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Sunday, August 16, 1998
European Biophysics
Igor Vodyanoy

Office Of Naval Research-European Office
Biophysics Newsletter No. 41

Acoustic Research in Russia - a review

Key words: ocean acoustics, USSR, Russia, research, development

Contents:
1. Summary
2. Acoustics R&D in the USSR
   2.1 Introduction
   2.2 Organization Of The Acoustics R&D In USSR

2.2.1 Basic Research
2.2.2 Applied Research In Ocean Acoustics
2.2.3 Acoustics -- Educational Institutions
   2.3 Selected accomplishments (theory & applications)
2.3.1 Ocean Acoustic Theory (1955-1988)
2.3.2 Space - Time Signal Processing & Detection Algorithms (1945-1989)
2.3.3 Unique Acoustic Systems, Prototypes & Technologies (1970-1989)
   2.4 Conclusions
3. Russian Acoustics Today
   3.1 Introduction
   3.2 Some General Data
   3.3 How do They Survive
   3.4 R&D Supported By Federal Budget
   3.5 Novel Approaches
      3.5.1 The Atoll Research Institute
3.5.1.1 GEOTON
3.5.1.2 ROS
3.5.1.3 INFRAD
3.5.1.4 PELENG
      3.5.2 Institute Of Applied Physics (Nizhny Novgorod)
      3.5.3 Acoustical Institute
4. Points of Contact
5. Acoustical Institute (AKIN) Publications In 1997
6. Dr. Borodin's Laboratory Publications
7. High Power Transducers From The Atoll Scientific Research Institute
7.1 Underwater Electric Discharge Acoustic Source
7.2 Electromagnetic Source 0f Underwater Acoustic Pulses
7.3 Underwater Magazine-Type Wide-Band Electrodynamic Source with Reactive Component Compensation
APPENDIX I.
  1. Central Bureau For Marine Engineering (RUBIN)
  2. St.-Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau (MALACHITE)
  3. Lazurit Central Design Bureau (LAZURIT)

1. SUMMARY

This comprehensive review characterizes and compares the cold war period (Soviet) with the current state of Acoustics Research and Development in Russia. "Soviet" R&D was overpriced, over-staffed and inefficient, but produced a lot of very original research results. Many of the results are still unknown in the West. The review explicates how the R&D was done and where, giving a detailed report on the laboratories in the former Soviet Union. It briefly describes basic and applied research accomplishments with references to individual researchers, their publications and their appropriate laboratories.

During the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian Federation allocations for R&D have been reduced by about 95%. The review analyzes what and how has been changed in acoustics R&D. It shows what kinds of projects Russian scientists are working on today, and how they get to keep their jobs, if they do, and the conditions under which they have to work. There are many scientists who are still producing interesting technologies in directions unexplored by the West. Much more of their work is theoretical, but they have many prototypes and models worthy of our attention from projects which have been abandoned due to lack of money, materials, or both. The scientific workforce is aging rapidly as many younger scientists have found employment elsewhere, in higher paying jobs or abroad, and there are few students willing to study in a field where there is no future. I think that this report is very timely, as the older generation of scientists will soon retire, and the knowledge will disappear with them.

2. ACOUSTICS R&D IN the USSR

2.1 Introduction

The intent of this chapter is to characterize and compare the cold war period (Soviet) with the current state of Acoustics Research and Development (R&D) in Russia. There have being radical changes in R&D during the years after the Soviet Union collapse. The Russian Federation State Budget allocated for R&D has been reduced by 90 - 95%, and consequentially, the number of scientists and engineers leaving R&D is growing due to consistently diminishing labor compensation. Many institutions are left with half and sometimes with only 10% of their original personnel. The absence of comprehensive military doctrine and conversion policy contributed to a demise of many designing and manufacturing facilities in Russia.

Nevertheless, by serendipity, if not by design -- some of these dramatic changes in Russian R&D are in fact quite positive. The majority of Soviet R&D Institutes, Design Bureaus, and manufacturing facilities were staffed with unessential, ineffectual, and redundant employees. (The US company Klein Assoc. Inc., that manufactures the Side-Scan Sonar has about 40 employees and the former Soviet company that produced similar equipment had about 1200 employees.) As one Russian researcher put it: "the staff of my department in Acoustics Institute in the best of times numbered 85 employees, but in reality only 10-15 persons were involved in R&D. The total absence of material incentive forced administration to hire more people to produce anything at all"

The ever-present iron curtain, an absence of real competition, and the secrecy of acoustics R&D were a blessing and a curse to Russia. It was either highly progressive or an awkward and retrograde direction. A typical example of this is digital technology. The absence of up-to-date microchip technology forced Russian engineers to design analog equipment for spectral analysis of acoustic fields. Nevertheless, the advantages of Western digital spectrum analyzers were so obvious that the Russian Navy was using them in secret (pretending to use equipment designed in Russia) for calibration of basic sonar equipment as well as for classification procedures. "Official" use of these analyzers was only for "auxiliary metrology" and as "testing equipment" (B&K and ONOSOCI were commonly used at the time).

2.2 ORGANIZATION OF ACOUSTICS R&D IN USSR

As with all research fields in the former USSR acoustics R&D was extremely centralized. Officially, there were the Russian Academy of Sciences (Basic science funding), Industrial Ministries (Applied R&D funding), and the Ministry of Education (Basic and Applied R&D funding), who formed different Joint Science Councils coordinating R&D activities in the USSR. But in reality, such coordination was accomplished by a special department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Political Bureau of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, PB of CPSU)


More than 40 thousand employees (15 thousand of whom were scientists and engineers) were involved in federally supported acoustics R&D (~70% in defense and ~30% in civilian R&D). The average cost of a typical defense R&D project analogous in scope to an average 6.1-6.2 project in the U.S. was about $800,000 - $1,500,000 per year. The cost of a 6.3-6.4 type R&D project was 5 to 10 times higher.

2.2.1 BASIC RESEARCH

Almost all basic research in ocean and hydro acoustics was done at either the Acoustical Institute (AKIN) and partly at or the Institute of Oceanology. The Institute branched off in 1955 from the former Acoustical Laboratory of the Institute of General Physics, but in 1960 it was transferred to the Ministry of Shipbuilding. The AKIN had separate departments for ocean and hydro acoustics and was working on integrated R&D projects (basic and applied research). The AKIN was the principal designer and coordinator of just about all significant hydro acoustics R&D for many other Institutes and Design Bureaus. Well-equipped ocean-going research vessels went on about 50 long term cruises and tested various novel shipboard hydro acoustic equipment. Table 1 lists all acoustics R&D institutions involved into the basic research the FSU.

BASIC RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN OCEAN ACOUSTICS

Table 1

Name of the organization
Activities
Location
Number of employees
N.N.Andreyev Acoustical Institute (AKIN) Ocean acoustics, Hydro acoustics Bioacoustics, Transducers, New Materials, Acoustooptics, Noise and vibrations, Structural acoustics, Medicine and Technology Ultrasound, Acoustic metrology, Acoustic signal processing, Classification, Air-acoustics, acoustics of Jets Moscow (main office), Sukhumi Division (Black Sea), Severomorsk Division (Barents Sea), Kamchatka Division, Leningrad Division, Dubna Division
5 Research ocean going ships
Total 2500

S&T 700

350 professors and D.Sc.
P.P.Shirchov Institute of Oceanology
Russian Academy of Sciences
Hydrophysics, Physical oceanography, Acoustics marine biology, marine geology, instrumentation and submersibles Baltic base in Kaliningrad, Ghelendzhic base on Black Sea, 4 Research Ships 2000
Pacific Oceanological Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences
Underwater acoustics (especially low frequency acoustics) , ocean processes and dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, status of water ecosystems, geological/geophysical investigations of sea bottom Vladivostok
2 Research Ships
600
270 R&D
scientists 150 professors & D.Sc.
Institute of Marine Technology Problems
Russian Academy of Sciences
Autonomous submersible platforms, towed platforms and ROVs, navigation and positioning, Ocean acoustics, frontal zones, synoptic eddies, non-traditional and renewable Energy sources, Ecological Monitoring Vladivostok 400
90 R&D
General Physics Institute, Dept.of Wave Phenomena, Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Low-frequency signal propagation in shallow water, Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions Moscow18
Institute of Applied Physics
Acoustic department
Russian Academy of Sciences
Remote diagnostics of ocean phenomena, acoustic target detection, low-frequency sound propagation, computer simulation of sound propagation, Phased transducer arrays Nizhny Novgorod 45
Bureau of Oceanological Engineering
Russian Academy of Sciences
Various oceanographic Instrumentation, Manned Submersibles Moscow400

2.2.2. APPLIED RESEARCH IN OCEAN ACOUSTICS

The leading institution in the applied acoustics R&D is the Research Center «Okeanpribor» that designs and manufactures all types of sonars and other hydro acoustical equipment working over a wide frequency range. OKEANPRIBOR products can be found in all Russian submersibles (including Navy submarines). The Table 2 lists all applied research institutes in Russia, Table 3 lists all applied research institutes in Ukraine, and Table 4 lists all FSU special design bureaus (DB) and production facilities (P).

