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The Kamikaze: Samurai Warrior A New Appraisal

The Kamikaze: Samurai Warrior A New Appraisal


CSC 1995














John A. Forquer


United States Marine Corps




Military Issues Paper submitted to the Faculty

of the Marine Corps Command and Staff College

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for AY 1994-95


March 1995




The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and

do not reflect the official policy or position of the

Department of Defense or the U.S. Government




Title: The Kamikaze: A New Appraisal



Author: Major J.A. Forquer, United States Marine Corps



Thesis: The WWII Kamikazes have been revered as the epitome of military discipline

and soldierly repute. The Kamikaze story also has a dark side. An analysis of the

leadership behind the development and continued employment of the Kamikaze tactics

reveals the calculated choice to sacrifice the flyer's lives for a "glorious death" not

possible victory.



Background: Prior to WWII, Japanese military leaders studied and worked tirelessly at

refining the science and art of their profession. During WWII, these leaders employed

their skills with great success against the moth-balled military of the United States.

When victory turned in favor of the United States, Japanese leaders departed from a

logical, methodical approach to war. The leaders increasingly relied on the Samurai

spirit to bridge the disparity of manpower and industry between Japan and the United

States. Japanese leaders, even after recognizing their impending defeat, were unable to

face it. They hid behind and ultimately disgraced, the Bushido Code. These leaders

sought to sacrifice an entire nation, not for victory or peace, but for glorious death.



Recommendation: History must clearly depict the entire Kamikaze story. Many pilots

were truly heroic. However, the leadership that developed and continued the employment of

the Kamikaze tactic demonstrates the failure of men. Their disregard for human lives as

illustrated by their continued use of Kamikaze tactics in the face of certain defeat, should be

recorded and used as a learning tool. A thorough understanding of this leadership failure

may serve to prevent it from being repeated.


Many discussions of the Japanese Kamikaze pilots focus almost exclusively


on the bravery and sacrifice of these pilots. While these pilots were respected and


revered, they were only one part of the Kamikaze legacy. The darker side of the


Kamikaze story involved the leadership behind the tactic. This paper focuses on


the leadership which developed, implemented and condoned the continued use of


the Kamikaze tactic. Part I provides background information on the influence of


Japanese history and culture on the Japanese military. Part II traces the events of


World War II that led to the development and expanded use of the Kamikaze


tactic. Part III covers the employment of the Kamikaze tactic. Part IV provides a


brief conclusion.


I. Japanese History, Culture, and The Military


A collection of ancient principles called the Bushido Code governed the


conduct of the ancient Japanese warrior known as the Samurai. These principles


emphasized honor, courage, loyally, self-sacrifice, unquestionable reverence for


the emperor, and contempt for defeat. This philosophy became inculcated into


the Japanese culture and national ideology. The Bushido Code continued to


influence the Japanese culture into the twentieth century.


During World War II, a new breed of Samurai warrior emerged, the


stone-laced Kamikaze. The term Kamikaze means "Divine Wind." It evolved


from the great storm of 1281 that occurred on the eve of the Mongol's planned


attack on Japan. This storm prevented the massive Mongol armada from certain


conquest of Japan. Accordingly, the Japanese viewed this fortuitous storm as


clear evidence of heavenly intervention. They attributed the salvation of the


Empire to the Kamikaze.


The World War II Kamikaze tactic, unlike its namesake, was not developed


as a means to save the Empire but instead was intended to buy Japan time to


rebuild their military. This World War II tactic required and celebrated suicide.


The notion of celebrated suicide was not adverse to Japanese culture as the


Japanese did not attach a disgraceful stigma to suicide. Suicide in Japan was both


commonplace and preferred over a life of shame. Suicide was a respected


response to tragedy, humiliation or the desire to share the fate of a respected


man's death. The Kamikaze tactic, therefore, was embraced by many Japanese


people. This tactic was also consistent with the Bushido Code's requirement of




The Japanese military also applied other principles of the Bushido Code.


