15 December, 1997
Command & Control, Surveillance
Command & Control, Surveillance
Office of Naval Research - European Office
REPORT DESCRIPTION: Overview of site visits to institutes and universities in six Russian cities to assess research and technical capabilities in remote sensing, area surveillance, and propagation.
C2 and Surveillance Newsletter No. 17
Russia Site Visits: Remote Sensing & Surveillance
KEYWORDS: atmospheric sounding; laser sounding; radar; radiometry; synthetic aperture radar; polarimetry; interferometry; radio occultation; electromagnetic propagation; limnology; seismology; environmental monitoring; remote sensing; surveillance; Russian S&T.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
- Site Visits
3.1 MOSCOW REGION
3.1.1 Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics3.2 ST. PETERSBURG:
3.1.2 Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics - Fryazino
3.1.3 Space Research Institute
3.1.4 VEGA-M Scientific and Production Corporation
3.1.5 Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation
3.2.1 Academy of Civil Aviation3.3 TOMSK, SIBERIA
3.2.2 Electrotechnical University
3.2.3 St. Petersburg State Academy of Aerospace Instrumentation
3.2.4 Acad. Prof. Dr. Sci. Valery B. Mit'ko
3.3.1 Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics3.4 NOVOSIBIRSK, SIBERIA
3.3.2 Institute of Atmospheric Optics
3.4.1 Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics3.5 IRKUTSK, SIBERIA
3.5.1 Limnological Institute3.6 ULAN-UDE, SIBERIA
3.5.2 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics
3.6.1 Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences
- Overall Impression / Assessment
Description of travel by Otto Kessler, Associate Director ONR-EUR and by Dr. Wolfgang-M. Boerner, Professor at University of Illinois at Chicago and Distinguished Senior US Navy Scientist, to 14 Russian R&D institutes in 6 cities. These institutes are performing research relevant to polarimetric and interferometric surveillance and sensing theory, metrology and technology. Discussion covered broad capabilities and research specific to applications in area surveillance, target characterization, propagation, and environmental monitoring of surface and atmospheric surroundings.
The perspective derived from these visits is that there is widespread capability for good research in radar and radiometry in pursuit of remote sensing. The techniques encompass combinations of moderately high resolution, synthesized apertures, polarimetry, and multispectral or multifrequency measurements.
A robust research capability is also present in measurement of propagation effects employing radio occultation and direct path measurements. More general atmospheric probing to measure standard meteorological parameters as well as detection of turbulence, pollutants, and other anomalies is being pursued with diverse techniques, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum: radio occultation, radiometric, and laser techniques. Other observations regarding the general science and technology environment are also included.
A visit to Russia was made for the purpose of exploring research opportunities and capabilities in remote sensing using interferometric and polarimetric techniques. Application to radar was of primary concern although potential use in infrared and radiometric applications was also considered. This report describes visits to institutions in six Russian cities; Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Ulan Ude.
Section 3 provides the details of discussions and findings at each location. Section 4 provides overall assessment and related impressions. Details of the travel itinerary will be provided in a separate newsletter and homepage posting. It should be observed that travel within Russia was performed with relative efficiency, only because of the intervention and support of our hosts at each location. Their concern for our well-being and their efforts on our behalf were quite essential and most appreciated. Routine tourism is not yet a fact of Russian life.
Two categories of institutions were visited: Universities, with both educational and research functions; and Laboratories with research and equipment design roles under the Soviet regime. All of these institutes are part of or connected with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). While that association lends a measure of credibility to the S&T capability of the organization it should not be interpreted as implying the kind of direction or coordination that might have existed in the past. The general characteristic of all these institutes is that as organizations they are struggling to redefine their identity and their role in the post-Soviet S&T marketplace; some are clearly succeeding to a greater extent than others. Similarly, individual researchers are attempting to redefine their roles, opportunities and modes of operation; some more aggressively than others. There is a kind of grass roots process of rationalization underway. In this environment 'new' research is difficult to find. That which is being done is jealously guarded. Questions normally asked in Western environments to uncover recent significant developments, must be rephrased to be relevant in the context of the Russian experience. Comments in the West which might elicit positive discussion, becomes intimidating. It becomes necessary to recognize 'capability' for new research, and within the bounds of policy and budget, to preserve and nurture relevant parts of the scientific community.
3. SITE VISITS
The itinerary included visits to numbers of institutes within each of six cities. What follows will be a summary description of each institute along with references to points of contact and available papers.
3.1 MOSCOW REGION
3.1.1 Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics
The Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was founded in 1953. It is situated in the building of the former Physical Faculty of Moscow State University at Mokhovaya Street near the Kremlin. In 1955 a second facility was established in the city of Fryazino, 40 km from the center of Moscow and since then two additional branches have been added in Saratov and in Ul'yanovsk.
The total staff of IREE (including laboratories, special design bureau and services) consists of 2500 employees. The scientific staff numbers 900 including 120 Drs. Sci. and 410 Ph.Ds. The main objectives of IREE are fundamental research in radio science, physical and quantum electronics, radio engineering, and computer science. The Institute pursues applied development through its special design bureau with new space sensor / instruments, optical fiber networks, and millimeter wave systems and instruments.
Primary interaction was with the Remote Sensing Department. Past work has involved radar (side-looking and synthetic aperture at wavelengths of 3 & 10cm) and radiometric (0.3 to 30cm) measurements of sea ice, sea surface, and atmospheric inhomogeneities. Current work extends to IR and optical regimes and includes measurement and modeling of passive polarimetric responses to the earth's surface and atmosphere, including rain.
As an organization aggressively trying to develop new opportunities it is appropriate to list titles of some recent new proposals:
- Multi-channel radiometric and SAR remote sensing technologies for buried object detection;
- Wetlands delineation and water regime classification using optical, spectral microwave radiometry, and SAR remote sensing technologies;
- Polarization properties of the atmosphere/ocean system as seen at passive microwaves from space;
- Geo-ecological and epidemiological land classification using optical, infrared and microwave remote sensing technologies;
- Measurement of arctic ice caps as an indicator of climate and sea-level change.
Key technologies demonstrated and available include the following:
- Microwave radiometry (5mm, 8mm, 1.35cm, 3cm wavelengths); applications to remote sensing from air and space - measurement of water vapor, rain, winds, ice and sea surface roughness.
- Microwave radiometer built and installed at DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, GE as part of its meteorological measurement facility.