APPLIED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN HYDROACOUSTICS

Table 2

RUSSIA

Research Center
OKEANPRIBOR
Combines research Institute and two manufacturing plants
Design and manufacture of hydro acoustic equipment for ships, submersibles and stationary on-shore sonars.
St.-Petersburg
Two experimental basins
4000
2000 R&D
KRYLOV SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE Ship design, Hydro-Aero Mechanics, Structural acoustics and vibrations, Non-acoustic Ship Signatures, Ship Power Plants, Nuclear Power Plants, Large model-making capabilities. St.-Petersburg
5000

2500 R&D
ATOL Scientific Research Institute Development and making of low-frequency hydro acoustical seabed passive Sonars, Cable bottom arrays, Low-frequency transducers and transmitters Dubna
Moscow Region
2000
Scientific Research Institute HYDROPRIBOR High-frequency active Sonars, Transponders, Navigation, Mine detection, Non-acoustic target detection St.-Petersburg
2000
State Scientific Research Institute of Physico/Technical Measurements, Acoustic department Acoustics metrology and Standards, Primary transducers and Hydrophones, Design of acoustic pressure chambers Certification and testing Zelenograd, Moscow Region
120
Scientific Research Institute «Impulse» Hydro Acoustics Department Self-tracking acoustic heads, High-frequency sonars, HF transducers and phased Arrays Moscow
250

UKRAINE

Table 3

Marine Hydrophysical Institute Physical oceanography, Manufacture of oceanography equipment. Towed profile sonars Towfishes with different equipment. Current meters, CTDs, DO, pH meters, Geomagnetic devices, Underwater optics, Biophysics,Turbulence. Ocean-atmosphere interactions, Sevastopol Experimental base in Odessa, Katsiveli
5 Research ships, shelf mounted observational sea platform
3000
Scientific Research Institute of HYDROPRIBOROV Ship sonars, active and passive, Towed arrays and towed active sonars, Sonobuoys with single vector sensors and vertical arrays, High-power transducers and phased arrays Kiev
3500

SPECIAL DESIGN BUREAUS AND PLANTS (DB&P)

Table 4

DB&P PRIBOY High-frequency active sonars, Echo-sounders, Fish sonars, Navigation and Doppler equipment, Side-scan sonars, Transponders, Transducers, Accelerometers, Hydrophones and arrays, Sonars for helicopters Taganrog, Russia
4000
DB BEREGDeep seabed sonars
Acoustic transponders, Vertical line arrays
Vladivostok, Russia
400
Lenin DB&P High-frequensy sonars for surface ships and submersibles, Echo-sounders, Bottom and subbottom profiling systems, Acoustic navigation Beltsi, Moldova
4000
P. DalpriborDesign and manufacture of echo-sounders Sonars for fishing and merchant ships Sonar equipment
Large stationary receiving planar arrays
Vladivostok, Russia
4500
P.AHTUBAPiezoceramic and PZT materials, Hydrophones, Vibration sensors, Magnetostrictional transducers Volgograd, Russia
3500

2.2.3 ACOUSTICS -- EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

These are major Universities and Higher Learning Institutions ("Institutes") with acoustics departments, but some acoustics and electro-acoustics is taught as a part of various general physics courses in many State Universities and Institutes:

Moscow State University
Department of General Acoustics (medical, engineering)
St.-Petersburg University
Department of general Physics, Chair of Acoustics (medical)
Moscow Physical & Technical Institute
Department of Hydrocosmos (medical)
Moscow Institute of Radioelectronics
Department of electroacoustics (engineering)
St.-Petersburg Electrotechnical Institute
Department of electroacoustics (engineering)
Rostov State University
Department of acoustics and electroacoustics (medical, engineeing)
St.-Petersburg State University of Ocean Technology
(Former Ship-building Institute)
Department of hydroacoustics and acoustics (engineering)
Vladivostok`s Politechnical Institute
Department of sea instrumentation (engineeing)
Moscow Academy of Telecommunications
Department of electroacoustics and sound techniques (engineeing)
St-Petersburg Academy of Radioelectronics
Department of Hydroacoustics (for Navy cadets and officers) (engineering)

2.3 SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS (THEORY & APPLICATIONS)

   2.3.1 OCEAN ACOUSTICS THEORY (1955-1988)

  • Multiple-ray and multiple-mode sound propagation L.Brekhovskih, at the Acoustic Institute (AKIN) has developed the first accurate theory of multiple-mode sound propagation for deep and shallow water. This theory became the basis for all future theoretical work on sound propagation.
  • Double-scale model of sound scattering on the sea surface This model of sound scattering has combined two types of scattering in one equation that has permitted the explanation of experimental results of sound scattering on the sea surface, B. Kur'yanov, 1957, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of active noise suppression The first idea of the acoustic «black hole» was generated by G. Maluzsinets, -- ("A sound diffraction theory", G. Maluzsinets, 1964, Acoustic Institute). He developed the first theoretical results and wrote original diffraction equations for this theory.
  • First algorithms and programs for fast sound field calculations and fast computer simulation, A.Vagin, N Maltsev, 1966, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of acoustical lenses and concentrators, L.Rozenberg, B. Tartakovskii, 1957, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of sound fluctuations and scattering on inner waves, S.Chuprov, 1969, Acoustical Institute
  • Parametric sound radiation and parametric sound receivers, V.Zverev, 1958, Institute of Applied Physics
  • Theory of nonlinear sound interaction, K.Naugolnich, 1962, Acoustical Institute, L.Ostrovskii,1965, Institute of Applied Physics.
  • Theory of noise anisotropy in a sea wave-guide, A. Furduev, 1969, Acoustical Institute
  • First theoretical description of the Acousto-Optical interaction in nematic liquid crystals, A.Kapustin, I.Chaban, 1971, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of electrical discharge in water, N.Roy, K.Naugolnich, 1965, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of Laser Generation of Sound, L.Lyamshev, K.Naugolnich, 1975
  • Theory of active suppression of vibrations, B. Tartakovskii, 1976, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of sound fluctuations, L. Chernov, 1964, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of finite differences for acoustic fields calculation, V.Zavadskii, 1984, Acoustical Institute. Today this theory is the basis for all high-speed calculations of acoustic fields in wave-guides with arbitrary layers, stratification, and boundaries.
  • Theory of sound diffraction, G. Maluzinets, 1958, Acoustical Institute. This is an outstanding theory of sound diffraction based on a new and original method of analysis (theory of functional equations). This theory permits the consideration and calculation of sound diffraction on real targets, instead of the classical theory of diffraction on idealized models (as in Sommerfeld, Keller, Westpfhal).
  • Sound diffraction theory on plates and coatings, E. Shenderov, 1985, OKEANPRIBOR

2.3.2 SPACE - TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING & DETECTION ALGORITHMS (1945-1989)

The following list is indeed a small selection out of a multitude of research results by FSU scientists and engineers.