In keeping with the code, this totalitarian system demanded courage, devotion,


and obedience. The system yielded a military characterized as rigid, extremely


disciplined, and unquestionably devoted. Not surprisingly, the Japanese employed


harsher disciplinary methods than any other World War II force. Even the


infamous severe discipline of the Prussian army before 1870 was mild in


comparison.1 The Japanese commonly applied brutal corporal punishment for


even minor infractions. They believed such punishment to instill a boundless


respect for authority and the chain of command. A young naval recruit named


Saburo Sakai described his experience as a naval recruit:


The petty officers would not hesitate to administer the severest beatings to

recruits they felt deserving of punishment. Whenever I committed a

breach of discipline or an error in training, I was dragged physically from

my cot by a petty officer. "Stand tall to the wall! Bend down, Recruit

Sakai!" he would roar. "I am not doing this because I hate you, but

because I like you and want you to make a good seaman. Bend down!"

And with that he would swing a large stick of wood and with every ounce

of strength he possessed would slam it against my upturned bottom. The

pain was terrible, the force of the blows unremitting. There was no choice

but to grit my teeth and struggle desperately not to cry out. At times I

counted up to forty crashing impacts into my buttocks. Often I feinted

from the pain. A lapse of consciousness constituted no escape however.

The petty officer simply hurled a bucket of cold water over my prostrate

form and bellowed for me to resume position, whereupon he continued his

discipline until satisfied I would mend the errors of my ways.2


Like the disciplinary procedures, Japan's military award system and daily


expectations were also harsher than other World War II forces. The Japanese


award system only acknowledged individual performance posthumously. In


addition, Japanese leaders expected their soldiers and sailors to perform to their


absolute limits daily. They considered anything short of total and unselfish


dedication to the Emperor a disgrace.


The Bushido ideal of contempt for defeat also influenced how the Japanese


viewed combat. They regarded defeat in combat as the ultimate humiliation. The


Japanese expected a soldier or sailor to win, die by the hands of his enemy, or


commit suicide. Commanders who recognized imminent defeat in battle,


therefore, launched hundreds of soldiers in banzai charges into overwhelming


enemy machine-gun and artillery fire, knowing that the attack would be suicidal.


These commanders believed that such a drive embodied the spirit of the ancient


Samurai warrior and would result in a "glorious death."3 Military commanders


thought no greater honor could be bestowed upon them than the opportunity to


give their lives and the lives of their men for their emperor. Thus, soldiers


incapable of participating in these bonsai charges due to injury or sickness were


summarily executed.


Toward the end of the war, many in the civilian population adopted the


Kamikaze philosophy. Thousands of military and civilians viewed the imminent


defeat and the unconditional surrender of Japan as a disgrace. Accordingly, they


committed suicide.


II. Setting The Stage: Events Leading to the Development of the Kamikaze



The Japanese-military had service leaders but no unified commander. As a


result, the Japanese Army and Navy constantly battled over military strategy.


Only the Emperor could consolidate the efforts of the two services.


Unfortunately for Japan, the emperor behaved like a constitutional monarch. He


did not exercise his leadership until after the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs.


Continuous inter-service strife, therefore, plagued the Japanese military through


much of World War II.


Because of the unresolved disagreements between the army and navy and


many poorly conceived compromises, the military adopted two separate strategies.


The army adopted a strategy of a northward drive through China into Russia.


The navy planned to push southward against the U.S., Great Britain, and Holland.