- PRIRODA Module on MIR space station - built staring, panoramic, and scanning radiometers, in the 3mm to 6cm range.
- Airborne SAR flown on IL-18; 10cm. wavelength, 15m. resolution - overland data
- IMAR - four frequency polarimetric SAR system flown on Tu-134 (4, 23, 70, 200cm) - starting in mid-80's for sea surface investigations.
- Processing and analysis of data for IKAR, TRAVERS and DELTA systems. [See H.J. Kramer "Observation of Earth and its Environment", Springer Pub.] Initially flown on IL-18 then designated for PRIRODA. IREE's role includes control, data processing, and image processing - including panchromatic and stereo imagery and spectral analyses for SAR, microwave radiometers (panoramic, scanning, and staring), and multi-spectral optical scanners (0.5 - 1.1mm).
- Novel calibration technique for SAR at 400 MHz (claimed, not shown)
Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow 103907, Russia
Dr. Boris Kutuza, Head of Laboratory for Remote Sensing
Andrei Yevtuchenko - microwave remote sensing;
Genardi Kozmite Zagarin - passive polarimetry;
Anatolij Kalinkavitch - radar systems, SAR calibration;
"Radiophysical Techniques Employed for Sea Ice Investigations"
A. A. Kurskaya and Boris G. Kutuza;
Journal of Oceanic Engineering - Vol. OE-9, No. 5, December 1984
"Simultaneous Radiometric and Radar Altimetric Measurements of Sea Microwave Signatures"
A. I. Baskakov, Sergey P. Gagarin, A. A. Kalinkevitch, Boris G.Kutuza and V. A. Terekhov; Journal of Oceanic Engineering - Vol OE. 9, No. 5, December 1984
"Influence of Sea Roughness and Atmospheric Inhomogeneties on Microwave Radiation of the Atmosphere-Ocean System"
Sergey P. Gagarin and Boris G. Kutuza
Journal of Oceanic Engineering - Vol.OE-8, No. 2 April 1983
"Physical Modeling of Passive Polarimetric Microwave Observations of the Atmosphere with Respect to the Third Stokes Parameter".
B.G. Kutuza and G. Zagorin and A. Hornbostel, and A. Schroth
- Journ. Article - ? Undated.
3.1.2 Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Fryazino
The Fryazino section of the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FIRE RAS) together with the Special Design Bureau was founded in 1955. It is situated in the city of Fryazino about 40 km from Moscow. The total staff of FIRE is about 1000, including approximately 400 researchers and engineers working in 60 laboratories of the Institute. The Fryazino section of IREE includes the special design branch, the development of special instrumentation such as PRIRODA and CPSSI (described below) and laboratories of the Remote Sensing Department.
This institute has been aggressive in the new funding environment, and has formed an employee owned and operated private company which has retained close ties with FIRE. The company - Geoinformatics - in concert with FIRE has developed models of radiometric responses of natural objects, and algorithms for associated data processing. The resulting methods and software, employ multispectral microwave radiometers to measure geophysical parameters of soils and waters. Both the sensors and supporting analytical capability are being marketed commercially. Related activity includes application of remote sensing methods to ecological problems such as water and soil pollution, climate forecasting, fire risk determination, and environmental monitoring.
FIRE has initiated a modest program for processing and analysis of satellite based polarimetric SAR data. Both SIR-C and ERS-2 data are made available to them. Objectives of the work (following similar efforts elsewhere) are to explore the extent to which polarization properties can provide characterization of cultivated areas.
Two major areas of FIRE focus are PRIRODA and CPSSI. PRIRODA is one of the Earth remote sensing projects currently being pursued in various countries. The PRIRODA project is aimed at the development of observation and interpretation technology using spaceborne sensors and data. The PRIRODA program employs a special module which was launched and joined to the MIR orbital station in April 1996.
Despite current difficulties with MIR, it is still hoped that scientific experiments will be carried out.
PRIRODA instrumentation is designed to enable observation of the same segment of the Earth surface using both active and passive sounding in microwave and optical bands. This allows multisensor data analysis as well as the correction (atmospheric, surface, etc.) required for comparative evaluation of geophysical parameters. Resulting improvements in space measurement accuracy and the reliability of data interpretation are expected. A complete description of the PRIRODA Science Plan (1996) in electronic form is available upon request. [See contact information under Feedback, Section 5.]
CPSSI - Center of Processing and Storing the Space Information is a scientific data archive designed to store raw satellite sensor data: SAR and MW radiometer data, optical and IR data, retrieved geophysical parameters, and ground truth and correlative data.
The objective of CPSSI developments is to establish an archive and information system that will enable open access to remote sensing data, descriptive information (metadata), and image browsing via public communication networks. The intent is to include inventories of remote sensing experiments, online interactive access, image browsing, and ordering functions. Current information is available at http://www.ire.rssi.ru/rem_s/rem_s.htm
One area of particular scientific interest and considerable expertise within FIRE is that of radio occultation studies. Prof. Oleg Izosimovich Yakovlev leads this area with the flair of a classic professor. Measurements have been made on geostationary satellite links to perform sounding of the Earth's atmosphere. On the basis of many years of research, and what he perceives as coarse and poorly understood measurements to date, Prof. Yakovlev has outlined an experiment which would utilize four frequencies in decimeter and centimeter bands. Such observations in cm band are believed to be unique. The resulting analysis would provide experimental verification of the theoretical basis for a multifrequency radio occultation system which would enable global monitoring of the terrestrial atmosphere and ionosphere. Anticipated results include measurements of the vertical profile of density, pressure, temperature and ionospheric electron density. The ultimate goal is to develop an improved means for monitoring atmospheric dynamics, climate change, and space weather. There has been some interest in Prof. Yakovlev's approach expressed at JPL. Contacts and supporting papers are available.
General: Facilities and equipment are in good condition, particularly processing equipment; microwave facilities are aging but well-maintained. The equipment associated with CPSSI is new, having been recently acquired with NASA support.
Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS
Vvedensky Square 1
Moscow Region, Russia
Dr. Anatolij Shutko, Head of Laboratory for Environment Research
Prof. Dr. Alexander I. Zakharov; polarimetric SAR imaging, radio occultation
Prof. Oleg I. Yakovlev; radio occultation
Dr. Alexander Shmalenyuk; land surface exploration
Dr. M.T. Smirnov; ocean research
Dr. B.Z. Petrenko; atmospheric investigations
Victor Savorski; CPSSI
Radio Occultation Studies:
"Multifrequency Radio Occultation Observations of the Earth's Atmosphere and Ionosphere"
(Proposal); Prof. O. I. Yakovlev; March 1996
"Attenuation and scintillation of radio waves in the Earth's atmosphere from radio occultation experiments on satellite-to-satellite links"
O.I. Yakovlev, S. Matyugov and Vilkov;
Radio Science. Vol. 30. No. 3 May-June 1995
"Frequency Shift, Time Delay, and Refraction of Radio Waves in Eclipse Experiments along Satellite-to-Satellite Path"
Yakovlev, Vilkov, Zakharov, Kucheryavenkova, Kucheryavenkov, and Matyugov.
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics 40(12) 1995
"Reflection of Radar Waves by the Ocean Surface for Bistatic Radar Using Two Satellites"
Rubashkin, Pavel'yev, Yakolev, Kucheryavenkov, Sidorenko, and Zakharov.
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics 38 (9) 1993
"Radio-Wave Phase and Frequency fluctuations as Observed in Radio-Eclipse Experiments along a Satellite-Satellite Link"
Yakovlev, Matyugov, Vilkov, Zakarov, and Kucheryavenkov.
Journ. of Comm. Technology and Electronics. Vol. 41, No. 11 1996
"Remote Sensing of Environment"
Institute of Geoinformatics, Brochure
"Investigations of possibilities of using SAR data for monitoring of Volga estuary and Kalmykija shore of Caspian Sea"
N.A. Armand and A.S. Shmalenyuk, and Yu. F Knizhnikov, V.I. Kravtsov E.N. Baldina.
IGARSS-97; 20 May 1997
"The Universal Multichannel Technique for Enhancing Images Obtained from Different Sensors";
B. Z. Petrenko;
IGARSS-97; 20 May 1997
"Validation of Models and Algorithms for Microwave Radiometric Investigations of Tropical Cyclones";
B. Z. Petrenko and G.K. Zagorin, and A.F. Nerushev and L.I. Melekhin.
IGARSS-97; 20 May 1997
"Detection of Shallowly Buried Dielectric Objects with Microwave Radiometers";
A.S. Shmalenyuk, Yu. G. Tishchenko, N.A. Armand and V.M. Polakov-
IGARSS-94; May 1994
3.1.3 Space Research Institute
The Space Research Institute (SRI) of RAS is located southwest of Moscow. SRI contains two Remote Sensing groups - Ocean Surface, and Atmospheric Observations. The Ocean Surface Group is focused on understanding of ocean surface dynamics using microwave radiometers, scatterometers and radars. The group performs research into physical processes of gravity and capillary wave structure, modulation of turbulent effects by sea surface, surface manifestations of internal waves and currents. They have built instruments for measurement of ocean wave parameters and conducted experiments on sea surface perturbation due to rain. Data on instrumentation and results have been promised.
The Atmospheric Observations Group is concerned with nonlinear effects and turbulent processes in the atmosphere. This group has done extensive research on non-linear and turbulent processes including Brewster angle effects and multi-path propagation, electromagnetic indicators of large scale vortices, and nonlinear hydrodynamic effects.
Of particular interest is research being performed on hydro-physical models for patterns of internal waves on SAR images. A robust program of research addresses: wind waves breaking; clustering of breaking waves; drop-spray cloud modeling; polarimetric characteristics of various types of internal wave patterns; polarimetric characteristics of ship wake patterns; turbulent spiral suppression of short sea waves; wave breaking excitation zones; micro-structure of ship 'mustaches'. Also of note is SAR related image analysis and development of spatio-temporal models related to patterns of oil pollution on the sea surface: evolution of large-scale oil spreads (ruptures of pipelines) and meso-scale oil spills (tank's slicks); polarimetric characteristics of oil patterns under the influence of various hydro-meteorological situations.
SRI appears to have good external contacts, including interaction with APL, Johns Hopkins Univ. Lab facilities appear well equipped but dated and underutilized. Instrumentation is old - mid eighties, possibly earlier. The library has not been unable to gain new acquisitions for 5 years.
Space Research Institute, RAS
117810 Moscow, Russia
Nikolai S. Erokhin, Head Atmospheric Observations Group
Eugene. Sharkov, Head of Remote Sensing Lab, theoretician
Yuri Kravtsov, Head Remote Sensing Group
Mikhail G. Bulatov, designer, experimenter;
Trokhimovski, data analysis, modeling;
Stanislau Orodionov, science policy implications;
"Occurrence of Convective Processes in the Boundary Layer of the Atmosphere on Radar Images of the Sea Surface"; Yu. A. Kravtsov, M.I.Mityagina, V.G.Pungin, V.V.Yakovlev; Earth Observation Remote Sensing, Vol. 14, 1996
"Study of the Properties of a Space Doppler Method for Measuring the Dynamic Characteristics of a Cloudy Atmosphere" A. S. Fedulov; Earth Observation Remote Sensing, Vol. 14, 1996
"Satellite and Radio Remote Sensing of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Turbulence During Pretyphoon Conditions"; E. A. Sharkov, I. Klepikov, I.V. Pokrovskaya; Earth Observation Remote Sensing, Vol. 13, 1995
"Optical Investigations of Temporal Evolution of Foam Structures on Sea Surface"; E. A. Sharkov, Earth Observation Remote Sensing, Vol. 12, 1995
"Aerospace Monitoring of Natural Hazards and Turbulence"; S. S. Moiseev, V. G. Pungin, E. A. Sharkov; Proc. 5TH Int'l Symp on Recent Advances in Microwave Technology, Kiev, Ukraine; Sept. 1995
"Nonlinear World" Vol 1; IV International Workshop on Nonlinear and Turbulent Processes in Physics; Ed. by V. Bar'yakhtar, V. Chernousenko, N. Erokhin, A. Sitenko, V. Zakharov; 9-22 Oct. 1989; Kiev, USSR
3.1.4 VEGA-M Scientific and Production Corporation
VEGA-M is a commercial offshoot of the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Engineering. Its major product appears to be marketing of a flying laboratory containing sensors designed by the institute. Of interest is IMARC, a four band, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, installed on a Tu-134A and being marketed for commercial use in remote sensing. Examples of suggested use include geology, agriculture, forestry, and oceanography. Analysis / interpretation support is offered as part of the package.