  • The development of correlation theory for acoustic signal processing Feinberg and S. Gershman, Acoustic Laboratory of the Institute of General Physics have developed the first canonical equation for sign correlation in 1948. This was 7 years before the well known work of the U.S. scientist J.Rise.
  • Correlation beamforming in passive sonars, S.Gershman, 1956, Acoustical Institute
  • The statistical theory and description of sea reverberation, V.Olshevskii, 1966, Acoustical Institute. Later this model of reverberation has received the name of FOM-model ( Fore, Olshevskii, Middletown,)
  • The diffraction theory of 2D and 3D sonar arrays with screens and domes, Smarishev, Shenderov, OKEANPRIBOR, first open publication in 1975.
  • The theory of non-linear correlation processing of wide-band acoustic signals generated by mechanisms with rotation elements V.Svet, 1968, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of aperture synthesis of arrays, 1968, V.Zverev, Institute of Applied Physics
  • The theory of Adaptive beamforming, V.Dimshits, 1973, OKEANPRIBOR
  • Statistical theory of optimal multiray signal processing, G.Zmickhov, 1966, Acoustical Institute. Today this theory is known as matched-filter processing.
  • Theory of potential accuracy of target location in a nonhomogeneous medium taking into account signal fluctuations. V. Borodin, Acoustical Institute,1975. This was the first theory combining physical models of acoustic multiple-ray signals with statistical theory of optimal decisions. The theory permitted estimating the potential accuracy of the target location in a sea wave-guide with space-time parameter variations. Later, this theory was modified by Borodin and his colleagues and today every sonar designer has special software based on this theory to estimate the effectiveness of sonar for arbitrary ocean conditions.
  • Theory of noise stability of 3- component vector acoustic sensors and arrays, 1982, V.Il`ichev, Pacific Oceanology Institute, V.Borodin, 1984, Acoustical Institute
  • Theory of design of complex compound transducers, A. Korepin, Smarishev, OKEANPRIBOR, 1976

2.3.3 UNIQUE ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS, PROTOTYPES & TECHNOLOGIES (1970-1989)

It is impossible to list all original and even unique technologies and prototypes of different acoustic and hydro acoustic equipment, systems and devices. A list of developed technologies that influenced (or can influence in the future when they will become known in the west) engineering approaches in acoustics and hydro acoustics is provided here.

  • Large stationary planar sonar arrays, Chief Designer Ya.Karlik, 1979, OKEANPRIBOR, PI-S.Gershman, Acoustical Institute. This unique array, 120 by 12 meters, containing 2400 hydrophones, can be deployed on the sea bottom at a depth up to 400 meters. The mean time of operation without repair and maintenance is more than 15 years, the special technology for assembly and installation was developed.
  • High-speed optico-digital signal processor for large planar arrays, Chief Designer V.Svet, Acoustical Institute, 1980.
  • High-power low-frequency acoustic transducers for long-range active stationary sonar, OKEANPRIBOR, 1985
  • Optical fiber hydrophones, OKEANPRIBOR, 1983
  • Optical fiber hydrophone towed array, Scientific Research Institute «Volna»
  • Fully optical sonar, Scientific Research Institute «Volna», chief designer-I.Bogatirev, PI- V. Svet, Acoustical Institute
  • Prototype of PVDF planar hydrophones for conformed arrays, 1980,I.Golyamina, Acoustical Institute, OKEANPRIBOR, 1982.
  • Long cable acoustic sensors for towed arrays, 1984, I.Golyamina, Acoustical Institute
  • 2D analog ultrasound high-speed imaging camera, L.Rozenberg, Yu.Semennikov, Acoustical Institute, P.Oshepkov, Institute of Introscopy, 1966
  • High-power electrodynamic transducers and phased arrays, Institute of Applied Physics, 1987.
  • Ultra low frequency acousto-optical liquid crystal hydrophones and geophones, V. Reshetov, O Kapustina, V Svet, 1984, Acoustical Institute

2.4 CONCLUSIONS

The former USSR had extensive and highly advanced R&D in ocean acoustics and hydro acoustics. It was developed on account of the Russian Navy needs and enjoyed practically unlimited financial support. Traditionally, Russian scientists were looking for analytical solutions and procedures - as opposed to numerical solutions favored in the West. Often they developed unique software for numerical solutions on their slow computers. The first high-speed program of Vagin and Maltsev for sound field calculations is a typical example of this - at the time they had about 300 Kb of RAM in their computer. All this is an example of know-how which can be exploited and integrated into research in the West.

For example, there are devices developed in the West for active suppression of machine generated noise. The suppression works only in a limited volume and only for a narrow frequency band. Using diffraction theory of G.Maluzsinets one could easily develop a suppression method of wide-band noise generated by a target with arbitrary geometry and dimensions. This theory can be used for stealthing against active sonar - a so-called "acoustic black hole". The basic theoretical results were derived more than 30 years ago, but it was impossible to realize such an "acoustically invisible system" at the time, due to technical limitations. Today, the implementation of this idea looks quite realistic.

Optical holography and lasers stimulated the development of analog 2D-signal processors for different applications. It was suggested, for example, that a coherent optical processor for beam-forming and correlation processing could be used in the US stationary sonar system "Artemis". A similar optical processor has been developed in Russia and successfully tested with large stationary sonar arrays. In both countries coherent optical processing could not really compete with digital processing. Nevertheless, the idea of totally optical sonar has been revived again with the rapid development of new acousto-optical technologies, such as fiber-optical acoustical sensors, liquid-crystal acousto-optical sensors and others. In this type of sonar, all acoustic signal detection and primary space-time signal processing could be performed by light, and only post-detector processing will require electronics. Potential benefits of such a system are obvious, but how does one overcome the problem of the low dynamic range of analog coherent optical processing must be overcome. One alternative is to use the redundancy of optical waves in combination with analog-digital representation of input signals. Such a system will look similar to biological vision processing (analog processing with large dynamic range).

In applied acoustics one can note the advanced level of technology in high power acoustic transducers, PZT technologies, and matrix sonar arrays. The large 120x12 meter planar array is a very good example.

Traditionally, the weak point in the USSR's acoustic equipment was digital electronics. The dimensions of the electronics racks and cabinets for the hydro acoustics equipment were very large in comparison with similar Western equipment. Indeed, ships or submersibles had to be built larger to accommodate the bulky equipment. Today, when as the Russian market becomes integrated with the global open market the "digital" limitation does not exist any more.

3. RUSSIAN ACOUSTICS TODAY

   3.1 INTRODUCTION

The collapse of USSR caused numerous problems for R&D in Russia. The ocean acoustics industry in the USSR was closely correlated with Navy needs and with most of the Defense Industrial Complex. The Defense Industry today is thoroughly confused by the total absence of any coherent defense strategy and by a so called "conversion". The Russian Government did not develop either necessary legal basis or rules of the game for this "conversion". The directive to industry simply was: produce what the Russian market needs. The Chief Designer of one of the large Defense organizations that designed and manufactured rocket systems complained that the Ministry was forcing him to develop electromechanical systems for textile pattern cutting and refrigerator-trailers for frozen meat transportation.

   3.2 SOME GENERAL DATA

There are more than 1700 defense industrial companies operating in Russia today. The total number of employees is about 2,500,000. Most of these companies are still manufacturing products for military and civilian applications. For example, in the former USSR, all the TV-sets were manufactured only at military complex factories! Since 1990, the general level of production is going perpetually down. Some general data is presented in the Table below:

DEFENSE INDUSTRY PRODUCTION
(Published By The Russian Ministry Of Economics) (1998 onwards projected)

YEAR
Defense products

(in %)
Civilian sector products

(in %)
1991
100
100
1992
49,5
80,4
1993
32,5
64,5
1994
19,9
39,5
1995
16,6
34,2
1996
12,2 (min)
22,2 (min)
1997
13,7
22,3
1998
16
24
1999
20
27
2000
21
30
2001
21,5
33
2002
21,5
35
2003
22
36,5
2004
23
37,3
2005
23,5
38,7

In the following Table, the reduction of the defense industry workforce is shown in relation with the decrease in gross productivity:

NUMBER OF THE EMPLOYEES IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY
(Published By The Russian Ministry Of Economics)

Year
Employees (%)
Gross productivity (%)
1991
100
100
1992
88,2
80,4
1993
78,5
64,6
1994
61,2
38,2
1995
51,8
31,2
1996
45
22

It is interesting to note that the average salary in the Defense industry was 572 rubles/month ($104) and it was 963 rubles/month ($175) in the civilian industry.

