive at Cap Haitien to tour and assess the situation.

26 Sep 1994--Special Marine Air/Ground Task Force will not be redeployed from Cap Haitien until October 2, 1994. They were to be relieved earlier by troops of the 10th Mountain Division (Light).

CINCUSACOM calls up two light armored companies from 82d Airborne Division for show of force in Port-au-Prince during large pro-Aristide demonstration to be held on September 30, 1994, third anniversary of the coup that over threw Aristide.

29 Sep 1994--Following return to Port-au-Prince of Mayor Evans Paul, anti-Aristide supporters throw a grenade into a pro-Aristide crowd, killing sixteen and wounding forty-one. U.S. MPs arrest eleven suspects.

30 Sep 1994--Pro-Aristide demonstration occurs in Port-au-Prince participated in by up to 30,000. Snipers shoot five demonstrators.

2 Oct 1994--M N F troops in Haiti peak at 20,931. CINCUSACOM is given a force ceiling of 21,000 troops.

Police Director Kelly and 124 International Police Monitors arrive. First elements of Caribbean Command (CARICOM) also arrive.

Special Marine Air/Ground Task Force leaves Cap Haitien to become reserve on USS Wasp.

3 Oct 1994--U.S. Army sergeant shot by Haitian firing over a wall in Les Cayes. Although wounded in the abdomen, the sergeant returns fire before being evacuated.

MNF begins operations against paramilitary Front for the Progress and Advancement of Haiti in Port-au-Prince, Les Cayes, and Cap Haitien. Many FRAPH headquarters are raided and arms confiscated.

4 Oct 1994--Police chief of Port-au-Prince, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Michel Francois, member of junta, flees to the Dominican Republic.

10 Oct 1994--Two other members of the junta announce resignations: Cedras and Philippe Biamby, chief of staff.

11 Oct 1994--De facto President Emile Jonassaint leaves presidential palace; U.S. troops move in.

Prime Minister Robert Malval returns.

13 Oct 1994--Cedras and Biamby leave for Dominican Republic.

15 Oct 1994--President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti.

16 Oct 1994--Ambassador Swing and Senator Dodd meet for the first time with President Aristide after his return to Haiti.

18 Oct 1994--USACOM proposes a force structure for the 6,000-person UN Mission in Haiti to CJTF 180, including mission and task analysis, concept of operations, and a strawman for U.S. contributions to the UNMIH.

19 Oct 1994--UN officials reassert their position that U.S. forces must disarm the paramilitary gunmen opposed to Aristide before the UN peacekeepers will replace American troops.

President Aristide signs a $15 million agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development that fixes the price of gas at $3.00 per gallon, doubling the price prior to the embargo. Meanwhile, the first tanker since the embargo delivers 150,000 barrels of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel to Port-au-Prince for a three-week supply. With the delivery of commercial fuel, Operation Lightswitch begins to phase out.

USACOM continues plans to contract logistics support for operations in Haiti to a commercial contractor, Brown and Root.

20 Oct 1994--During a news briefing at the Pentagon, Admiral Miller reaffirms that the U.S. mission in Haiti is not to disarm the civilian population but rather to "set conditions for civil order."

After training in Puerto Rico, the first of 400 Multinational Forces from Bangladesh arrive in Haiti.

21 Oct 1994--The Haitian Senate passes a bill outlawing paramilitary groups in Haiti.

24 Oct 1994--The training of vetted FAd'H members begins at Camp d'Application under the direction of the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program.

The CJCS direct CINCUSACOM to prepare a commander's concept for transition from MNF operations in Haiti to the UN Mission in Haiti, which would be presented during an interagency workshop scheduled for November 3.

Effective 242200Z, USACOM directs redeployment of CJTF 180 and transfer of MNF operational control to CJTF 190.

25 Oct 1994--More than 1,200 U.S. Special Forces troops continue to operate out of twenty-seven towns and cities in Haiti in efforts to keep Haitian paramilitary groups on the run.

Lieutenant General Shelton and JTF 180 staff redeploy to CONUS; Major General Meade assumes command of JTF 190-MNF.