The radar is fully polarimetric in all bands; significant parameters are:
The radar is fully instrumented with digital output, processing and recording.
VEGA-M Scientific and Production Corporation
34 Kutuzov Ave,
Moscow 121170, Russia
Volf B. Shteinshleiger
VEGA-M Brochure on IMARC characteristics and uses.
3.1.5 Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation (MSTUCA)
Primarily a teaching institution currently, but in the past home to some of the leading Russian developments in polarimetric theory. Separate discussion will be provided in the context of WIPSS activity.
Current research work is centered on processing of SIR-C data in coordination with IREE Fryazino.
Thesis work includes:
- Basis manipulation of polarimetric data;
- Evaluation of polarization optimality using theory of optimal resolution;
- Simulation of target statistics;
- Collection and evaluation of scene statistics.
Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation
20 Kronstadtskij Blvd.
125-838 Moscow, Russia
Dr. Sci. Anatolij I. Kozlov, Prof. & Vice Rector for Research
Dr. Sci. Aleksander I. Logvin, Prof. & Dean
Tel. & Fax: 7 (095) 457-1202
3.2.1 Academy of Civil Aviation
The St.-Petersburg Academy of Civil Aviation (ACA) is the largest research and educational establishment dealing with civil aviation in Russia. There are six departments dealing with aspects of air transport and airborne electronic systems and extensive laboratory facilities, about one-third of which are dedicated to research. The educational program addresses avionics, flight training, transport safety, along with aspects of management, marketing and legal issues. Current staff numbers about 1000, with about 4000 students. ACA also houses a small but growing museum of Russian aviation artifacts. The collection includes model planes, photos, historical documents, and other items showing progress in aviation technology.
In addition to its research and education programs the ACA is host to the Russian Academy of Transport. The Academy of Transport addresses air, rail, road, and sea transportation science and technology; it includes about 600 members across Russia plus 100 foreign representatives. The ACA evolved from its civil role prior to World War II to military research during the war, and then to space related development in the post war years. More recently it has returned its focus to civil issues.
Current areas of interest include radar, navigation, communications, and radioelectronics. To complement its research activities ACA has spun-off two commercial operations ("RADAR MMS" and "AIR") to market technology and system products. RADAR MMS is focused on airborne radar for both military and civilian applications. AIR has targeted the commercial multi-media market.
Highlights of the S&T work at ACA are outlined below.
- Ecological monitoring performed with an IL-20 aircraft, configured with a 3 band radar (3m., 2cm, 8mm) and an IR sensor (undefined). Limited system details were provided - SAR, polarimetric, and radiometric modes are available, but spatial resolution is modest (5m. at best). Commercial use of the system along with expert analysis and interpretation is marketed through RADAR MMS. The system has been used for geological surveys, agricultural monitoring, topographical mapping, and detection of oil or other contaminants on water surfaces.
- Novel antenna designs including one for seeker applications having wideband characteristics (5 octaves) in a lens or low profile configuration, and a mm-wave electronic scanning design for precision location in a landing approach system.
- Active radar seeker, manufactured with very modern components including a flat plate corporate feed, fully gimbaled antenna - all packaged for installation on any user defined platform. The radar is designed for sea target detection. Features include target selection functions, measurement of range, velocity, angular position and task scheduling. Limited details are available.
Academy of Civil Aviation
38 Pilotov Str.
196210 St. Petersburg, Russia
RADAR MMS Company.
194214 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Acad. Prof. Dr.Sci. Georgy Kryzhanovsky
President, Academy of Civil Aviation
President, Rusian Academy of Transport
Tel: 7 (812)-104-1511
Fax: 7 (812)-104-1832
Prof. Dr. Sci. Valentin A. Sarychev
Vice President, Academy of Civil Aviation
Vice President, Russian Academy of Transport
Vice General Director, Research, RADAR MMS
Tel: 7 (812) 393-9502
Fax: 7 (812) 394-4000
Director, RADAR MMS
Tel: 7 (812) 393-9600
Fax: 7 (812) 394-4000
"Radar MMS - 'Aisberg-Razrez' Radar System";
Product description, Academy of Civil Aviation - 1996
"VID-95 Airborne Landing Radar";
Academy of Civil Aviation, Radar MMS - 1996
"ARGS-35' Active Radar Guidance Seeker";
Academy of Civil Aviation, Radar MMS - 1996
3.2.2 St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University,
St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University is one of the oldest Russian institutions providing higher education and research in electrical engineering and related fields of electronics, telecommunications, and computers. They have grown an expertise in use of multi-band radars for monitoring of coastal environments.
A multiband multifunctional radar complex has been developed and placed in the Gulf of Finland. The multifunctional radar complex is made up of radars in centimeter and decimeter bands, along with a data acquisition and processing system which allows remote monitoring. The system is employed to predict meteorological and hydrological phenomena, as well as technologically induced emergency situations (i.e. oil spills, chemical pollutants), which may be dangerous for human life and activities. The use of multiband radar is considered advantageous in affording variable resolution and a large over-the-horizon scanned water surface area. The combination makes it possible to perform accurate measurements and to give advance warning of prospective danger to protect both people and facilities in coastal and off-shore areas.
Water surface condition is derived from a theory of short and ultra-short wave scattering over the rough sea. The estimated hydrophysical and meteorological parameters which are monitored using the multiband radar complex include:
- direction and strength of wind near the water surface;
- direction and average height of the sea wave;
- velocity of surface currents;
- estimate of direction of long wave ripple propagation;
- estimate of ice conditions.
St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University
5 Prof. Popov Street
197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
Dr. Sergei P.Kalenitchenko
Head, Radar Group
Tel: 7 (812) 350-1247
Fax: 7 (812) 234-4250
"Methods and Equipment for Radar Checking of Nuclear and Thermal Power Stations, Radioactive and Aerosol Chemical Releases and their tracking Forecasting"; V. I. Veremyov, A.D. Victorov, S.P. Kalenichenko, V.M. Kutuzov; International Symposium on Radiation Safety (ISRS-94), Moscow Russia. September 1994.
"Multiband Multifunctional Radar Complex for Monitoring of Coastal Areas"; A.D. Viktorov, V.M. Kutusov and S.P. Kalenitchenko. Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg, Undated
"The Precise Jamproof Compact Radar Using Complex-Coded Signals"; Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg, Undated.