This dual strategy forced Japan to attempt the impossible task of building a


military capable of matching the U.S. and Russia. The army's term for this


expansion, Hakko Tai, (meaning eight directions) stated the hope that the entire


world could be brought under Japanese control.4 However, a protracted war on


such a scale required an industrial capacity and resource base far beyond Japan's.


war on such a scale required an industrial capacity and resource base far beyond




Although Japan never had the resources for a protracted war, in the first


stages of World War II, Japan's military was well equipped, trained, and prepared


for war. Initially, the Japanese won several battles in their quest to rule the


world. These initial victories gave the Japanese false hope. They deluded


themselves into thinking victory was imminent. They planned and executed a


successful operation that proved to be the beginning of the end for Japan - the


bombing of Pearl Harbor. This attack woke the sleeping giant of the West (the


U.S.) and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's worst nightmare became a reality. After


the U.S. declared war on Japan, the U.S. rapidly converted its unmatched


industrial capacity to war production and set it into accelerated motion.


With the U.S.'s entry in the war, victory no longer seemed imminent for


Japan. The defeat of Midway in 1942 started a series of defeats for Japan from


which it never recovered. Japanese defeats at Midway and Guadacanal, while


costly to both sides, were more easily absorbed by the U.S. with its vast


resources. Moreover, Japan could no longer protect its desperately needed supply


ships with the land-based aircraft previously launched from these islands. The


Japanese Navy could not meet this additional requirement because of its


numerous losses of carrier-based aircraft.


Several other factors also exacerbated Japan's deteriorating ability to wage


war against the United States. First, the allies developed superior weaponry,


particularly in air defense and radar. Second, the disparity in experience levels


between Japanese and American pilots consistently grew due to heavy Japanese


pilot combat casualties. These Japanese pilot losses were particularly high at the


battle for Saipan. While America lost 126 pilots, almost 500 Japanese pilots died.


This led to the American reference to the battle as the "Mariannas Turkey Shoot."


The battle for Saipan resulted in almost total annihilation of Japan's experienced


carrier-based pilots.


After the battle of Saipan, Japan struggled desperately to train new pilots


to fill this critical void. The Japanese sacrificed the quality of pilot training to


speed up the replacement process. Before the Pacific Campaign, Japanese pilot


training required 4OO flight hours as a prerequisite to the start of aircraft carrier


qualification training. Eight hundred hours of total flight time, according to flight


instructors and experienced pilots, was required to meet the minimum proficiency


for carrier operations. After Saipan, however, several factors prevented Japan


from meeting these standards: the impossible time required for such training and


the growing shortage of both fuel and pilot candidates.


While the flight instructors and aviators asserted that a minimum of 800


flight hours was required for pilot training, the Fleet admirals balked at what they


viewed as "lofty" flight time training requirements. They insisted that proficient


carrier pilots could be produced in 200 hours or less. They rationalized this


training reduction with the belief that the Bushido spirit would make up for the


lack of experience. Accordingly, they eliminated training in aerobatics, combat


techniques, navigation, and dead reckoning. These new pilots, some as young as


14, were thrown into battle with as little as one week of flight training.


The Japanese flight instructors did not share the Fleet admirals' optimism


about the revised training program. They referred to these new pilots as "the


black-edged cherry blossoms," which illustrates their belief that the pilots' life span


would be short. The skyrocketing increase in training casualties alone indicated


the accuracy of their assessment.5


These young, ill trained pilots fared worse in battle than in training. The


inexperience of the Japanese pilots greatly contributed to Japan's inability to


protect its navy against the growing air superiority of American Forces. The


Japanese defeat in the Philippines virtually eliminated Japan's ability to defend


naval forces. As the Allies rapidly drew closer to the sacred homeland, a


decimated Japanese Navy and Army Airforce lay in ruins. The Japanese pilot


corps was virtually stripped of experience. The new pilots lacked training to face


their thoroughly trained, battle hardened, and experienced enemy.6


As the war crept closer to Japan, the allies virtually destroyed the Japanese


Navy. This eliminated the unmet need for carrier qualified pilots as no carriers


existed. However, the need for well trained land based pilots remained. As with


the carrier pilots, the Japanese land-based pilots were also far less qualified than


their American counterparts. These new warriors were motivated and eager but


they lacked the skills and experience to perform the tactics necessary to


accomplish their mission.