The situation with financing in 1997 was not much better. In the Table below the total expenses of the Ministry of Defense are shown for the period January/February 1997

EXPENSES OF THE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1997

Type of expenses
Planned

(Mil. rubles)
Procured

(Mil. rubles)
%
Running Costs
10,757
5976
8.5
Construction
1,031
246
24
Procurement
3,494
62
1.8
R&D
1,546
14 (!!!!)
9
Total
16,827
6,298
37.4

If one takes into account that in January 1997 $1 = 5 rubles, the total money spent for all defense related R&D was only about $2,8 Million!
   3.3 HOW DO THEY SURVIVE?

They mostly don't. The R&D Institutes had "brains", "know-how" and some of them had really novel technologies, but they did not know what to do with them. The younger employees (25-45 years) started to leave the Institutes to join private industries or commerce or to go abroad. The Directors of R&D Institutes were not ready (and some of them wanted to preserve the status quo) to restructure, they still thought that the Government will bail them out and will give them the long promised funds.

For example, the Acoustical Institute in former times had about 2200 employees. Today, there are no more than 450 employees on the Institute payroll. But in reality, only 75-85 are working in R&D. Other employees have so called "forced holidays", i.e. working elsewhere while formally being on the Institute payroll. According to the Russian Ministry of Economics, more than 35% of the scientists are working now in the West.

This is an excerpt from a letter I received from one Russian scientist:

"AKIN is sitting without money at all, but the scientists are working and working.
The preparation and publication of papers is the single what they have now and what they can do now.
These people can not stop their activity because only this activity supports them in their life every day. The most of them believe that new good time will come soon, but unfortunately they are very old people.
Some scientists told me that they try to publish all they have because it is the single product and legacy they can give to future Russia. They can not teach young scientists to day and transfer them their knowledge because the Youth does not come to Science in Russia in present time."

   3.3 R&D SUPPORTED BY FEDERAL BUDGET

REVIEW OF R&D UNDER THE FEDERAL PROGRAM «ACOUSTICS»

In 1993 the former Committee of the Defense Industry (former Ministry) announced the conversion program «Acoustics» for all the acoustics and hydro acoustics R&D Institutions. It is interesting to look at this program to understand the typical Russian "Ministerial" approach to R&D planning.

The Program was introduced as following:

  • This program is for design and development of acoustics technologies for civilian needs and has to provide an integrated approach to R&D performed by all institutions in the field of acoustics and hydro acoustics
  • The participants are: AKIN (coordinator), R&D Institute «Morfizpribor», «Hydropribor», Krilov Institute, «ATOL», « Bereg», Institute of Applied Acoustics, Kamchatkskiy Institute of Hydrophysics, (both are former AKIN branches), «Shtil» (the small R&D Design Bureau of the AHTUBA manufacturing complex).
  • Financing is provided from the Federal Budget. The funding and the program lifetime can be modified taking into consideration inflation. (NB: this correction was never realized during the lifetime of the program)
  • Individual Statements of Work should be negotiated between potential customers and program participants

The last item implies that there were potential "customers" who were ready to purchase future products. Unfortunately, it was only an empty promise. The R&D companies had no idea about who these "customers" were, or how they should have found them. This item was there as a formality for Ministerial approval of the budget.

The Program numbered 39 R&D projects (29 of them equivalent to 6.1 and 10 of them to 6.2 - 6.3). The total cost of the Program was 1300 Million rubles ($1~5,000 rubles). It was absolutely clear that it was impossible to conduct any 6.2-6.3 R&D within this small budget. So it was obviously just the usual «soviet» bureaucratic process of self deception.

Nevertheless, even these small funds supported development of new and interesting technologies and devices.

APPLIED ACOUSTICS AND HYDRO ACOUSTICS R&D, 1994-1996

¹
TITLE OF THE R&D PROJECT
COST
Million rubles
Institution
RESULT/
PRODUCT
1
The air transponders for shipboard
24,2
AKIN
Test model
2
Ultrasound air shipboard sonar for navigation
31
AKIN
Test model
3
Fishing ship Echosounder
90
Priboi Plant
Prototype
4
Nontraditional methods of noise reduction in Streamers
36
Krilov Inst.
Report
5
Ultrasound transmission of TV color pictures
52,2
AKIN
Test model
6
Hydro acoustical system for detection of oil on a sea floor
105
Morfiz-pribor
Prototype
7
Shipbuilding materials for sound absorption
30,8
AKIN
Prototype
8
Acoustic navigation system for precision Helicopter landing
50,6
AKIN
Prototype
9
Underwater wide-range radiators on the base of magnetostriction materials
29,5
AKIN
test model
10
System for transmission of human speech in high noise situations
37,3
AKIN
Report
11
Portable sonar for detection of unmanned submersibles
84
Morfiz-pribor
Prototype
12
Table-top experimental super-computer for signal processing

125
Kanchatka Hydrophys. Institute
Prototype
13
Ultrasound intensification of physical-chemical water purification on ships
20
Morfiz-pribor
Report
14
Portable sonar for divers
25
Morfiz-pribor
Prototype
15
Sea-bed multichannel digital system for seismic-array
185
ATOL
Prototype
16
Hydro acoustical system for monitoring of the ship hull below the waterline
54
Morfiz-pribor
Prototype
17
Spectrometry of the time delay for modernization of acoustics devices
59
AKIN
Test model
18
Testing equipment for sound absorption materials
38,2
AKIN
Report
19
Hydrophones for 0,001-600 kHz
20
Shtil
Prototypes
20
Sea Transponder for fishing vessels
23
Bereg
Prototype
21
Analysis of the present conditions and forecast for conversion of R&D in defense hydroacoustics
195(!)
AKIN

(NB: The cost was mostly to cover business trips abroad for Directors and officials from the Ministry)

Program of conversion looking for a potential customer in the West
22
Ultrasound Imaging system for turbid waters
180
AKIN
Prototype
23
Single beam echosounder for fishing vessels
150
Briz
Prototype
24
Machine diagnostics based on nonlinear acoustic effects
61,5
Institute of Applied Acoustics
Report
25
Acoustic system for distance measurements
34,8
AKIN
Prototype
26
Acoustical methods of viscosity reduction
55
AKIN
Prototype
27
Acoustical devices for finding people in extreme conditions
53,5
AKIN
Report
29
Acoustical ecological monitoring in rivers and sea harbors
83
AKIN

NB. This was the only project for the department of ocean acoustics

Report
30
Acoustical methods of diagnostics of gas/oil pipes
36
AKIN
Test model
31
Acousto-optical liquid crystal multichannel sensor for monitoring of complex structures
37
AKIN
Test model
32
Design of elastic materials for vibration reduction
20
AKIN
Test models
33
Design of a fiber optical sensor for measuring of acoustic power
21
AKIN
Prototype
34
Adaptive active compensation of vibrations
27,6
AKIN
Report
35
Optimization procedures for vibration reduction in railway cars and other vehicles
28,1
AKIN
Report
36
Noise reduction in ventilating fans and conditioners
37,6
AKIN
Report
37
Fire resistant materials with high sound absorption
25
AKIN
Prototypes
38
Sound absorbing materials based on composites
38,4
AKIN
Prototypes
39
Ecological information data storage and reproduction
80
Kamchatka Hydrophys.

Institute

Report

Despite the shortage of funds, the following projects were completed: 8, 11, 12, 16, 22, 25, 31, 33, and 37.

3.5 NOVEL APPROACHES

In the climate of severe fund shortages, the Defense Institutions adapted by developing novel strategies. The two most common are:

- Buildings and land sublease to offset utilities bills

- Organization of small private spin-off companies for commercial activity

Here are some advantages of being a small spin-off private R&D company in Russia: - small overheads
(Federal institution pays most of the bills), compare overheads: 500% for Institutes, 800-1000% for Federally owned factories and only 10-12% for a small spin-off.
- No value added tax (VAT=20% of gross income) during first three years
- Do not have to use Federal banking system of payments (inefficient and slow)
- Simpler management structure

These small companies usually do not own the equipment, or laboratories, and their staff is usually very limited (2-4 persons). The work is done through subcontracting.
The factories organize these small companies to sell their products on the open market.