"Reduction of Harmful Effects on Biological Objects by Pulsing Electromagnetic Radiation, Radar Stations of Distinguish Application"; I.G.Gorbunov, V.I.Veremjev, S.P.Kalenitchenko, A.A.Konovalov and V.I. Ralnikov; Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg, Undated
3.2.3 St. Petersburg State Academy of Aerospace Instrumentation
A brief visit was made to the St. Petersburg State Academy of Aerospace Instrumentation (SPSAAI), which offers a technical education in aviation related instrumentation, computer systems, radioengineering and control systems. SPSAAI has developed an expertise in acousto-optical components, materials characterization, and related optical information processing techniques. They appear well connected with peers in the US having hosted an SPIE (Int'l Society for Optical Engineering) conference on Optical Information Processing in 1996 and participated in other symposia and IEEE groups. The extent of external support for their research program was not made clear however.
St. Petersburg State Academy of Aerospace Instrumentation
67 Bolshaia Morskaia Str.
190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
Prof. Sergei V. Kulakov
Tel: 7 (812) 315-4082
Fax: 7 (812) 315-7778
Prof. Anatolii P Goloubkov
Chief, Ultrasound Diagnostic Systems Laboratory
Tel: 7 (812) 210-7026
Fax: 7 (812) 315-7778
3.2.4 Acad. Prof. Dr. Sci. Valery B. Mit'ko
A meeting was held with Acad. Prof. Dr. Sci. Valery B. Mit'ko. Prof. Mit'ko is an extremely interesting person with broad relevant experience. His interests, quoting from his C.V. are:
He is the author of more than 160 scientific papers, inventions, and patents. He served as Professor and Head of the Hydroacoustics Department at the St. Petersburg Naval Academy until 1994. He is now Chair of the Seismoacoustic Section of the Hydrophysical Science Council of St. Petersburg's Science Center and is active in a variety of societies.
He is a prime example of a large class of excellent Russian scientists, seeking new opportunities to apply their skills.
Acad. Prof. Dr.Sci. Valery B. Mit'ko
V. Alekseev Str., 30; apt. 62
198188 St. Petersburg, Russia
Tel: 7 (812) 239-9489
7 (812) 184-7518 (Home)
Fax: 7 (812) 234-1543
Valery Bronislavovich Mit'ko - Curriculum Vitae - 1997
"Application of Marine Hydrographic Information Systems for Resource and Ecological Problems Solution"
Arseny Mit'ko, Valery Mit'ko and Alexey Hvostov.
Electrotechnical University of St.Petersburg; undated.
"Acoustic Journal" (Mostly Russian)
East European Acoustical Association - 1994
3.3 TOMSK, SIBERIA
Tomsk is a city of approximately 500,000 people located in Western Siberia. It is both an industrial city and an educational center. Industry benefits from its position on the Tom River, and access to vast cedar forests as well as oil, gas, and other natural resources. With the opening of the Siberian University in 1888 it lays claim to being the oldest educational and research center in the Siberian part of Russia. There are now five establishments of higher education in the city, along with approximately 50 research institutions. A listing, along with brief summary description, of 14 of the more prominent science institutes can be found on our home page under the heading: Tomsk, Western Siberia, Russia: Educational and Research Institutions.
3.3.1 Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics
Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUCSR) (prior to 1997 known as an 'Academy') was established in 1962 as a spin-off from the Tomsk Polytechnical University, to provide specialized education in electronics related fields. It is now recognized as one of the leading institutions of higher education in Russia. Engineering education is carried out in 5 full-time Departments: radioelectronics and radiotechnical systems; computer science; electronic engineering and computer systems; automatics and control; home radioelectronics and video engineering. The staff consists of about 430 faculty, including more than 50 Professors, Doctors of Sciences, and almost 250 Assistant Professors, Candidates of Sciences. Included among these are 18 Academicians and Corresponding Members of Russian Academies, and 7 Honored Men of Science and Engineering of the Russian Federation. The main TUCSR building is in downtown Tomsk with other facilities for experimentation and limited manufacturing located nearby on the shores of the Tom River.
Of particular interest is experimental development related to polarimetric radar performed under the leadership of V. N. Tatarinov. The association with Prof. Tatarinov was one of the reasons for conducting the WIPSS Workshop in Tomsk in September of 1997. One of the products of this experimental research was a helicopter borne radar which exploits unique properties of circularly polarized signals to discriminate between simple manmade targets and homogeneous clutter (i.e. ship target in sea clutter).
Also of interest is theoretical development and experimental investigation of the tropospheric signals' structure. This work is performed under the leadership of Prof. G. S. Sharygin. Research addresses characterization of propagation conditions, at wavelengths from 3cm to approximately 3m, over ocean and land surfaces with a focus on prediction of communications and radar (particularly OTH radar) performance. TUCSR has operated measurement facilities in the Tomsk area as well as in the Sakhalin Island region for almost 30 years. Based on a large history of measurements a 'Pacific Radio-Meteorological Atlas' has been developed which characterizes propagation in both surface and elevated ducts with statistical models, time-space structure, frequency spectrum and correlation, and depolarization and pulse distortion.
General: A diverse range of facilities - at both laboratory and field sites. Much of the equipment is aging but well-maintained; there is a concerted attempt to retain research capabilities but the extent of support is doubted.
Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUCSR)
40, Lenin Avenue
634050 Tomsk, Western Siberia, Russia
Prof.Dr. German S. Sharygin,
Vice Rector, Research & Development
Head, Radio Systems Research
Tel:  3822-224302
Fax:  3822-224302
Prof.Dr. Viktor N. Tatarinov
Dean of Radioengineering Faculty
Head Polarimetric Radar Research Laboratory
Tel:  3822-232184
Fax:  3822-232184
"An Introduction in Invariant Polar Radar";
V. N. Tatarinov; PIERS-95, July, 1995; Seattle, WA.
"The Polarization Radar:15 Years of Development of Siberian Scientific Polarization School"; V. N. Tatarinov; 1995
"The Polarization Contrast of Radar Objects";
V.N.Tatarinov, V.I.Karnishev and S.V. Tatarinov; PIERS-94, July 1994; Noordwik, NL.
"The Prototype Test Results of the High-Informatic Polyparametric Polarization Radar"; V.N. Tatarinov, V.A. Khlusov, and V.I. Karnyshev; PIERS-94, July 1994; Noordwik, NL.