The commander of Japan's First Air Fleet, Vice Admiral Takajiro Onishi,


was particularly concerned with Japan's deteriorating situation. As an experienced


carrier officer and ace from the China war, he recognized the serious


consequences of this flawed combat pilot replacement program. He knew that


effective airpower was critical to stop the advancing allied armada and the threat


the allies posed to the Japanese homeland.


III. The Kamikaze Tactic


A. Onishi's Plan. The poor quality of replacement pilots frustrated Onishi.


He believed a new Japanese weapon was needed immediately to stop the Allies.


Onishi's search for a new weapon was premised on the belief that Japan would


never surrender. He did find a weapon to compensate for the disparity between


Japanese and allied pilots. He believed the airplane should be used as an


extension of the warrior spirit. Onishi opined the ultimate weapon would be the


use of the plane as a human bullet. He only intended the human bullet to be


used as a stop gap measure. He believed that the employment of this weapon,


the Kamikaze tactic, would provide time for Japan to rebuild their forces.


Unfortunately, Onishi's new weapon subordinated the most basic of human


instincts, self preservation, to a predisposed death for the Emperor.


Onishi asserted that "The country's salvation depends on the appearance of


the soldiers of the gods. Nothing but the sacrifice of our young men's lives to


stab at the enemy carriers can annihilate the enemy fleet and put us back on the


road to victory."7 He also stated, "What greater glory can there be for a warrior


than to give his life for Emperor and country."8 Despite his positive rhetoric,


considerable resistance to formalizing suicide tactics existed in the military and


civilian communities. To circumvent the opposition, Onishi repeatedly attempted


to gain a personal audience with the Emperor to convince him of the need for


such desperate measures. Onisihi, however, never obtained a meeting with the


Emperor. Eventually, the Naval Chief of Staff gave Onishi approval to covertly


begin organizing special attack squadrons. This decision reflected the Bushido


spirit of readiness to die for the Emperor.


Onishi intended to use the Kamikaze tactic as a temporary measure only.


He planned to use the Kamikaze tactic to delay Western advancement to Japan so


that Japan could recover from its losses. Once Japan had rebuilt the military,


Onishi planned to abandon Kamikaze tactics.


Kamikaze acts were not unprecedented. Every air force in the world had


experienced isolated incidents where injured pilots in damaged aircraft hurled


themselves at enemy targets. These incidents showed the considerable damage


that suicide tactics could inflict. What distinguished Japan's new approach,


however, was the "voluntary" nature. Unlike their predecessors, these Japanese


pilots were neither wounded nor were their aircraft damaged. These were


organized, clearly suicidal, one-way missions.


The evolution of suicide tactics was slow and costly. Because of the


ongoing lack of cooperation between the army and navy, suicide tactics were


developed independently within both branches. Critical lessons learned during the


initial stages of employment were not exchanged between the army and navy.9


This lack of communication undoubtedly resulted in wasting many lives.


When the official sanctioning of suicide tactics was revealed, it was fraught


with great consternation throughout the Japanese public and military. While the


Japanese culture did not view suicide as a disgrace, some viewed ordering a


person to commit suicide for the Emperor as both inhumane and unnecessary.


B. The Propaganda. The deteriorating situation for Japan required


desperate measures. Japanese leaders knew America possessed vast resources but


believed she lacked the stomach for the horrors of kamikaze attacks. Some


Japanese believed the Kamikaze tactics would raise the stakes of the war and


break the American will to fight. What Japan lacked in resources and equipment,


it attempted to make up for in fighting spirit.