The Defense Industrial Complex is not allowed to sell any of it's products to the civilian market. It is necessary to receive special permission, licenses and other documents, which is a cumbersome and time-consuming procedure (the time scale is years). A private company can do it very efficiently and quickly.

Many such companies were fraudulent in their finance and production. The key problem for such companies is: who is the real owner of the technology the company is going to sell? Russia still has a very poor legal base for resolving these problems. Nevertheless, the organization of these small companies was (and still is) the only way for the Institutes to keep their keep their "brains" and to develop new technologies and continue R&D.

Of course these phenomena are closely related with the unresolved problem of privatization of the defense industry in Russia. Just recently the Government announced an initial strategy to reduce the State defense industry and start real privatization. At the same time, some Institutes and Industrial Plants have been privatized during the period 1994-1997. But very often such privatization was made in the interests of shareholders not interested in R&D or production.

The former R&D Institute of Introscopy is a very good example. It was a very advanced Institute on Imaging and Visualization of internal structures of nontransparent materials (X-rays, radio, acoustics, and so on). After the privatization the Institute was practically destroyed. Now this Institute has only a name. Banks, supermarkets, and hotels rent essentially all buildings.

Let us look at some more examples and attempts to develop commercial products in the acoustical field.

   3.5.1 - THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE "ATOLL"

This Institute has organized a special Trade group "TECHNOPOLE" that represents four small companies: GEOTON, ROS, PELENG and INFRAD. These companies are just a commercial front of different Departments of ATOLL. One way or another this gave ATOLL a way to introduce it's products on the Market.

   3.5.1.1 GEOTON

This company has designed (in 1995-96) a multichannel seismic system for oil and gas exploration. There are 10,000 input channels, and the system is based on the TMS 320 processor and unique software. They are in the process of looking for a partnership to manufacture (and possibly market) the system.

   3.5.1.2 ROS

The company is a front for the Department of Infrasound Hydro Acoustical Systems. They have developed and manufactured a seabed passive sonar. This system operates in a frequency range from 1 Hz up to 5 kHz, with 30 to 80 hydrophones. Hydrophone sensitivity is 250 microvolts/Pa. Analog to digital conversion is performed for each individual sensor, and then the signal is transmitted optically. The whole underwater system can contain 4-8 line cable arrays. The acoustic data analysis and display system is based on a 80486 microprocessor and TMS 320 co-processors. Frequency analysis, bearing and target locatization are the main functions of this system. The system is similar to the US system SOSUS, but on a smaller scale.

   3.5.1.3 PELENG

This company specializes in high power, low frequency transducers (< 1kHz) such as:

  1. A low frequency acoustic source that generates single impulses with acoustic power of 5kJ. It is 1,2 by 6 meters, weighs - 300 kg, and operates at a depth up to 200 meters
  2. Boomer-type Pulsing Transducer. Tunable frequency range from 50 to 700 Hz, operational depth- up to 300 meters
  3. Electrohydraulic pulse resonant transmitter. Flat frequency response in 10-300 Hz, output power -3 kJ
  4. Low frequency active sonar array. This array was designed for oil and gas exploration. It has cylindrical shape and frequency- 50-100 Hz.

   3.5.1.4 INFRAD

This company is using a principle of acoustic emission tomography to develop a passive sonar system for the fishing industry. Ideally, such a system can detect water currents, internal waves, and can even provide information on bottom sediments. The proposed depth of operation is 1000 meters, the monitoring base line is 150 meters at a distance up to 200 km from the shoreline. The company has no funding to support further development of the sonar.

   3.5.2 INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICS (NIZHNY NOVGOROD)

The Institute lost more than half of its scientists since 1991. The Director of this Institute, Academician Gaponov-Grekchov, finances the Institute using very small funds from the Russian Academy of Sciences, a few contracts with industry and a still fewer foreign grants.

One of the most interesting acoustics projects there is the compact electromagnetic monopole transducer. The Institute claims that Woods Hole Oceanographic Laboratory tested the prototype of this transducer in 1993. The titanium body of this transducer has a mass of 120 kg and diameter of 0,55 m. The central frequency is 225 Hz with a bandwidth of about 45-55Hz. The acoustic level is 200 dB re 1 mPa at 1m.

The Institute also designed a Mobile Linear Array 200 m long and has 64 hydrophones (with a spacing of 3 m), operating depth is 300 meters, frequency range 20-300 Hz. The frequency range can be extended to 2,000 Hz. The cost of the system is about $20,000.

8.2.6 ACOUSTICAL INSTITUTE (AKIN)

The Institute has stopped all experimental work in ocean acoustics and all research in hydro acoustics. The Institute lost all research ships and unique equipment. The orders from military cover only 0,5% of total needs. The Institute is nominally supported by the Ministry of Economics. This support provides only for salaries of remaining personnel (average salary of scientists is still not more $100/month). The average age of the employees is now about 57! The only alternative are contracts with the West. The Institute has successfully completed a few such contracts in the past, but was penalized for alleged breach of national security. This financial road has been practically closed today.

The majority of work conducted at the Institute today is basic research. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research on a competitive basis. The size of these grants can support only development of theory and computer simulations. But these grants saved some outstanding scientists in acoustics.

Here are some examples of this grant support in 1997

  • Dr. A.Furduev "Meteorological-process variations influence on fluctuations of natural sea noise"
  • Dr. S. Ribak "Acoustics of multiphase mediums"
  • Dr. Yu. Lisanov "Generation of hydro acoustic waves by underwater earthquakes in deep ocean"
  • Dr. N. Dubrovskii "Model of 3D hearing in dolphins"
  • Dr. V. Svet "Acoustic speckle-interferometry for solution of inverse problems in non-homogeneous and scattering mediums"
  • Dr. S. Egerev "Modeling of optico-acoustic monitoring of the sea bottom in shallow waters"

Nevertheless, applied research has been performed during 1993-1996 in collaboration with spin-off companies. These projects were:

  • The prototype of Acoustic Navigation System for Precise Landing of Helicopters, "NAST"
  • Prototype of Seismoacoustic System for Monitoring Oil and Gas Drilling at Sea, "Vector"
  • Prototype of 2D-Ultrasound Imaging Camera, "AIC-1", (The development of the 2D-Ultrasound Camera was partly supported by the US Navy).
  • Technology for cable piezo-composite elastic material hydrophones.

The spin off companies are: AKMA, Ltd., Favorite-III, LTD, and Errol-Lab, Ltd. These companies rent space at the Institute. Collaboration with these companies allows the Institutes to market its' products.

Here are examples of new commercial products developed through these collaborations:

Counter-aperture acoustic systems

These conventionally designed acoustic systems offer better uniformity of the sound field, enhanced stereo effect, and more comfortable listening. They also allow for enhanced transparency, articulation and spatial effect of sound, and an extended frequency range of sound reproduction. Frequency range - 20-20 000 Hz, power 200 W, omnidirectional sound radiation

Pneumatic-acoustic atomizing nozzles

They are intended to be used for liquid fuel atomization in power plants:

  • gas (air) pressure 0,05 - 1,0 MPa
  • flux 0,1 - 1,0 Kg/min
  • particle size 10 - 80 Microns

"Ecoacoustic"-Acoustic Scale Remover can be used in boilers, power steam-and water heaters, distillers and refrigerators

Noise-insulating Coating can be applied to noise radiating surfaces of structures and machines. The noise reduction is 6-10 dB within the frequency band of 1.5-2 octaves and 4-6 dB in a wide frequency range. There are no examples of this coating in the West.

