A. PROFILE KEY ELEMENTS
Each entry provides the following information:
This entry provides the name by which the enterprise is most commonly known. We have also tried to provide the most commonly known alternative names of the enterprise. Names of facilities in Russian can vary widely. At times, some enterprises were known under the name of the building in which it was located or a location within a city. In addition, many enterprises have changed their names over the past year.
This entry provides the address in Russian format. Writing first is suggested. When following up on a lead by mail, the addresses should be written in the following format, preferably in Russian, to assure proper delivery:
Country name in Russian
Zip Code City
Street Name, Street #
Addressee (Name of company and contact)
Country name in English
Space is provided for telephone, telex, teletype, fax and electronic mail (E-Mail). Where no number appears, information will be added as it becomes available. The reliability of these numbers varies and the lines of communication are not always operating.
Use International Access Code "011" to place a station-to-station call and "00" for operator-assisted calls (e.g., person-to-person calls). Telegrams are a useful and reliable mechanism for communications. Note that the Russian communications system differentiates among telegraph, teletype, and telex. The Russian term "TELEGRAPH" refers to a telegraphic address using the city communications center, which delivers the telegram (comparable to sending a telegram via Western Union in the U.S.). The Russian term "TELETYPE" relates to the internal NIS (former Soviet Union) telecommunications system which connects directly to a terminal at an enterprise. The keyboard and printer can handle only Cyrillic type (or the "Cyrillic alphabet"). Finally the Russian term "TELEX" means the international telex telecommunications system directly to a terminal at an enterprise. The keyboard and printer are usually handle Latin characters. Some private information enterprises and most likely some city telecommunications centers offer a service of providing a manual interface between the Telex and Teletype or Telegraph systems.
Increasingly, Russian government and enterprise officials are using Internet-compatible E-Mail (via domestic networks such as Relcom and international links such as SprintNet, Sovam Teleport, etc.) to communicate quickly, reliably and conveniently. Following issuance of the second installment, our own E-Mail has increased substantially, using the addresses listed therein. The process works!! Information sent via an E-mail file requires approximately five percent the size of the corresponding fax file. E-Mail also provides greater flexibility than fax transmissions, as messages can be stored until the receiving end is operating. Moreover, E-Mail rates may be less expensive than fax rates at the point of origin.
This entry provides a general overview of the enterprise detailing its major products and technology.
This lists the specific military focus of the enterprise (e.g. electronic components) and provides the nearest equivalent U.S. Standard Industry Classification (SIC) code(s) for it. When available, we intend to provide the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HS) number(s).
FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION:
In the past, one of several central ministries controlled Soviet defense industry enterprises. These Ministries were replaced, when the Soviet Union disbanded, by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Atomic Energy. The latter still exists; the former was replaced by the Russian State Committee on the Defense Sectors of Industry, which still oversees, but does not strictly control, the activities of defense enterprises that have not privatized.
This provides the latest known number of employees. Today these figures are highly variable as many enterprises are in a state of flux as they restructure to adapt to an evolving economic system.
This lists the known principal officers of the enterprise (along with their titles).
Until the past year, the state owned all defense enterprises in Russia. With the introduction of economic reforms, some have now become joint-stock companies as part of the privatization process and others are leased. Where known, this entry indicates who owns what share of joint-stock firms.
Date the enterprise was established. This information may provide some indication of the age of some of the basic infrastructure at the enterprise.
MILITARY PRODUCT LINE:
This category lists products produced for the military. Again, this may provide an indication of the types of technology available.
CIVILIAN PRODUCT LINE:
This category lists products manufactured for civil use.
KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED:
Any known sophisticated facilities, equipment, or processes belonging to the enterprise are listed under this entry.
This entry identifies any conversion plans or efforts currently taking place at the enterprise.
HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT:
This will identify any human resources support (e.g., housing, medical, child care) that the facility provides its work force. U.S. industry should take careful note of the additional financial burden these may impose on joint ventures and be prepared to address this issue in negotiations.
OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION:
This provides any additional relevant information. For example, if the facility is part of an association, this entry identifies the members of the association and provides the basic information (e.g., number of employees, product lines) for each.
B. TRANSLATION OF RUSSIAN ABBREVIATIONS
NII - Scientific Research Institute
(G) NPO - (State) Scientific Production Association
(G) NPP - (State) Scientific Production Enterprise
AO - Joint Stock Company
KB - Design Bureau
ANTK - Aviation Scientific Technical Complex
PO - Production Association
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