27 Oct 1994--Major General Meade meets with President Aristide to brief him on MNF operations.

Due to delays in preparing the election process, Haitian officials predict the December elections will be rescheduled for January 1995.

Training for Haitian Police, under the supervision of U.S. and Canadian forces, continues for 353 Haitian military. The next class is scheduled to begin on October 31.

29 Oct 1994--President Aristide orders the dismissal of all the section chiefs or civilian and local police in Haiti's provinces.

30 Oct 1994--CMNF Haiti transfers tactical control of the Civil Affairs Ministerial Advisor Detachment to the chief of mission, U.S. Embassy, Port-au-Prince.

3 Nov 1994--Lieutenant Colonel Claudel Josephat, commander of Haiti's northern district, surrenders to U.S. forces in Port-au-Prince. He had resigned after U.S. Marines killed ten Haitian soldiers in a firefight in Cap Haitien on September 24 and was allegedly connected with a resistance movement against U.S. troops.

5 Nov 1994--Haiti's parliament approves President Aristide's choice for prime minister, Smarck Michel, who selects his cabinet for approval before the lower house.

6 Nov 1994--President Clinton approves plans to withdraw 6,000 U.S. troops from Haiti by December 1, leaving 9,000 troops to be phased down in the following months until 3,000 will be ready to serve as the U.S. contingent of the UN Mission in Haiti Multinational Forces.

8 Nov 1994--After a vote of confidence from parliament, Prime Minister Michel and his seventeen cabinet members take office at the National Palace in Port-au-Prince.

MNF troops provide security for President Aristide's visit and address the first two classes of FAd'H graduates of the Interim Public Security Force at Camp d' Application.

9 Nov 1994--Accompanied by Ambassador Swing and Major General Meade, President Aristide visits Cap Haitien under heavy security, provided by U.S. forces, to deliver his message of reconciliation.

15 Nov 1994--During a visit with President Aristide, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali nominates Lieutenant General Daniel R. Schroeder, U.S. Army Commander, U.S. Army Forces in Europe, to head the UN Mission in Haiti. He, too, agrees with General Sheehan that it is too soon to replace U.S. forces with UN peacekeepers. Note: Schroeder's name was later withdrawn and Major General Kinzer is nominated to command the UNMIH.

The death toll from Tropical Storm Gordon, which hits Haiti over the weekend, rises to over one hundred. U.S. forces provide rescue and clean-up operations.

17 Nov 1994--President Aristide nominates Brigadier General Bernardin Poisson to FAd'H commander in chief, replacing the interim commander, Major General Jean-Claude Duperval.

U.S. Army officials relate plans to relieve the 10th Mountain Division with the 25th Infantry Division (Light) from Schofield Barracks, Hawaii.

18 Nov 1994--Haiti celebrates Armed Forces Day, but some of President Aristide's backers question the need for a standing army.

20 Nov 1994--Brigadier General Poisson begins reorganizing the General Staff and High Command of the Haitian Army.

25 Nov 1994--The Civil Affairs Ministerial Adviser Teams continue to provide support to the various Haitian ministries of finance, education, and interior.

26 Nov 1994--CMNF Haiti issues orders to drawdown forces in Haiti to 6,000 by December 15.

The government of Haiti sends representatives to talk to the remaining Haitian migrants in GTMO. Since the return of President Aristide on October 15, a total of 15,199 Haitians have been voluntarily repatriated to Port-au-Prince.

27 Nov 1994--Secretary of Defense Perry rejects President Aristide's request to disarm Haitian terrorists and disloyal soldiers.

29 Nov 1994--Haiti's Prime Minister, Smarck Michel, announces that the general elections scheduled for December will not be held for at least fourteen to twenty-two weeks.

30 Nov 1994--President Aristide refers to the Haitian Army as "a cancer" that he wants to cure rather than cut out which indicates his continued efforts to reform instead of abolish the army.

At the end of November, MNF Haiti reports it has collected a total of 14,943 weapons; 1,720 Haitians have graduated from the IPSF course at Camp d'Application; and 8,670 U.S. military personnel remain in Haiti.