Piezoelectric Polymer Strain-Gauges

Main parameters:

  • Sensitivity 150-200V/% of strain
  • Dynamic range of strain 1x10^-9 - 1x10^-3
  • Frequency range 0,01 Hz - 100 kHz
  • Temperature range -20 - +60 degrees C
  • Dimensions: thickness 0,3-3 mm
    area (10-20)mm x (5-10)mm

4. POINTS OF CONTACT

Name
Contact person
Address and Tel/Fax number
1 N.N. Andreyev
Acoustical Institute AKIN
Dr., Prof., Dr. N.N. Dubrovskii
Director
Shvernik St.-4
Moscow 117036
(095) 126 90 63
(095) 126 84 11
2. P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Academy of Sciences of RF Prof., Dr.,L. Savostin
Director
Krasikova St.-23
Moscow 117218
(095) 124 59 96
(095) 124 59 87
3. Dalpribor Dr. I. Kanevskii
Director
Borodinskaya St.-46/50
Vladivostok, 690105
(4232) 326 312
(4232) 326 307
4. Pacific Oceanological Institute Dr. G. Voloshin
Deputy Director
Baltiiskaya St.- 43
Vladivostok, 690041
(4232) 311 400
(4232) 312 573
5. Institute of Marine Technology Problems Prof., Dr., M. Ageev
Director
Sukhanov St.-5a
Vladivostok, 690600
(4232) 228 350
(4232) 226 451
6 OKEANPRIBOR Dr. J. Karyakin
General Director
Chkalovskii Pr.-46
St.-Petersburg, 197376
(812) 254 32 67
(812) (254 32 88
7. Bureau of Oceanological Egineering Dr. A. Paramonov
Director
Letnaya St.- 1
Moscow, 109387
8 Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute Prof., Dr. O. Paliy
Director of Techn.Sc
Moskovskoe Shosse,44, St.Petersburg, 196158
9. Institute of Applied Physics
Russian Academy of Sc.
Acad.,Prof. A. Gaponov-Grekhov Uljanov St.-46
Nizhny Novgorod 603600
(831) 236 66 69
(831) 236 97 17
10.



ATOL Research Institute


V. S. Kolyashin
Director
Priborostroitelei St.-5
141980 Dubna, Moscow Region
(096) 214 07 87
(096) 213 24 00
10a ROS company V. Shevchenko
Director
Entuziastov St-5a
Rm-02 Dubna,Moscow Region, 141980
10b Peleng company A. Polevik Entuziastov St-5a
Box 25, Dubna,Moscow Region, 141980
10c Geoton Company O. Uspenskii Entuziastov St-5a
Box 55, Dubna,Moscow Region, 141980
11 Gydropribor Research Institute Dr. A. Zakharchenko
Director
A. Samsonievskii Pr.-24, 194175,
St.-Petersburg
(812) 542 25 59
12. Vodtranspribor Dr. S.Rozhkovskii
Director
Serdobolnaya St.-64
197376, St.Petersburg
(812) 245 35 73
13. Mariecoprom Scientific Industrial Association (SIA) Dr. I. Nestorenko
General Director
3350000
Sevastopol, Ukraine
520-274
592-444
14. Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (RUBIN) Dr. A. Zavalishin
First Deputy Head
Marata St.-90
191126
St.Petersburg
15 Malakhite Dr. A. Kuteinikov Frunze St.-18
196135,
St.-Petersburg
16 Lazurit Central Design Bureau Dr. N. Kvasha
General Designer and Director
Svobody St.-57
Nizhny Novgorod
603040
(831) 2-25 84 00
(831) 2-25 13 29

The last three, RUBIN, MALAKHITE and LAZURIT are the main Russian companies that design submarines and deep-sea submersibles. They are the primary customers of hydro acoustic technologies.

5. ACOUSTICAL INSTITUTE (AKIN) PUBLICATIONS IN 1997

Peer Reviewed Journals:

1. Abaimov S, Ribak S. Wave of nonstability in a laminar border layer //J. of Acoustical Physics, 1997. v.43. N5. p.581.
2. Abakumova N, Galkin O. The Influence of changing features of wave-guide on laws of decline of sound fields in the ocean. //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N3. p.293-298.
3. Abakumova N, Galkin O., Lisanov Yu. The Spatial Structure of a Hydro acoustic Field of an Undersea Earthquake at Large Distances in the Ocean. // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N6. p.725-729.
4. Ageeva N. The Investigations of Sound Propagation in the Black Sea // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p274-276.
5. Akimkin N, Egerev S. Status of the Science Cities // State on places, 1997, 9-10
6. Alexeev V, Ribak S, Semenov A. About the Acoustic Radiation Pressure on Curls // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N1. p.5-10.
7. Alexeev V, Ribak S. The Influence of Size Distribution of Bubbles on Sound Propagation in Mediums with Resonance Dispersion // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.6. p.730-736.
8. Alibegov T, Vovk A. The Absorption of Sound by Thin Layers // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N4. p.543.
9. Aredov A., Furduev A. The Focusing of Surface Sources of Sea Noise //J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N5. p.696-699.
10. Baikov S, Tikhonova T. The Choice of the Form of Lens for wide-angle Lens Imaging Camera// // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N6. p.749.
11. Bogorov G., Ilin L., Skornaykova N. About spatial variations of placement of Fe-Mg sediments (Klarion-Klapperton bank)// Oceanology. -1997. -v37, N2.-p.285-294.12
12. Vadov R, Guzhavina D, Dvornikov S. Some experimental data on horizontal anisotropy of reverberation.// J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N3. p.409.
13. Vadov R. The Observation of caustics in ocean and determination of their location under different frequencies of radiation // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N4. p.470.
14. Vadov R. The Influence of continental declivity and shelf on the structure and energy of a signal, propagating to the shore // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N5. p.606.
15. Vadov R. Some results of the study of energy features of sound propagation in the Black Sea // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N2. p.276-278.
16. Volovov V, Govorov A . The Calibration of multi-element acoustic arrays in natural conditions // J. Of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N3. p.328.
17. Volovov V, Govorov A. New Approaches to Acoustic mapping of the ocean bottom // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N4. p.476.
18. Volovov V, Govorov A About acoustic mapping of ocean bottom under different horizons of viewing//. J. of Acoustical Physics.. 1997. v.43. N6. p.849.
19. Vlasenko V, Sabinin K. et al The investigation of the dynamics of tides in region of shelf edge //Oceanology, 1997. v.37. N5. p.668-679.
20. Vlasenko V, Sabinin K. et al The investigation of tides on USA shelf zone // "Physics of atmosphere and ocean", 1997. v.33. N5. p.702-714.
21. Galkin O. et al . Spatial variability of acoustic response of ocean waveguide including shelf zone. // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N4. p.486-491.
22. Galkin O. Azimuth Variability of Spatial Correlation of Explosion signals. //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N5. p.616-621.
23. Golyamina I. The Magnetostrictive nickel-based alloys // "Metals and thermal processing of metals", 1997. N3. p.20-22
24. Golyamina I., Hawks È.Ã. Micro-crystalline magnetostrictive alloys Fe-12% Al for acoustic transducers //. "Steel", 1997. N3. p.67-73.
25. Dronov G. Variations of ocean noise with depth // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N5. p.709-710.
26. Gulin E., Malishev K. The Influence of refraction on fluctuations of acoustic sea signals // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N5. p.635.
27. Gulin E., The Experimental studies of fluctuations of pulsed acoustic signals //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p.278-279.
28. Gulin E The Study of fluctuations of acoustic signals in near-surface and underwater sound channels //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N6. p.804-809.
29. Gurova I., Kapustina O. Instability of Granjan's texture of cholesteric liquid crystal in an ultrasonic field // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N3. p.338.
30. Dedenko L., Jeleznirh I., Furduev A. The possibility of deep-water acoustic neutrino detection // The bulletin of Russian Academy of Sciences, physics, 1997. v.61. N3. p.593-597.
31. Dubrovskii N. Sonar analyzer of Afalina dolphins// In monograph "Black Sea Dolphins, "Science". Moscow, 1997. p.544-574.
32. Dubrovskii N., Rimskaya-Korsakova L. The Determination of parameters of models of hearing neurons, participating in separation of sound modulation : neuronal periodical modulation . // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N4. p.492-500.
33. Egerev S.. Russian science community //Bulletin of Russian Academy of Science, 1997,1
34. Egerev S. et al Propagation of an acoustic pulse of finite amplitude in granulated medium // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N5. p.648.
35. Svet V. et al. Determination of range to a target placed under a scattering layer // J. Of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p.187.
36. Ivanov Yu. " Reconstruction of 3D spatial scenes" // "Geoinformatics". 1997. N3. -M
37. Klyuev M Peculiarities of inverse scattering by Fe-Mg sediments. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p.194.
38. Kravtsov Yu et al Fine structure of atmosphere adjacent to a cool atmospheric front in radar scenes of sea surface // Study of land from cosmos, 1997. v.4. p.3-12.
39. Kryaszev F. Kudryashov V. Long distance propagation of sound in Arctic region // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p.203-210.
40. Kudryashov V Simulation of acoustic fields in arctic waveguides based on vertical arrays //. J. of Acoustical Physics . 1997. v.43. N6. p.810.
41. Lisanov Yu. Capture of hydroacoustical waves generated by undersea earthquakes in deep ocean //. J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N1. p.92.
42. Lyamshev L. Reflection, Resonance Scattering and Radiation of Sound by Elastic Bodies in Water. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. P. 280-282.
43. Lyamshev L. Lyamshev M. Lazer thermo-optical excitation of sound in waveguide with fractal medium. . J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N6. p.821.
44. Margulis M., Margulis I. Electric phenomena on surfaces of pulsing cavitation bubbles //J. of Physical Chemistry, 1997, ò.71, N10, p.1890-1895.
45. Margulis M Electric phenomena at fission of cavitation bubbles // J. of Physical Chemistry 1997, v.71, N10, p. 1885-1889. 46. Margulis M et al Peculiarities of cavitation in water at low temperatures, J. of Physical Chemistry 1997, v.71, N9, p.1719-1722.. 47. Margulis M. et al About composition of cavitation bubble during its pulsation and collapse // J. of Physical Chemistry, 1997, v.71, N8.
48. Mikryukov M., Popov O. Graphic method of estimation of normal wave dispersion in the deep ocean // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N3. p.386.
49. Mironov M., Orekhov D. Bi-mode Muffler for Narrow pipes with water // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. V.43. N4. p.531.
50. Pankova S. "Temporal spectra and correlation structure of sound fields on long distances in deep ocean" // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N6. P. 794-800.
51. Priimak G. Studies of statistical parameters of the sea and their influence on an acoustic field // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N2. p.282-283.
52. Pyatakov P., Chaban. A. . Photo-acoustic phenomena in structures containing photorefractive crystals under external electric fields //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N3. p.391.
53. Rastorguev D. Study of variations in electromechanical properties of piezoelectric materials by method of piezoelectric motors // Instruments and technique of experiment.. -1997. N1. p.155-158.
54. Sabinin K. "Study of tide dynamics in a region of the shelf edge " // "Study of Land and Cosmos". 1997. N4. p.3-12.
55. Skrinnikov Yu. Quasi-stationary solution of resonance dispersion equation with viscosity //. J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N6. p.839.
56. Studenichnik N. Development of methods of study of sound fields in undersea waveguides //J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N2. p.283-286.
57. Galibin N. . Inverse surface sound scattering as an instrument for study of waves in ocean //// J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N3. p.333-357.
58. Tuytekin V. The Model of a 2D active sound absorption system //.// J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N2. p.23
59. Tuytekin V. The reciprocity principle in the problem of sound wave propagation through a layered non-homogeneous medium // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N2. p.570.
60. Tuytekin V. Modeling of sound absorbers synthesized based on mechanical resonators // J. of Acoustical Physics 1997. v.43. N5. p.681.
61. Tuytekin V., Vovk A. The peculiarities of wave transformation reflection from impedance load in a solid, hard body // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N6. p.792-793.
62. Urusovskii I. Enhancement of Sound Absorption of non-homogeneous sound wave by thin absorbing intermediate layers // J. of Acoustical Physics.. 1997. v.43. N2. p.268.
63. Urusovskii I. About 6D interpretation of Universe expansion // Foreign radioelectronics, 1997. v.5. p.75-79.
64. Chaban I. Correlation Function of ordered areas in non-local diffusion theory of wave propagation in liquids with high viscosity // J. of Acoustical Physics. 1997. v.43. N5. p.714.
65. Chaban I The peculiarities of light dissipation in diluted solutions of ethylene glycol; a proof of the existence of a net of hydrogen bonds //J. of the Physical Chemistry. 1997. v.71. N12. p.2183-2187.
66. Bibikov N.G. Enhancement of the response of auditory units to sinusoidal AM in the presence of low frequency modulation // J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 1997, 101, 5, pt2.3085.
67. Bibikov N.G., Grubnik O.N. Responses to intensity increments and decrements in different types of midbrain auditory units of the frog // "Acoustical signal processing in the central auditory system" 1997, Plenum Press: N-Y. P.271-277.
68. Chaban A.A. Photovoltaic effect in layered structures in high temperatures // Ferroelectric Letters. 1997. V.22. N5/6. P.153-158.
69. Dubrovsky N.A., Rimskaya-Korsakova L.K. Identification of sound modulations by a neural network model of the auditory system // Pattern recognition image analysis. (MAIK Nauka / Interperiodica Publishing, 1996). Ul'yanovsk. 1997. 6(2 pp.255-257.
70. Egerev S.V. Optoacoustics of Oceans // In: Progress in Photothermal and Photoacoustic Science and Technology. Vol. III. Life and Earth Sciences, Eds. A.Mandelis and P.Hess, 1997, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, p. 379-315.
71. Egerev S.V., Fokin A.V. Freguency-domain photoacoustic technique for measuring the absolute optical absorption coefficient using three-chamber cell // Chinese J of Acoust. 1997. V.16. N2. P.189-192.
72. Fokin A.V. A description of the thermoelastic response of layered media by matrix formalism // Acta Physica Sinica. 1997. V.6. N8. P.574-577.
73. Lyamshev L.M. Sound Radiation by flat layered structures // JASA. 1997. V.101. P.F.2. P.3132.
74. Malkin S., Puchenkov O. Photoacoustic Effect in Photosynthesis // In: Progress in Photothermal and Photoacoustic Science and Technology. Vol. III. Life and Earth Sciences, Eds. A.Mandelis and P.Hess, 1997, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, p. 17-56.
75. Rybak S.A., Zozulya O.M. One-dimensional instability of wavepackets in media with resonant dispersion // Physica A 241(1997), pp.128-132.
76. Svet V.D., Sizov V.I., Baikov S.V. High - Speed Ultrasound 2D-Imaging Camera // Acoustical Imaging. 1997. V.23. pp.255-260. Plenum Press
77. Svet V.D., Kondratieva T.V., Zuikova N.V. Trajectory Estimation of a Moving Target in a Medium with Strong Scattering // Acoustical Imaging. 1997. V.23. pp.555-562. Plenum Press

  • 6. DR. BORODIN'S LABORATORY PUBLICATIONS

    1998

    1.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu.: Application of The Forward-Scattering Method to Underwater Acoustics Problems. To be published in Applied Physics Institute Publications, Nizhniy Novgorod, 1998.

    2.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu. and Lekomtsev V.M: Theoretical and Simulation Study of Optimization of Observer's Maneuver. Manuscript.

    3.Galaktionov M.Yu.: Study on Forward-Scattered Reverberation in Shallow Water Environments: Theoretical Model, Computer Simulation and Experiment. Manuscript.

    4.Galaktionov M.Yu.: New Combined Numerical Model of Sound Scattering from Rough Surfaces with Complex Spectral Characteristics: Simulation and Experimental Verification. Manuscript.

    1991-1997 selected

    5.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu.: New Mathematical Model of Sound Field Fluctuations in Shallow Water Environments with Boundary and Volume Roughness. In: Field Forming in Shallow Water Environments, Applied Physics Institute Editions, Nizhniy Novgorod, 1997.

    Contents and bibliography analysis ixn Russian (40kB Zipped MS-Winword 6.0).

    6.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu. and Mamayev A.V.: Numerical and Experimental Study of Sound Field Forming in Shallow Water Environment. In: Proceedings of the IWUAETHC'97 Conference, Harbin, China, 1997.

