1st Battalion, 4th Psychological Operations Group (Abn) (Joint Psyop Task Force)
The 1-4th PSYOP Gp provided loudspeaker teams to maneuver battalions during D-Day operations. Its mission was to assist maneuver units in convincing PDF elements to surrender by announcing the conditions of surrender after a show of force by the maneuver unit. Its efforts to convince the PDF to surrender saved American and Panamanian lives. Additionally, PSYOP elements were critical during stability operations by assisting in refugee control, disseminating information, and participating in programs such as money for weapons.
Military Police Brigade
Military Police Battalion
Military Police Battalion
Combat operations for the 16th MP Bde began on D-Day with the 519th MP Bn securing critical facilities and establishing roadblocks and checkpoints within Panama City. On 20 and 21 Dec, the remainder of the Bde closed on Howard Air Force Base with the mission to conduct stability operations to establish law and order, operate a central weapons collection point and detainee collection point.
The central detainee collection point for enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) was established to evacuate captured EPWs and equipment. As the PDF were reorganized into the FPP, the brigade began combined law enforcement patrols. The 16th MP Bde continued law enforcement and civil military operations as JUST CAUSE transitioned to PROMOTE LIBERTY.
Military Intelligence Brigade (Joint Intelligence Task Force)
Military Intelligence Brigade (-)
Stationed in Panama, the brigade was responsible for collecting intelligence from Panamanian and American sources. As JUST CAUSE began, it erected detainee facilities to process and interrogate prisoners to gain timely information. During the initial stages of the operation, they translated and analyzed countless documents and interrogated hundreds of questionable personnel. Support of U.S. forces continued throughout the transition to stability operations.
Signal Brigade (-)
The 1109th Sig Bde had been preparing a communications system throughout Panama as relations with the Noriega regime deteriorated. Before JUST CAUSE began, they had implemented a secure telephone system incorporating all southern command (SOUTHCOM) units. On D+2, the destroyed telephone exchange servicing the Panamanian General Assembly was replaced with radio/satellite communications, allowing the new government to communicate. The Bde's accomplishments were especially noteworthy because the unit was only 60% military and required substantial reorganization to fill key deployable positions.
96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Joint Civil Affairs Task Force)
The 96th CA Bn (-) supported operations by attaching two-man civil affairs teams to the maneuver battalions. These two-man teams primarily served as advisors to commanders conducting civil military operations. The teams also conducted civil affairs assessments and provided liaison between U.S. units and the local government officials.
Additionally, a civil military operations task force (CMOTF) of active reserve civil affairs soldiers provided support to combat operations by assisting the SF in the western areas of Panama. Engineer support and input for total civil affair assessments within the AO were also provided. The CMOTF continued to conduct operations during PROMOTE LIBERTY with increased concentration on police training and civic actions.
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