"Investigation Results of Compressing Characteristics of Linearly Frequency-Modulated Radiopulse Signals over Mobile Sea Paths";
M. E. Rovkin, M. I. Lokotkov and M. V. Krutikov; Journ. Article - Undated.
"Back Scattering Matrix Estimate at Coherent Mode of Decimeter-Band Radar"; P. V. Vorobyov, A. P. Boldyrev, V. A. Khlusov, M. E. Rovkin; Journ. Article - Undated.
3.3.2 Institute of Atmospheric Optics
Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO) was established in 1969 under the Siberian division of the RAS to explore optical properties of the atmosphere. Its founding director was Academician Vladimir. E. Zuev, recently replaced by his son Victor V.. Zuev. IAO has developed an excellent reputation for the quality of its fundamental research and for its unique measurement instrumentation. Included in the latter are lidars for atmospheric sounding, lasers for air and ship navigation, super-high resolution laser spectrometers, and laser gas analyzers.
There are five divisions of IAO:
- Optical Diagnostics of the Environment: techniques for laser sounding of the atmosphere to measure physical components including parameters of temperature, pressure, humidity, and various gas components such as ozone, aerosols, and chemical pollutants.
- Wave Propagation and Sounding of Random Media: studies of nonlinear turbulent effects, measurements of high power laser beam energy distribution.
- Optical Sensing of the Atmosphere: use of laser autodyne techniques for atmospheric probing enabling measurement of Stokes parameters for full polarization characterization of objects (particles). Studies on crystal cloud characterization are a current focus.
- Coherent and Nonlinear Optical Diagnostics - determination of atmospheric structure using adaptive and applied optics. Developments include deformable mirrors, multi-segment mirrors, and mirror correction models. Some work in his area has been conducted for EOARD.
- Atmospheric Spectroscopy - accurate measurement of absorption spectra using tunable lasers and cavities of 30m. and 110m. optical length.
Institute of Atmospheric Optics
Dept. of Oceanology, Atmospherics, Physics & Geography
Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Division
634-050 Tomsk, W. Siberia, Russia
Prof. Dr. Vladimir E. Zuev, Director
Academician & Secretary of the RAS
Alexander A. Zemlyanov
Tel: 7 (3822) 258-034
Fax: 7 (3822) 259-086
Viktor Banakh - Wave propagation & random media sounding;
Gennadii Matvienko - laser sensing of the atmosphere;
Vladimir Lukin - Adaptive & applied optics
Institute of Atmospheric Optics - Descriptive brochure
"Crystal Cloud Dynamics"; Bruno Kaul;
"The Influence of Wavefront Dislocations on Phase Conjugation Instability with Thermal Blooming Compensation"; V. P Lukin and B. V Fortes. Pure Appl. Opt. 6 (1997)
3.4 NOVOSIBIRSK, SIBERIA
Novosibirsk is the largest industrial and scientific center in Siberian Russia. Its role as a science center was cast in the mid-fifties with the building of its Akademgorodok in a forested area about 25 Km from central Novosibirsk near the Ob River. This city of science was established by Prof. Mikhail A. Lauretyev as an enclave to achieve both scientific and social progress. The area now contains 22 science institutes plus the Novosibirsk State University, and houses approximately 50,000 scientists and technical staff.
3.4.1 Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics
The Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICMMG) was known as the Computing Center prior to September 1997. ICMMG was founded in 1964 and is an institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), Novosibirsk. ICMMG is engaged in research on computational and applied mathematics in such areas as the modeling of processes in the atmosphere and ocean, environmental protection problems, methods of mathematical modeling in geophysics, geophysical informatics, simulation of informatics systems, telecommunication systems, and software for supercomputers.
ICMMG consists of 11 Departments which are subdivided into more than 30 laboratories and groups. The Institute employs about 400 personnel including 195 scientists. A robust program of fundamental and applied research is performed in the following areas:
- Computational mathematics
- Mathematical modeling of oceanic, atmospheric physics and environment
- Mathematical problems of geophysics
- Applied geophysics and geophysical informatics
- Image processing
- Informatics system simulation
- Telecommunication systems
- Supercomputer software
Key laboratory activities are as follows:
- Seismic vibrators - Development of powerful seismic vibrators capable of global scale excitation for geophysical analysis of land and sea bottoms. Current hydro resonant vibrators can produce 100 tons impact with controlled periodicity. Plans are to build a super vibrator with capacity for 10,000 tons. This is expected to enable global tomography with the accuracy of seismic prospecting.
- Mathematical problems of seismology: construction of multidisciplinary mathematical models describing formation, propagation and interaction of basic geophysical fields of different physical nature and their anomalies in earthquake prone zones. This work includes solution of direct and inverse problems in geophysical fields to identify complex (multidisciplinary) earthquake precursors. Application software packages have been developed for calculating 3D seismic and electromagnetic fields in complex subsurface media.
- Mathematical modeling of oceanic, atmospheric physics, and environment: investigation of hydrophysical processes in atmosphere and ocean on the basis of models of global and regional atmospheric circulation coupled with the models of oceanic boundary layer, land and vegetation; developed a numerical circulation models of the world's oceans and its parts with detailing for shelf zones.
- Computational mathematics: mathematical modeling, numerical methods and software on problems of physics; simulation of random processes and fields such as sea surface, clouds, turbulence.
- Informatic system simulation: mathematical and computer modeling; simulation methodology; analytical and numerical methods of queuing theory; interval and probabilistic uncertainty models; statistical simulation support; development of algorithms and reliable software for the problems of mathematical programming.
- Image processing: processing and computational tomography; new concepts for processing of imagery which includes algorithms for detection and analysis of "regular" elements in digital imagery (i.e. linear and circular structures).
- Telecommunication system: modeling of communication systems and networks; interactive solutions of optimization problems using graphs and networks (i.e. city electrical communication network was synthesized and optimized to satisfy different demand conditions).
Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
6 Lavrentieva Ave.
630090, Novosibirsk, Central Siberia, Russia.