    7.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu. and Mamayev A.V.: Numerical and Experimental Study of Sound Field Forming in Shallow Water Environment. In: Field Forming in Shallow Water Environments, Applied Physics Institute Editions, Nizhniy Novgorod, 1997.

    8.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu., Minassian G.R.: General Statistical Approach to Acoustical Tomography of The Ocean. In: Galaktionov M.Yu. (Ed.) Recent aspects of Russian Underwater acoustics, IFREMER Editions, 1994.

    9.Andreeva I.B., Galaktionov M.Yu.: Numerical Models of

    Sound Scattered from Isolated sea Organisms. In: Galaktionov M.Yu. (Ed.) Recent aspects of Russian Underwater acoustics, IFREMER Editions, 1994.

    10.Borodin V.V., Galaktionov M.Yu. and G.R. Minasian: Universal Wave Statistical Approach to Acoustical Tomography of The Ocean. In Proceedings of the OCEANS'94 OSATES Conference, 1994.

    11.Galaktionov M.Yu.: SSS - Sonar Simulation System. Set of tools for computer simulation of underwater sound propagation and sonar system modeling. User's guide 1998.

    12.Diffused Sound Angular-Frequency Spectrum of The Ocean Wave Surface: Application and Numerical Investigation of The Small-Slope Method. Proceeding of the 2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, Copenhagen, 1994.

    13.Modeling of Angle Structure and Attenuation Coefficient of Total Field of an Acoustical Source in The Ocean with Scattering from the Sea Surface and the Sea Bottom. Proceedings of the 3rd French Conference on Acoustics, 1994.

    14.Estimation of Sound Fluctuations in The Ocean by Using Ray Theory and Mean Intensity Approach. Report, IFREMER, 1993.

    15.Computation of Directivity of Sea Ambient Noise with Account to Multiple Scattering from Sea Wave Surface. In Proceeding of the 2nd French Conference on Acoustics, J.de Physique Editions, 1992.

    7. HIGH POWER TRANSDUCERS FROM THE ATOLL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE

       7.1 UNDERWATER ELECTRIC DISCHARGE ACOUSTIC SOURCE

    • Power of pulse up to 5 kJ
    • Pulse repetition frequency 2 pulses/sec
    • Frequency range 50-3500 Hz
    • Operation depth up to 200 m
    • Voltage on electrode system 20 kV
    • Weight (in air) 300 kg
    • Height 1,2 m
    • Diameter 0,6 m
    • Operational Lifetime 10^8 impulses

       7.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC SOURCE 0F UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC PULSES

    • Power of pulse 3 kJ
    • Pulse repetition frequency 10 pulses/sec
    • Operation depth 300 m
    • Voltage on electrode system 20 kV
    • Weight (in air) 300 kg
    • Height 0,4 m
    • Diameter 0,6 m
    • Frequency range 50-700 Hz
    • Continuous operation mode is available
    • Tunable energetic maximum in low frequency range



       7.3 UNDERWATER MAGAZINE-TYPE WIDE-BAND ELECTRODYNAMIC SOURCE WITH REACTIVE COMPONENT COMPENSATION

    • Power consumption 3 kW
    • Frequency range 2-400 Hz
    • Effective range 5-250 Hz
    • Operation depth up to 300m
    • Piston stoke up to +/- 15 mm
    • Number of transmitting pistons 2
    • Piston diameter 300 mm
    • Compensation drum diameter Rs - 450 mm
    • Max. height 550 mm
    • Length 700 mm
    • Weight 200 kg
    • The main advantage - smooth amplitude-frequency response and high radiation efficiency ( see graph below).




    APPENDIX I.

    1. CENTRAL BUREAU FOR MARINE ENJINEERING (RUBIN)
    90 Marat St.
    St.Petersburg 191126

    RUBIN specializes in submarines and other underwater technologies. The submarines "Typhoon", "Oscar" and "Komsomolets" were designed here.

    Because of conversion, only about 35 % of the work is presently defense related.

    Their new projects are associated with high-speed trains, nonmilitary submarines and tourist submersibles. RUBIN has designed a tourist submersible which is now in service (island of Antigua in the Caribean). Other applications in which Rubin has expertise are coal and nuclear power stations, floating nuclear power stations for northern parts of Russia, gas and oil exploration and production.

    It is interesting to note that this company still has about 2000 employees and practically did not reduced the staff after the collapse of USSR.

    2.ST.-PETERSBURG MARINE ENGINEERING BUREAU (MALACHITE) 18 Frunze St.
    St.-Petersburg 196135

    MALACHITE is one of the leading firms in Russian underwater shipbuilding, having built the first Soviet nuclear submarine "Leninsky Komsomol" Malachite is participating in the conversion program having a strong experience in the design of different types of submarines, submersibles and underwater machinery.

    Examples:

    • "Thetis-H" is a towed submersible to assist in improving the effectiveness of fishing trawlers. This vehicle is towed behind the net and the man inside of the vehicle can assess the effectiveness of fishing process
    • Test diving chamber for depths up to 500 m. This research program allowed Malachite to build an underwater habitat that operates at depths up to 300 m and can hold up to 12 scientists
    • Submersible "Rus". This is a new deep diving (6,000 m) spherical submersible made of welded titanium, using silver zinc batteries and natural light-weight syntactic foam. The price of production of the "Rus" is about $12 million. The first order was from the Ministry of Geology but they have no money to buy it.
    • "North-2" - 2000 m depth manned submarine
    • Submersible oil tanker. Company proposes to design a submersible oil tanker that could carry oil from northern Canada to Japan or Korea via the polar under-ice route.
    • Proposals, Projects, Preliminary and Completed Designs:
      - Conself (underwater autonomous manned observation vehicle)
      - Argo (underwater tourist habitat)
      - Triton (manned submersible)
      - Sadko (underwater tourist complex)
      - Investigator (diesel-electric submarine)
      - Piranha (small diesel-electric submarine, in operation)
      - Undersea tanker
      - Aquarium (underwater entertainment complex)
      - Medusa-1 (underwater construction habitat with shops)
      - Akvia (surface and underwater tourist habitat)
      - Underwater yacht

    3. LAZURIT CENTRAL DESIGN BUREAU (LAZURIT)
    57,Svobody St.
    Nizhny Novgorod 603040
    Russia
    Tel. 7 831 225-84 00
    Fax 7-831 225 13 29
    Dr. Nikolai Kvasha
    General Director

    The Bureau used to design the nuclear attack submarine, "Sierra" diesel-electric submarine "Whisky" and submersible rescue vehicles of "Poseidon" class.

    The present direction of the conversion program:

    • ROSSHELF- a seafloor - based oil and gas drilling system for under ice work
    • Diving support ships
    • Ocean drilling ship for scientific research (Ocean Shuttle, 1300 ton, 600 meter depth , 12 scientists, 60 days of independent operation)
    • Truck-mounted, portable hyperbaric medical system
    • Container submarine based on a 130,000 ton nuclear submarine

    The opinions and assessments in this report are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the official US Government, US Navy or ONREUR.


    The Office of Naval Research, Europe is dedicated to providing current information on scientific and technological development in European countries. In order to better meet your need, our Associate Directors and Scientists are very much interested in knowing what your specific science and technology interests are. Please keep me informed.

    Furthermore, if there are others whom you are aware of that have an interest in these newsletters, please pass their e- mail address to me and I will add them to the distribution list.

    For more information on this topic contact:
    Igor Vodyanoy, Ph.D. at:

    TEL: +44-171-514-4131
    FAX: +44-171-723-6359

    E-mail address - ivodyanoy@onreur.navy.mil
    Alternative E-mail address - 100656.1003@compuserve.com

    International mail address:

    Igor Vodyanoy Ph.D.
    Associate Director, Biophysics
    Office of Naval Research Europe
    223 Old Marylebone Rd
    London, NW1 5TH
    England

    US military address:

    Igor Vodyanoy Ph.D.
    Associate Director, Biophysics
    Office of Naval Research Europe
    PSC 802, Box 39,
    FPO AE 09499-0700

    The Office of Naval Research Europe has an Internet homepage at: http://www.ehis.navy.mil/


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