1 Dec 1994--President Clinton announces he will seek an additional $25 billion in defense spending in the next six years and $2 billion to fund contingency operations, as in Haiti.

After CJCS, approves the planning, USACOM directs drawdown of U.S. forces in Haiti to 6,000 by December 15.

2 Dec 1994--U.S. Embassy officials in Haiti confirm progress in stabilizing the Haitian government, including the appointment of a new supreme court, the separation of police and army units, and the reorganization of the forces.

MNF troops in Port-au-Prince conduct Operation Street Sweep to check for illegal weapons.

5 Dec 1994--U.S. and UN officials meet at the Blair House in Washington to discuss the transition of U.S. forces under the MNF to the U`N Mission in Haiti forces. UN representatives seek further delays until numerous details involving security, logistics, selection of a UN commander, and other matters have been resolved.

6 Dec 1994--USACOM announces the planned rotation of U.S. forces assigned to MNF that will employ units from the 25th Infantry Division (Light), Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, to replace the 10th Mountain Division forces. The 25th's commander, Major General George A. Fisher, is scheduled to relieve General Meade as the MNF commander.

7 Dec 1994--In a press interview, SECDEF Perry indicates that the successful turnover of Haiti operations from U.S. to UN forces will not be complete until March 1995.

8 Dec l994--Haiti's Senate agrees to President Aristide's proposals for a Provisional Electoral Council to initiate procedures for holding elections.
President Aristide signs the decree.

10 Dec 1994--USACOM issues a revised mission statement for CJTF 160, Operation Sea Signal.

13 Dec 1994--In Port-au-Prince, President Aristide calls on public support to prosecute those who have been involved in human rights violations, including army leaders, and announces plans to reduce the FAd'H to a small corps of 1,500.

17 Dec 1994--The last class of vetted FAd'H members graduates from the six-day course taught by U.S., French, and Canadian police instructors at Camp d'Application for a total of 2,960 graduates.

21 Dec 1994--Almost 1,000 former FAd'H members protest at the Port-au-Prince headquarters, demanding pension refunds after the Haitian government reduces the army's strength to 1,500.

The government of Haiti announces the appointment of the last of nine members of the Provisional Electoral Council, which opens the way for Haiti to begin the election process for legislative, municipal and local elections; President Aristide also appoints the head of the Commission of Justice and Truth.

22 Dec 1994--Ambassador Swing meets with President Aristide to review Administration of Justice projects in Haiti, including training courses for judicial personnel and improvements in the national penitentiary.

26 Dec 1994--Haiti's Provisional Electoral Council announcesits officers and planned passage of an electoral law in parliament, followed by the logistics of preparing for national and local elections.

28 Dec 1994--Although President Aristide has urged reconciliation following the demonstrations at the FAd'H headquarters, his supporters march in Port-au-Prince and demand the abolition of the Haitian Army.

After conferring with President Aristide, U.S. State Department officials advise the remaining Haitian migrants at GTMO that they have until January 5, 1995, to register for voluntary repatriation or be repatriated involuntarily without any cash incentives.

1995

2 Jan--During his Founding Fathers Day speech, President Aristide urges armed opposition members to turn in their illegal weapons. Since September, MNF troops have collected more than 15,000 weapons from the Haitians, either by the cash-for-weapons program or ongoing Street Sweep operations.

4 Jan--MNF Haiti commander, General Meade, declares that a "secure and safe environment" exists in Haiti, which is one of the requirements needed in transitioning fian U.S. to UN forces. CINCUSACOM concurs with this estimate.

7 Jan--President Aristide issues a decree on military and police issues, including the promotion of Brigadier General Pierre Cherubin, establishment of three commissions for restructuring the new armed forces, and relocation of the FAd'H headquarters, vacated for the newly created Ministry of Women's Affairs.

10 Jan--René van Rooyen, UNHCR representative to the United States, criticizes the Clinton administration for not adhering to the intemational standards for screening Haitian migrants in GTMO as asylum seekers, but DOS disagrees with this assessment.