Anatoly S. Alekseev, Director
Full Professor, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Tel: 7 3832-35-56-50
Fax. 7 3832-32-42-59
Boris A. Kargin
Head: Laboratory of Modeling of Radiative & Atmospheric Processes,
Tel: 7 (3832)-35-46-74
Fax: 7 (3832)-32-42-59
Vladimir V. Penenko
Head of Department: Hydrodynamical Problems of Environment
Tel: 7 (3832) 35 11 52
Vyacheslav K. Gusiakov
Head: Laboratory of Mathematical Modelling of Tsunami Waves
Tel: 7 (3832) 35 03 70
Boris M. Pushnoy
Head Laboratory of Seismic Research
Tel: 7 (3832) 35 37 43
Boris G. Mikhailenko
Head: Laboratory of Numerical Modeling of Seismic Fields
Tel: 7 (3832) 35 73 53
Gennady N. Erokhin
Head: Laboratory of Information on Technologies of Computational Geophysics
Tel: 7 (3832) 35 07 52
"Inverse Problems of Radiation Sources Reconstruction"
Anikonov Yu., Bubnov B., Erokhin G
Bulletin of the Novosibirsk Computing Center;
Series: Numerical Modeling in Atmosphere, Ocean and Environment Studies; Issue: 1 (1993)
Bulletin of the Novosibirsk Computing Center;
Series: Numerical Modeling in Atmosphere, Ocean and Environment Studies; Issue: 4 (1996)
- Computer Science
- Mathematical Modeling in Geophysics
- Numerical Analysis
- Numerical Modeling in Atmosphere, Ocean and Environment Studies
V. V. Penenko, K. Wilderotter, M. S. Yudin
Advanced Mathematics: Computations and Applications, 1995 NCC Pub.
"Numerical Investigations of Atmospheric Motions over Complex Terrain"; M.S. Yudin; Advanced Mathematics: Computations and Applications, 1995 NCC Pub.
"Integrated Tsunami Information Network";
V. K. Gusiakov; Proposal: Computing Center Novosibirsk
"Expert Tsunami Database for the Kuril-Kamchatka Region"; V. K. Gusiakov, A. G. Marchuk, A. V. Osipova; Bull. Nov. Comp. Ctr., Math. Model in Geophysics, 1-1994; NCC Pub.
"Cooperative Approach to Solving Inverse Problems in Integral Geophysics (Theoretical Aspects)"; A.S. Alekseev, G.N. Erokhin; 7th International Mathematical Geophysics Seminar, Free University of Berlin, Feb 1989
"Optimization Methods in the Inverse Problems of Seismology: Examples of Real Applications"; G.N. Erokhin; 6th International Mathematical Geophysics Seminar, Free University of Berlin, Feb 1988.
3.5 IRKUTSK, SIBERIA
3.5.1 Limnological Institute
The Limnological Institute of SB RAS was founded in 1925 to perform studies of the Lake Baikal ecosystem. Currently about 340 persons are employed at the Institute, with about half performing scientific work. Facilities and equipment were in the best condition of all those visited. The research program is structured to deal with the Lake Baikal ecosystem and includes hydrophysical, chemical, microbiology, molecular biology activities. Innovative instrumentation and methodologies have been developed to understand and assess the lake environment. The Institute provides the focus for the Baikal International Center for Ecological Research (BICER). This foundation was established in 1990 with support from 18 nations including the US. While not in the mainstream of naval research there may be interest in analysis and techniques applicable to hydro-physical and chemical properties of the lake, and in research using the lake environment as a reference for measuring global climate change.
Limnological Institute of SB RAS
3 Ulan-Batorskaya Str.
LIN SB RAS
664033, Irkutsk-33, Russia
Mikhail A. Grachev
Director of the Institute, Corr.-member of RAS
Valentin V. Drucker
Tel: 7(3952) 46-03-46
Fax: 7(3952) 46-69-33
"Formation of the Baikal International Center for Ecological Research"
Michael A Grachev; Ecology International Bulletin 1994:21
"The Second Vereshchagin Baikal Conference - Abstracts";
Limnologial Institute SB RAS, Irkutsk; October 1995; (Origin of organisms, their evolution, and ecology of Lake Baikal region.)
"Guide and Key to Pelagic Animals of Baikal"; O.A. Timoshkin, Ed.; NAUKA - Siberian Publishing Firm, RAS, 1995
3.5.2 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) was established in 1961 as the successor to Siberia's oldest magnetic observatory (1886). Major research interests are solar physics and solar-terrestrial relationships, research on the magnetosphere and the Earth's magnetic field, and study of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and radio wave propagation. A significant part of the research is directed toward predicting the influence of variable components of solar energy on satellite sensors, communications, and navigation. ISTP is also exploring mechanisms for generating energy and mass fluxes and transferring them from the sun to the Earth. The Institute operates a number of unique experimental facilities: Siberian solar radio telescope, large solar vacuum telescope, incoherent scatter radar, solar coronograph, cosmic ray spectrograph, and others. In addition, ISTP is pursuing ionospheric studies using distributed terrestrial antennas and GPS signals, and the use of infrasonics measured with high sensitivity to detect atmospheric changes and measure weather effects.
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of SB RAS
11, Frynze Str., box 4026
ISTP SB RAS
664033, Irkutsk-33, Russia
Gelii Aleksandrovich Zherebstov
Director, Corr.-member of RAS
Victor D. Kokourov
Deputy Director for Research
Tel: 7(395-2) 46-34-91
Fax: 7(395-2) 46-25-57
Edward L. Afraimovich
Lab of Upper Atmosphere Dynamics; Ionospheric studies
Tel: 7(395-2) 46-05-20
Fax: 7(395-2) 46-25-57
"Spectral and Dispersion Characteristics of Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances as Deduced from Transionospheric Sounding Data";
E L Afraimovich, N. P. Minko and S.V. Fridman;
Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics. Vol. 56, No. 11, 1994
"Characteristics of Small-Scale Ionospheric Irregularities as Deduced from Scintillation Observations of Radio Signals from Satellites ETS-2 and Polar Bear 4 at Irkutsk"
E. L. Afraimovich, G.A.Zherebtsov, V.N.Zvezdin and, S.J. Franke;
Radio Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, July-August 1994
"A Comparison of the Thermospheric Wind Dynamics Using Transionospheric and Vertical Incidence Radio Sounding Data";
E.L. Afraimovich, B.O. Vugmeister and A.D. Kalikhman
Adv. Space Res. Vol. 18, No. 3, 1996
"Diagnostics of Large-Scale Structures of The High-Latitude Ionosphere Based on Tomographic Treatment of Navigation -Satellite Signals and of Data from Ionospheric Stations";
E.L. Afraimovich, O. Pirog and A.I. Terekhov;
Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics Vol. 54, No. 10, 1992
"Simultaneous Measurements of The Polarization, Angles of Arrival, Doppler Frequency, and Amplitude of the VHF Radio Signal from ETS 2"
E.L. Afraimovich, N.P. Min'ko, A.N. Shapovalov, and V.N. Zvezdin
Radio Science Vol. 26, No. 5, October 1991
3.6 ULAN-UDE, SIBERIA
Ulan-Ude is the cultural center of the Republic of Buryatia. The city was founded in 1666 as a winter quarters for the Cossacks; it lies to the east of Lake Baikal, 200 km from Irkutsk. The principal industries include food processing, tanning, woodworking, and the manufacture of glass, bricks, and railroad equipment. The area is famous for the largest deposits of zinc, lead, gold, tungsten, and asbestos in Russia. The city is home to the Buryat Research Centre (BRC) of RAS SB which in addition to the Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences, includes Institutes of Social Sciences, Biology, Environmental Management, and Geology.