The initial success of suicide attacks exceeded even Admiral Onishi's high


expectations. Yet even these reported successes failed to gain the complete


Japanese approval of Kamikaze tactics. The Emperor's response to the initial


successes of suicide squads concerned Onishi. The Emperor was critical of the


commander responsible for the tactics.10 In a cablegram to the special attack


units, Onishi described the Emperor's response as follows:


His Majesty said "Was it necessary to go to this extreme? They certainly

did a magnificent job!" His Majesty's words suggest that His Majesty is

greatly concerned. We must redouble our efforts to relieve His Majesty of

this concern. I have pledged every effort toward that end.11


Admiral Onishi believed wholeheartedly in his plan but realized the


continuance of his suicide program required the Emperor's approval, even if


through silent consent. Two grave consequences resulted from his concern about


what the Emperor thought. First, squadron commanders forwarded reports which


grossly exaggerated enemy damages inflicted by Kamikazes to Imperial


Headquarters to gain the Emperor and people's approval. These false reports


garnered additional Japanese support by assuring the people that the deaths of


these pilots were not without strategic reward. The second related consequence


was the expansion of the Kamikaze program. The purpose shifted from a


temporary delay tactic to the use of Kamikazes as the central focus of an offensive


strategy. This expansion was due in great part to the inflated battle damage


reports. The Imperial Headquarters, which believed these reports, created the


propaganda "that the Kamikazes could win the war for them."12 Onishi did


nothing to correct this false perceptions.


C. The Kamikaze Pilots and Squadrons. The initial Kamikaze pilots were


some of Japan's finest. As the survivors of destroyed squadrons, these pilots


were the best and the luckiest. There was no "rotation" of Japanese combat


pilots. "A warrior went to war and fought until he was victorious or dead."13


Almost all of them had been shot down at least once, and none expected to


survive the war. They flew on the ragged edge, and some were ready to try


anything new. As this supply of experienced pilots was rapidly exhausted, they


were replaced by innocent, unknowing teenagers.


Many Kamikazes eagerly volunteered for their one-way mission under the


honor of the Bushido code. Some of these pilots volunteered, not in the hope


of achieving victory, but due to the despair of the situation. One of these


"volunteers" reasoned that "since I'm going to be killed anyway, I may as well


make it account for something."14


Initially, adequate numbers of volunteers existed to staff the Kamikaze


squadrons. However, when the mission of these squadrons expanded and public


support waned, there were not enough volunteers to fill the squadrons. As a


result, the pressure on potential candidates was tremendous. Leaders told young


pilots that Japan needed selfless warriors in these desperate times to put aside


their worldly interests and eagerly sacrifice themselves. In doing so, their spirits


would forever dwell in the Yasukuni Shrine for all of Japan to pay them




One Kamikaze squadron commander, Captain Yoshiro Tsubaki, explained


to his young pilots the gravity of Japan's situation and that it was now time to


make a great decision. He stated "Any of you unwilling to give your lives as


divine sons of the Great Nippon Empire will not be required to do so. Those


incapable of doing so will raise their hands--now."16 This was, undoubtedly, an


attempt to relieve the conscience of a commander who preferred to let volunteers


commit suicide rather than to sentence them to death. However, his patriotic


speech failed to rally the unanimous support for certain death that he had hoped


for. Infuriated, the Captain called forward the six pilots who had raised their


hands and "castigated the honest dissenters as cowards and then announced


shamelessly that he had lied to them all, that these six would be set up as horrible


examples to the others. These were to be the first to die."17


Captain Tsubaki's actions were not an anomaly. Throughout World War II


Japanese military leaders ordered thousands of men involuntarily to their death.


These "sentenced" pilots often had weeks or months before their mission to


contemplate the fate awaiting them. Many of these designated Kamikaze drank


heavy after learning of their assignment and numerous accounts exist of drunken


pilots being helped into their planes before taking off on their missions.18 As the


motivation and spirit began to diminish in the Kamikaze squadrons, several


methods were developed to ensure that pilots could not change their minds, once


airborne, and safely abandon their mission. For example, pilots who returned to


the base were ridiculed, labeled as cowards, and deemed unfit to serve the


Emperor. Even those pilots who returned to their base because they could not


locate their assigned target due to bad weather were subjected to ridicule.19 As a


result, many pilots unable to find their targets crashed hopelessly into the water.