11 Jan--Haiti's Provisional Electoral Council sends a draft electoral law to President Aristide for review.

12 Jan--The first death of an MNF U.S. soldier by hostile fire in Haiti occurs at a checkpoint in Gonaives. Sergeant First Class Gregory Cardott is killed in action, and a second soldier, Staff Sergeant Tommy Davis, is wounded.

14 Jan--Major General George A. Fisher, U.S. Army, Commanding General, 25th Infantry Division, assumes command of MNF Haiti from Major General David Meade, U.S. Army, Commanding General, 10th Mountain Division.

UN officials announce the nomination of Major General Joseph W. Kinzer, Deputy Commanding General, U.S. Fifth Army, to command UNMIH forces. UN Security Council anticipates passing a resolution that Haiti has attained a "stable and secure environment" to begin the sixty-day process of turning the operation over from the MNF to the UNMIH forces.

16 Jan--Haiti's prime minister, Smarck Michel, presents the draft electoral law to parliament.

UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali notifies the Security Council that the United States and eighteen other nations have volunteered military components for the UNMIH.

17 Jan--President Aristide officially dismisses the remainder of Haiti's army and creates a border patrol of 1,500 former FAd'H members.

SECDEF Perry pronounces Haiti "safe and secure" for turnover to the UNMIH forces, which will replace the MNF by March 31, 1995.

19 Jan--The government of Haiti assumes responsibility for distributing fuel oil for power plants previously run by the MNF as Operation Light Switch, but continues to require assistance in deliveries to outlying provinces to prevent blackouts.

President Aristide meets with Major General Fisher, MNF Haiti commander, and agrees to add 400 FAd'H personnel for the six-day IPSF course for an end strength of 3,400.

23 Jan--U.S. Ambassador Madeleine Albright proposes a UN Security Council resolution that will allow UNMIH forces to assume peace-keeping operations in Haiti from MNF Haiti by March 31.

24 Jan--Haiti's Justice Minister, Ernst Malbranche, resigns his position, and President Aristide nominates Jean-Joseph Exurne to replace him.

26 Jan--Joint Special Operations Task Force Haiti turns operations over to the U.S. Army Special Operations Task Force.

27 Jan--UN Security Council members finalize a draft of the UNMIH renewal resolution scheduled for adoption on January 30.

30 Jan--UN Security Council passes UNSCR 975 to transfer the Haitian peacekeeping mission from the MNF to the UNMIH effective March 31.

Haiti's Chamber of Deputies passes the electoral law and sends it to the Senate but adds provisions for all candidates to have a high school diploma and excludes clergy from public office unless they have been retired for at least one year.

31 Jan--At a meeting in Paris, the World Bank and international agencies from twenty donor nations pledge a $660 million reconstruction package and another $240 million in military assistance for Haiti's economic recovery over the next fifteen months.

The first four-month police training course begins at the Police Academy, Camp d'Application, for 262 of the 375 applicants.

MNF troops continue to conduct Operation Lightning Sweep to collect unauthorized weapons at various military and police posts.

1 Feb--Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel announces that parliamentary elections will be held on April 28, provided that all the procedures are approved in parliament.

4 Feb--After modifying amendments inserted by the deputies, the Haitian Senate sends the Electoral Law for President Aristide's approval before all elected officials' terms expire on the fourth.

10 Feb--Haiti election officials announce legislative and local elections will be held in late May or early June.

11 Feb--Armed Haitians attack the police station in Limbe after U.S. troops pull out. Three Haitian IPSF members are missing. Authorities later confirm the IPSF commander's death.

14 Feb--President Aristide confirms the electoral law will be published within twenty-four hours; it will be effective forty-eight hours following its publication.

15 Feb--An Argentine IMP in Petionville is shot; the first time an IPM has been injured since the arrival of the MNF

23 Mar--Court-martial of Captain Lawrence Rockwood is announced for violation of orders in regard to his unauthorized visit to the Haitian National Prison in Port-au-Prince on September 30, 1994.

31 Mar--Ceremony marks hand over of MNF presence in Haiti from United States to UNMIH.

Note: this is an edited version of the working chronology prepared by, Dr. William McClintock, Command Historian, USACOM, using sources that are either unclassified or in the public domain. It was completed on February 17, 1995.



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