3.6.1 Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences
The Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences (BINS) of the SB RAS was established in 1966. The research program is broadly scoped and includes:
- study of electromagnetic wave propagation in heterogeneous media - atmosphere, earth's crust, etc.
- radiophysical effects of EM waves, and diagnostic potential of the physiological state of biological objects.
- development of new materials based on inorganic compounds, spatial polymers, etc. and exploitation of raw minerals found in Buryatia.
In the area of pulse diagnostics, BINS has developed an integrated system based on knowledge based technology for collection and analysis of communications signals to derive atmospheric properties. Interestingly, some of these techniques have been applied to perform human medical diagnosis using techniques of Tibetan Medicine which bases diagnoses on the bodies' pulse characteristics. In conjunction with the Buryatia Institute of Biology which has a department of Tibetan Medicine, BINS is testing its expert system for automated health diagnostics. For readers of Russian a text on techniques of Tibetan Medicine is available.
As a result of its EM propagation studies, BINS has developed an extensive historical data base and model of radio meteorology over the former Soviet Union territories. The model covers wavelengths from 3cm - 30cm and includes polarimetric effects. The Institute has also conducted VLF and ELF propagation studies to map portions of terrestrial surfaces (in Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica) and to characterize properties of various media which make up the Earth's crust.
General: Well maintained facilities, aging lab equipment, a very aggressive attitude toward collaboration. As an encouragement to scientific investment, the Buryat Republic has a program to provide matching funds for all foreign support.
Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences of SB RAS
6 Sakhyanova Str.
BINS SB RAS
670047, Ulan-Ude-47, Russia
Kuzma A. Nikiforov
Director of the Institute
Tel: 7(301-22) 3-03-80
Fax: 7(301-22) 3-72-76
Prof.Dr.Sci. Dashi D. Darishapov
Tel: 7(301-22) 3-28-41
Fax: 7(301-22) 3-28-41
Prof. Dr. Yuri Bashkyuev
Institute for Radiophysics & Geology
4. ASSESSMENT / IMPRESSIONS
These institutions are clearly struggling with cutbacks in staffing, shortfalls in salary payments, lack of research funding, and an inability to maintain basic infrastructure needs. Moreover, in many cases, the underlying motivation and research direction appears to be lacking - military requirements are no longer defined or funded, and the transition to a market environment that would define and fund new work has not yet taken place. Such cultural change does not come about rapidly. It does not come about at all without internal recognition of the need and the will to make it happen. Clearly the seeds for change are in place, although understanding of requisite infrastructure and processes does not seem to be widespread. Positive evidence for change can be found in the many individual efforts and institutionally sponsored spin-offs. As noted previously, these can be characterized as grass roots efforts, not the result of enlightened policy or long term visionary direction.
The perspective derived from these visits is that there is widespread capability for good research in radar and radiometry in pursuit of remote sensing. The application areas, broadly stated, are characterization of the surface of land, sea, and ice for purposes of environmental monitoring and measurement of ecological and meteorological effects. The techniques encompass combinations of moderately high resolution, synthesized apertures, polarimetry, and multispectral or multifrequency measurements. Employment of these technologies for surveillance or targeting purposes was discussed but, with a few exceptions, no results or papers were offered. Use of interferometric or wideband techniques was not suggested, and does not appear to be within their research scope.
A robust research capability directed at propagation effects is also in evidence. Radio occultation and direct path measurements were most frequently discussed for characterization of microwave propagation. More general atmospheric probing is the focus of research at a majority of the institutes visited, with diverse techniques, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum: radio occultation, radiometric, and laser techniques were most frequently mentioned. Applications included measurement of standard meteorological parameters as well as detection of turbulence, pollutants, aerosols, and other anomalies. Singular institutions with unique capabilities in seismology and limnology were quite impressive for the apparent quality and depth of their research program. Interestingly these institutes seemed to be among the best supported.
It should be noted that while the quality of the scientists observed is quite high, current practice often lags (i.e. recent involvement, particularly in experimentation is often lacking), this is believed to be a consequence of funding difficulties.
The following observations of the research environment are offered without further comment.
- funding is severely constrained - internal resources are limited, external support is low.
- facilities and equipment are aging - most equipment dates to the mid-80's, only limited maintenance can be afforded.
- library contents are dated - very few newer texts, journal subscriptions have lapsed.
- infrastructure is not maintained - even basic amenities, lights and bathroom hygiene, are ignored.
- rationalization: redundant capabilities abound - even in areas where multiple institutions have overlapping capabilities there appears to be little disposition to consolidate.
- integration: only one of the organizations visited volunteered a broad view about coordinating institutional capabilities across boundaries of geography and functions to improve competitive posture and overall technical strength.
- privatization: many examples exist of commercial spin-offs from institutes in the form of small companies or aggressive individual efforts - these are small now but may have significant future potential.
- external connections: variable; good networking with US and European counterparts in some cases, but weak in others - actual collaboration appears to be short term in the best of cases.
- scientific awareness: generally informed but lacking detailed insight (see 'library' comment).
- general awareness: unsophisticated in current market sense.
- candor: a persistent measure of reluctance to engage in full open discussion;
- Expand international contacts, identification of appropriate individuals and communities with common interests.
- Publishing abroad - identification and access to appropriate journals for broader exposure, feedback.
- Scientific exchanges - create opportunities for young Russian researchers to study abroad, and where feasible for others to study in Russia.
- Outside support - in addition to meeting an obvious need for funds, provides badly needed credibility for improved internal standing. The science community in Russia is badly battered, perceived as responsible for unfulfilled soviet era promises.
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