Moreover, officials bolted some canopies shut to prevent the pilots from escaping


certain death.


Japanese military commanders were frustrated with the hopelessness of


their struggle and frantically sacrificed every available life in suicide tactics. The


cold brutality and commitment of commanders not to survive the defeat of Japan


was not directed solely at the military. During the battles for Saipan and


Okinawa, in the face of the approaching allies, military commanders ordered


civilians to commit mass suicide by jumping off the cliffs. When some families


hesitated to jump, soldiers shot them. A brutal incident on Okinawa was


described by Saburo Inenaga, "As the fighting drew to an end, civilians hid with


the military in the caves at the southern tip of the island. When a frightened


child cried out, a soldier grabbed it from the mother's arms and strangled the


child to death in front of everyone."20


D. The Effectiveness of Kamikaze Tactics. As the Japanese had predicted,


the kamikaze attacks did adversely affect on American morale. The number of


mental disease cases in the U.S. Navy from 9.5 per thousand in 1941, to 14.2 per


thousand in 1944. In his report to the Secretary of the Navy, Fleet Admiral King


attributed this increase to "the increase in tempo of modern war with its grueling,


unfamiliar horrors."21 In contrast to Japan's hope, however, America's will to fight


grew stronger despite the horrors of Kamikaze tactics.


Although the Kamikaze pilots did not break the American will they


inflicted more damage than the pilots who engaged in conventional tactics. At the


battle for Okinawa for example, the U.S. Navy incurred more combat casualties


than the Army and Marine Corps did ashore because of these Kamikazes. The


destructive effect to the allied fleet ships was approximately eight times greater


for suicide tactics than conventional aircraft attack methods.22 This figure was a


testament to both the failures of the conventional pilots and the large volume


(over 3,800 at Okinawa) of Kamikaze pilots. The destructive impact of the


Kamikaze was costly as "No more than 1 to 3 percent of the suicide pilots actually


hit Allied warships."23


Americans quickly adopted measures to counter the Kamikazes through


improved detection and gunnery skills. Additionally, during this period deep


battles destroyed more than 50 percent of the Japanese aircraft on the ground.


The combination of allied counter measures and destruction of Japanese aircraft


rendered the Kamikaze tactic ineffective in stopping allied advancement.




The Kamikaze evolved from desperation and represented at the time,


Japan's greatest capability to inflict damage on the U.S. Navy. The overpowering


strength of allied forces had crippled Japan's military, rendering conventional


tactics useless. Japan put into practice the Bushido laws that followed logically


from generations of spiritual conditioning and developed the Kamikaze tactic.


Onishi viewed the Kamikaze attack for what it was, a desperate act. He


supported and developed these unprecedented squadrons as a temporary tactic to


slow the American advance and give the Japanese Army and Navy a chance to


recover from its defeats. Onishi had a clear hope that the employment of the


Kamikaze would ultimately save more lives than it would lose. He quickly


realized the ineffectiveness of the Kamikaze to achieve operational success but did


nothing to end the use of this tactic. Instead he allowed Tokyo to continue to


believe that Kamikazes could win the war for Japan, an idea he helped create


through inflated battle damage reports.


Onishi was not the only Kamikaze advocate. Many other military leaders


supported the continuation of Kamikaze and other suicide tactics and encouraged


their expansion in both the military and civilian population. These leaders


adopted the suicide slogan: "100 million die together." This death wish embodied


the dream that Japan could be saved through the total sacrifice. These suicide


tactics, divorced from any hope of victory, became a method of achieving glorious


death and saving face. Japanese military leaders were more than willing to


sacrifice every man, woman, and child in Japan.


Japan's inability to meet the industrial demands of the war against the U.S.


and its leadership's refusal to recognize its deficiencies led to Japan's defeat.


Although Japan's young soldiers and sailors were well trained and disciplined, its


military leadership refused to face the reality of Japan's impending doom. Japan's


solution, and the coward's way out. Unfortunately they imposed their choice on


both willing and unwilling Japanese boys and men. Japan's military leaders


senselessly wasted the lives of many of Japan's best brains and men (and boys).


Never had a nation needed its young men greater than Japan during its post-war


period of rebuilding. Military leadership held the fate of Japan in its hands and


chose to throw it away for "glorious death." The Kamikaze should not be


remembered solely for the courage of the individual pilots. The Kamikazes


should also be remembered for the disgraceful egos of the leaders that abused


their power and hopelessly sentenced these great warriors to death.


We must study history accurately and completely. Lest we repeat it, we


must study the failures as closely as we study the victories. As the 50th


anniversary of "V-J" day approaches, the news has been replete with attacks on


the United States' decision to drop the atomic bombs. These articles cite the


horrors the bombings inflicted and the 140,000 Japanese that perished. However,


little mention has been made of the Kamikaze. The Kamikaze represented the


failure of Japanese military leadership. This leadership was ready to willingly


offer every man, woman, and child in a senseless suicidal gesture.


1Bernard Millot, Divine Thunder: The Life and Death of the Kamikazes (New York:

McCall Publishing Co., 1970), 7.


2Ibid., 8.


3Hatsuho Naito, Thunder Gods: The Kamikaze Pilots Tell Their Story (New York:

Kodansha International, 1989), 4.


4Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



5Ibid., 12.


6Ibid., 201.


7Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



8Ibid., 23.


9Ibid., 82.

10Rikihei Inoguchi and Tadashi Nakajima. The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force

in WW II. (Wisconsin: George Banta Co., 1958), 64.


11Ibid., 64.


12Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



13Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



14Ibid., 121.


15Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



16Edwin P. Hoyt, The Kamikazes (New York: Arbor House Publishing Co., 1983),



17Ibid., 221.


18Bernard Millot, Divine Thunder: The Life and Death of the Kamikazes (New York:

McCall Publishing Co., 1970), 197.


19Ibid., 267.


20Saburo Inenaga, WWII and The Japanese: 1931-1945. (New York: Random House,

1978), 185.


21Richard O'Neil, Suicide Squads: WW II. (New York: Saint Martin Press, 1981),



22Richard Fine, Anti-Aircraft Action in the Philippines Campaign, 17: Oct 1944-Jan 13,

1945, AAORG Study No. 4, (LO) 376-45, Feb 3, 1945.


23Saburo Inenaga, WWII and The Japanese: 1931-1945. (New York: Random House,

1978), 185.







Howard, Warren S. Who Were The Kamikaze? Proceedings, 72 (October 1947), 1240-41.


Hoyt, Edwin P. The Kamikazes. New York: Arbor House Publishing Company, 1982.


Inoguchi, Rikihei and Tadashi Nakajima. The Divine Wind United States Naval Institute,

Annapolis MD 1958


Manning, Paul. Hirohito: The War Years. New York: Dodd Mead and Co., 1986.


Michael, Henry. The Second World War. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975.


Miller, Trevelyan. History of World War II. Kansas: John C. Winston Co., 1976.


Millot, Bernard. Divine Thunder: The Life and Death of the Kamikazes. New York:

McCall Publishing Co., 1971.


Naito, Hatsuho. Thunder Gods: The Kamikaze Pilots Tell Their Story. New York:

Kodansha International, 1989.


O'Neill, Richard. Suicide Squads: WWII. New York: St. Martins Press, 1985.


Ota, Masahide. The Battle For Okinawa; The Typhoon of Steel: Tokyo: Kume

Publishing Co., 1984.


Turner, Adm. Richard K. Kamikaze. Proceedings, 72 (March 1947)


Warner, Dennis A., and Peggy Warner. The Sacred Warriors: Japans Suicide

Legions. New York: New York: Van Nostrand Reinnhold, 1982.


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